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C. F. CLAY, Manager 

ettnfcurgf): 100, PRINCES STREET 

Berlin: A. ASHER AND CO. 

fcrfpjifl: F. A. BROCKHAUS 

|Uto ftotk: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

tfomfcag an* Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. 

All rights reserved 









at the University Press 



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First Edition, 1899 
Second Edition revised and enlarged, 1906 
Third Edition revised and enlarged, 1913 






HAUSA is probably the most widely spoken language 
in the continent of Africa. Throughout Northern 
Nigeria it is the language of the greater part of the in- 
habitants and outside this wide area it forms a sort of 
lingua franca throughout a large part of Africa north of the 
equator. The traveller who knows the Hausa language can 
walk from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea sure of 
finding in almost every market place which he may pass en 
route some with whom he can converse. The feet that 
within recent years that part of Nigeria in which most of 
the Hausa people live has become an English Protectorate 
should serve to increase the interest of English students in 
this language. 

Before referring to the methods adopted in the produc- 
tion of this dictionary it will be well to state under what 
auspices the work has been carried out and to what extent 
it is based upon the labours of other students of the lan- 

The task of compiling this dictionary was accomplished 
under the auspices and direction of the Hausa Association. 
On the death at Lokoja, on June 26, 1891, of the Rev. John 
Alfred Robinson, M.A. (a brother of the author), who had 
attempted to start Christian missionary work amongst the 
Hausas, a committee was formed in London to perpetuate 
his memory and to carry on his work "by providing for a 
thoroughly scientific study of the Hausa language." The 
committee of the Association contained representative names, 


e.g. those of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the 
Commander in Chief, the President of the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society, the Governor of the Royal Niger Co., and the 
President of the London Chamber of Commerce; in addition 
to those of the well-known philologists Professor Max Miiller 
and Dr Peile. The expedition which the author was 
enabled to make to the centre of the Hausa country for the 
.purpose of studying the language and collecting native 
manuscripts with a view to compiling a dictionary was 
carried out under the direction of this committee, and the 
first edition of this dictionary was published soon after his 

The first vocabulary of the Hausa language wa& drawn 
up by Mr Richardson, the leader of an expedition which 
reached the Hausa country by crossing the Sahara desert 
from Tripoli. The list of words sent home by Mr Richardson 
.before his death was printed by the Foreign Office, but was 
so short and incomplete as to be of little value. Dr Barth, 
.who afterwards took charge of Mr Richardson's expedition, 
published in 1862 a series of linguistic notes on Hausa and 
several other central African languages. This work was of 
considerable interest, though it was extremely incomplete 
from the point of view of a vocabulary. The next vocabulary 
deserving of notice, and one which was a great advance upon 
its predecessors, was published by Dr J. F. Schbn, a mis- 
sionary of the C.M.S. in 1876, with an appendix published 
in 1888. Dr Schon may justly be regarded as the pioneer 
of Hausa study. He learnt the language from some freed 
slaves in Sierra Leone, and afterwards took part in the 
.Government expedition which ascended the R. Niger in 
■184*1. .Unfortunately he was never able to penetrate into 
the Hausa country; and, as he afterwards spoke of himself 


as having reduced to writing a hitherto unwritten language, 
he was apparently unaware at the time when he wrote that 
the Hausas possessed any kind of literature or that they had 
long before adopted, with some modifications, a form of the 
Arabic alphabet as their own. Another difficulty under 
which Dr Schon laboured was his lack of acquaintance with 
the Arabic language. In very many instances words and 
expressions were entered either in his dictionary or appendix 
as Hausa, which are quite common in Sudanese Arabic, but 
are unknown to the Hausas of the interior. Dr Sch6n's 
inability to recognize them as Arabic, when they were 
suggested to him by Arabic-speaking Hausas, coupled with 
his want of opportunities for verifying them by personal 
.contact with Hausas. who had never come under Arab 
influence, made it inevitable that such .words should be 
•inserted.. Considering the difficulties under which he 
laboured, his work is deserving of the very highest com- 
mendation. The present work is the result of a careful 
study of that published by Barth and by Schon, and of 
independent study of the language in Hausaland, in N. 
Africa and in England. Before beginning the compilation 
of the present work and whilst living amongst the Hausas 
in the heart of their country, the author went through 
Schon's dictionary, verifying or rejecting every entry and 
adding a large proportion of new words. The MSS. which 
were obtained in Hausaland, some of which were subse- 
quently published, under the title of Specimens of Hausa 
Literature, and which have been reproduced in facsimile, 
served to show that even the more learned Hausa mallams 
have not yet adopted a uniform system of orthography. At 
.the same time they helped to furnish many additional words 
and to verify others. 


The first edition of the present dictionary was published 
in 1899. In its compilation I was largely assisted by Mr 
W, H. Brooks, formerly Hausa scholar of Christ's College, 
Cambridge, and Student of the Hausa Association. In the 
preparation of the second edition, which appeared in 1906, 
I was specially indebted to the assistance received from Major 
Burdon, C.M.G. For help received in preparing the present 
edition, which contains about four thousand entries additional 
to those which appeared in the second edition, I have been 
greatly indebted to Major Burdon (who has now become the 
Colonial Secretary in Barbados), Mr W, J, Gowers the 
Resident at Kano, Captain R. Fletcher, Dr Walter Miller, 
Capt. Tremearne, Dr J. M. Dalziel (Medical Officer on the 
West African Medical Staff), Mr E. J. Arnett, the late Hon, 
E. T. Stanley, and many others who have most kindly sent 
me from time to time criticisms and corrections. To Dr 
Dalziel I am indebted for the identification of most of 
the plants, the names of which appear in this dictionary, and 
to Captain Fletcher for the correction of the proof sheets. 
He has kindly allowed me to incorporate the information 
contained in his supplementary vocabulary which appears 
at the end of his valuable book Hausa sayings and folk- 
lore. I would also express my indebtedness to Mr Adam 
Mischlich for the help which I have derived from a study 
of his dictionary entitled Worterhwh der Hausasprache, 
which was published in Berlin in 1906, and which is 
a valuable and permanent contribution towards the study 
of the Hausa language. 

In the first two editions of this dictionary the Hausa 
words were given both in the modified Arabic character 
which is used by the Hausas, and in the Roman character. 
In view of the fact, however, that many of the users of this 


dictionary are ncfo familiar with the Arabic script, and of the 
lack of uniformity on the part of Hausa scribes, it has seemed 
better to omit the Hausa characters altogether. By doing 
this it is possible to issue the dictionary in an enlarged form 
without increasing its price. The system of transliteration 
adopted is that which was originally propounded by the 
Royal Geographical Society, and which has been sanctioned 
by the British, and by most of the continental Governments, 
for the representation of geographical names. The general 
principle embodied is that all consonants are to be pronounced 
as in English and all vowels as in Italian. A further account 
of the system of transliteration adopted and of the modified 
Arabic character which the Hausas generally employ will be 
found in the Hausa Chrammar to which the student of this 
dictionary is referred. 

The emphasis laid on different syllables differs a good 
deal in different localities. In order to help beginners 
I have inserted the marks usually employed to denote long or 
short syllables wherever the emphasis to be laid upon 
a particular syllable is very pronounced or specially liable to 
be misplaced. These marks or accents do not denote any 
modification of the vowels on which they are placed, but 
merely suggest the syllable on which stress is to be laid in 
pronouncing it. 

In the transliteration of the Hausa words I have employed 
three modifications of the Roman alphabet, i.e. b, 4 and k. b 
whether used as an initial or medial letter represents an 
explosive sound which is quite distinct from the ordinary b : 
4 is sounded with an expiration of the breath and in its 
pronunciation the tongue touches the edge of the upper 
teeth, a sort of dt sound being produced somewhat similar to 
a French or German t: k is a sub-palatal guttural and is 


called by the Hausas the watery k (kam mairua) because the 
person pronouncing it puts his mouth into such a position 
that he appears to be shooting out water from his throat. 

I have further tried to afford some indication of the 
character and range of the Hausa dialects. There are four 
or five districts in Hausaland which may perhaps be said to 
possess a distinct dialect, but as the Hausas are inveterate 
travellers these dialects have become so confused that it is 
not possible to. mark them off with any distinctness. The 
Hausas frequently maintain that the Katsena dialect which 
is spoken in the extreme north of their country is the purest. 
On the other hand the Eano dialect is that which is most 
widely spoken and may be said to prevail generally through- 
out the south and eastern parts of their country. What is 
sometimes called the Sokoto dialect prevails throughout the 
western districts. 

In this dictionary the dialects spoken in the following 
towns or districts are denoted by the abbreviations contained 
in brackets : Eano (EL), Sokoto (S.), Katsena (Kats.), Zaria 
(Z.), Zanfora (Zanf.), Daura (D.). 

There are many words the use. of which is confined to 
special districts whilst others are frequently found in different 
districts in modified forms. 

One of the commonest modifications is that of r in the 
eastern dialects to I'm the western. Thus we have in Eano 
and Sokoto respectively : 








heavy rain 


* . 









to shoot 



Words denoting abstract ideas which end in chi in the 
east are often found to end in taka in the west. Thus : 
Eano Sokoto 

yaranchi yarantaka childhood 

ubanchi ubantaka fatherhood 

bakonchi bakontaka hospitality 

The letter which is pronounced as fin Eano frequently 
becomes h in Zanfara or p in Daura. Thus : 
Eano Zanfara Daura 
fudu hudu pudu four 

falasa halasa palasa to destroy 
/ansa hcinsa pansa deliverance 
Other dialectical variations may be illustrated by changes 
such as 











to us 



1 * 


The numeral five is represented by biar in Eano, bial in 
Eatsena and bial or biat in Sokoto. . 

In addition to reference to the Specimens of Hausa 
Literature already mentioned, I haye included a few references 
to Hausa Magana, a volume of Hausa stories and fables 
collected by Dr Sch5n which has been revised and re-edited. 
It is published at 2/6 by the S. P. C. E. and is a book which 
many beginners in Hausa have found helpful. 

I am fully conscious of the many deficiencies of this 
dictionary and shall be grateful to all students of the 
language for further help in view of rendering it more 

C. H. R. 

Easter, 1913. 


A, B, 

C, etc. = no. of piece in , 


Hausa Grammar. 

(( Specimens of Hausa 


the same. 



that is. 








Hausa Magana. 


adverb , adverbial. 


noun, also = note. 












participle or participial 






construct, construed. 




for instance. 






which see. 


et cetera. 













• seq. 

following article. 

* Cf. placed after any word does not necessarily imply that the word 
referred to is the same word or derived from the same root. It is used 
quite generally. 



R.H. D. 



Words to which * is affixed are not in general use amongst the Hausas, 
or are Arabic words not definitely incorporated into Hausa. 

a, impersonal pronoun used as 
Eng. 'one' or 'they/ French 
'on'; antafi one has gone, 
anakiranka they are calling 
you, anadarita they are 
laughing at me. Cf. Gram, 
p. 39 ; possibly the a which 
is the prefix to the passive 
voice ought to be regarded 
as this impersonal pronoun. 

a is used as a prefix to denote 
the passive voice of the per- 
fect, dependent past and pre- 
sent tenses when used with 
a negative, e.g. ba akoreshi ba 
he was not driven out, ba 
azua da shi he is not being 
brought. A long emphasized 
a is used to denote the future 
of the passive voice, e.g. aka- 
sheshi he will be killed. A 
short a is used to denote the 
imperative mood of the pas- 
sive voice, e.g. dkoreshi let 
him be driven out. 

a, a substantive verb used esp. 
in the Sokoto dialect in place 
of ke. It is used with all per- 
sons, e.g. ni addashi I have 
it, kai (fern, ke), shi (fern, ita), 
mu, ku, su addashi. It some- 
times follows a noun directly, 
e.g. kura addashi the hyena 
has it. It is also used with 
nan, e.g. gari annan; cf. also 
shi abbaba he is the great 
man, shi addaidai it is all 
right, shi assarikinmu he is 
our king, shi a abokinmu he 
is a friend of ours, nia is it I ? 

a, aa, no. The reduplicated 
form is that most frequently 
used, esp. in expressing dis- 

a, at, to, in. It is almost equi- 
valent to ga, but is of less 
frequent occurrence. It is 
very often prefixed to the 
prepositions gore, chikin, and 
bisa. Prefixed to baya, gdba, 



kaaa, it is used adverbially, 
thus abaya behind, agdba in 
front, akasa or dkass on the 
a, an exclamation of astonish- 

abadft (cf. Ar. j^l, eternity), 
ever; hot abada for ever. 

abakin, in exchange for; see 

abakwariga (a Jukuin word, 
only used by Hausas in the 
Binue* districts), a man born 
of renegade Hausa parents, 
one who has abandoned Hausa 
customs and has been brought 
up as a pagan ; cf . kamberi. 

abara* a large canoe. 

abawa, spun cotton, cotton 
yarn (cf. zare thin cotton 
thread). It is also applied to 
the white cotton embroidery 
on a tobe. 

abdu (Ar.), slave, servant, used 
in formation of proper names. 

abdugfi, audiga, cotton before 
it is spun, abduga ; the foil, 
are successive stages in pre- 
paring cotton : chin abduga 
gathering cotton ; kada clean- 
ing ; gurza hand-ginning, i.e. 
removing the seeds with the 
dan bida ; sutu thinning and 
combing with a kizauro, sili 
or thin stick : sebi or shibba, 
carding with the bakan shibba 

and makelechia ; kulla arrang- 
ing the cotton round the pin 
tsinki] kadi spinning from 
the tsinki to the spindle ; yin 
wadari twisting the threads 
into yarn ; saka weaving. 

abin, see abu. 

abki, prosperity etc. ; see afki. 

aboiyi, secretly ; see boye. 

abdki, fern, abokza, pi. abokai, 
aboka, friend; abokin gaba 
enemy, abokin tafiata my fel- 
low traveller, abokin aihina 
my fellow worker, M. H. p. 

abu, pi. abubua, usually in con- 
nective form abin (i.e.abuna), 
thing. 1 . followed by da, it is 
used as an ordinary relative 
pronoun ; abinda kakeso what 
you wish ; 2. followed by a 
verb, noun, or preposition it 
is used as an indefinite pro- 
noun ; thus abinchi anything 
to eat, abinsha anything to 
drink, abinso a wish, desire, 
abin murna a cause for joy, 
abin baya that which is be- 
hind ; 3. it is used of living 
creatures; thus, abin da rai 
anything living, abin daji 
creatures of the forest ; 4. fol- 
lowed by a possessive pro- 
noun, ka tafi abinka go about 
your business, ya tafi abinsa 
he went off on his own ac- 




count ; for expression abinda 
na gani see gani ; cf. M. H. 
p. 226 ; aUah ya san abin nasa 
God knows his own nature, 
cf. M. H. p. 228; a feminine 
form abar is also found ; abu 
kaza so and so, such and such 
a thing. 

abude, opened, openly; cf. 

&bu kaza, see abu. 

aboru, a grain like acha. 

abuta, friendship. 

abuya, pi. abokana, f . a friend ; 
see also abokia. 

&cha (paspalum scrobiculatum), 
a small white grain, which is 
beaten and made into a kind 
of porridge. It grows about 
eighteen inches high, and two 
or even three crops are raised 
during the rainy season. 

achike, fern, achika, pi. achiku, 
full ; see chika. 

ad, i.e. the substantive verb a 
when it precedes a word be- 
ginning with d ; see a. 

ada (K), alada (cf. Ar. IjU, 
religious observance), custom, 
manner ; kamada adansu ac- 
cording to their custom; alada 
is frequently used to express 
a woman's monthly periods ; 
see tada (S.). 

adakka* a flint-lock gun ; cf . 

adalanhi, a good quality silk. 

ad&na, n. repairing, arrang- 

adashi, a cooperative loan sys- 
tem among friends; cf. wu- 

ad&wa, sometimes used for to- 

dawa ink (cf. Ar. 5I^>, ink- 
stand); adatval allah a mole, 


addini, Ar. ^>, religion, creed, 

worship, B 77, 136; maiad- 
dini a religious person. 

addua (i.e. Ar. Uj with article 
prefixed), prayer; yin ad- 
dua to pray, D 2. 

adiko, handkerchief (a Yoruba 
word); cf. maiyani. 

adHa, pi. ddiloli or adilan kaya 

(cf . Ar. ±)j£>, equilibration of 
the two sides of a load), a 
heavy load, e.g. for a donkey. 

adilchi (Ar. Jj^), righteous- 

ness, justice. 

adili, Sdali (Ar.), right. 

&do, pi. ddodi, beauty, show, 
splendour of dress; riguna 
na ado beautiful garments, 
F 216, 238. 

adu, smallpox. 

Sdua or adwa (balanites aegyp- 
tiaca), a thorny tree from 
which gum is obtained, its 
fruit is edible, its gum is 



called kwalon adua y its wood 
takes a good polish and is 
used for making school slates. 

aduruku*, a tree something 
like a Spanish chestnut. 

af, oh, an exclamation of recol- 
lection. Why ! 

afalalu, a fool. 

&fi, yin dfi to make a slight in- 
clination of the head, to bow; 
it is also used to denote the 
native custom of prostrating 
the body and placing earth 
upon the head in token of 

afka, to destroy, to collapse; 
maiafkawa about to fall or 
be destroyed ; see auka. 

afki, n. mass, quantity, pros- 
perity, da afki much, of kin 
rai length of life ; see auki. 

afko, desolation, destruction. 

afku, to happen. 

&fo, abortion. 

afua (cf. Ar. rt ^Afr), restora- 
tion to health, becoming bet- 
ter; sainu afua to recover. 

afulaki, a young ass. 

afuo, ahuo, a salutation esp. 
used by women and children 
on entering a house, the ans. 
is shlgo. 

afutu, a species of palm, its 
leaves are used in mat-mak- 

agaga, tottering, B 109, pro- 

bably a passive form of gage 

to be stiff, 
agaisheka, hail ! a very com- 
mon form of salutation; cf. 

ftgaji,ftgaza, n. help, dgaje t v. to 

help; ina so ka agajeni I want 

you to help me; cf. maiaga- 

zawa helper, F. 106. 
&gala, a rope, see dkala. 
&galami,pl. agalumma (Sokoto 

for buzu a mat), sheep or goat 

&g&na, 1. smallpox, 2. a horse 

disease ; cf . zanzana, yar-rani. 
agannia, a kind of shirt {tag- 
go) with narrow but long 

&gara, tendon of Achilles. 
ag&zere (Ar.) or agSjere, the 

hot month at end of rains, 

about September or October; 

cf. Gr. p. 88. 
agba* agwa* cask, M. H. 

p. 211. 
ago, a small cowry shell used 

in chacha. 
agola, pi. agololi, stepchild, 
agua, a wild dove with dark 

ring round its neck, 
aguje, at a run ; see gudu. 
agulu, vulture ; see angulu. 
&guru (S.), a castrated ass. 
agushi, a gourd the seeds of 

which are used in making 




agw&da, &goda, rock rabbit, 

agwagwa, wild duck, probably 

onomatopoeic; cf. talatcdu. 
aha, So! an exclamation of 

satisfaction, or surprise. 

ahaifa (cf. Ar. v,A£»), claw of 
animal ; see akaifa. 

aharus, aharashi, f. aharasa, 
a brown horse. 

ai (Ar. id.), verily, indeed. 

ai, an abbreviated form of ayi 
the passive of yi : also ex- 
planatory = id est, or e.g. 

aia, a ground nut ; see ay a. 

aia aia, the name of a grass 
from which a poison for 
arrows is obtained; cf. dSfi. 

aiauda (Ar. >^\ to cleave to, 
B. 101. 

aibi, pi. aibobi, aibu (Ar.), spot, 
blemish, fault, used in regard 
to men it denotes a worthless 

aika, to do, cf. idiom yet aika 
it is just the sort of thing he 
would do. 

aika, aike (bef. a pron.), to 
send, aikawa aikewa sending, 
aika to be sent, aikake sent, 
aiko to send to the place 
where the speaker is; aika 
or aike to send forth from; 
thus ya aikoni he sent me 
here; ya aikeni he sent me 

there, aiko is also used gene- 
rally for to send, maaika 
messengers, F. 159. 

aikata, to do, to act, labour at, 
aikatawa working, doing, cf . 
da f&din woni abu ko aika- 
tawa by word or deed. 

aike, n. sending, yin aike to 

aiki, pi. ayuyuka, ayuka, ai- 
koki, aikuna, labour, work, 
act ; abokin aikina my fellow 
labourer, M. H. p. 192 ; yi 
ta aiki do this thing, M. H. 
p. 198 ; ya yi addua da aiki 
he prayed effectively, M. H. 
p. 198 ; kama aiki, to start 
work, maiaikiy pi. maiaikata 
a hired workman as opposed 
to a slave, yin aiki to labour, 
to work, aikin raga net-work. 

aimaka (S.), centipede. 

aiman, imani, aimanchi 
(Ar.), faith. 

ainin, true, truly, exceedingly, 
very much; cf. ai. 

ainya, pi. ainyoyi, beehive ; cf . 
amya, butumi. 

aiwa or ewa, indeed, truly. 

aiyari, pi. airori (Ar. J***), 

caravan, train of men or 

ajaba, wonder. 
&jali (Ar.), 1. destiny, decree, 

day of death; ajalinsa na 



chika his time is come ; 2. the 

set time for paying money 

which is due. 
ajami* (Ar.), foreign, B. 175. 
aje (S.), ajiye (K.), part, ajaje 

(S.), ajiyaye (K.), pass, ajiyu, 

1. to put, place, lay aside; 

2. to hold ; ya aje kofa he 
held the door; ajiyeshi nan 
put it here. 

aje, truly ; see ashe. 

ajera or ajere, in line, abreast ; 
see jera. 

ajerta, to become rich. 

ajia, ajiya, pi. ajiyi, 1. trea- 
sures, secret stores, A 44 
gidashen ajia storehouses ; 
2. ajiar zuchia sighing, dis- 
tress of heart. 

ajingi, master of the cere- 
monies at the bori dance. 

ajub, anything wonderful; cf. 

aka, verbal prefix to denote a 
dependent past in the passive 
voice ; cf. Gr. p. 39. 

akaifa, ahaifa, claw of animal, 

&kala ( Ar. J*£), a rope such as 
is used for tying up a camel. 

akan, above, on the top of, 
on the basis of ; a con- 
traction of akai-n at the 
head of; cf. goma jia akan 
yau better yesterday than 

akanza, tattoo marks, tattooed 

with blue pigment on each 

akara, Nupe* name given to 

ship biscuits, properly a small 

cake made of beans. 

akawali, f. akawala, pi. aka- 

j * » % 
waloli (cf. Ar. J»*^t , black), 

a black horse. 

akayo, pieces of jingling iron 
worn on the ankles by boxers 
and public performers. 

akaza, a cream-coloured horse. 

akbar (Ar.), great, an epithet 
usually applied to God. 

akiba (Ar.), end, result, re- 
ward ; cf. B 35 ; akiba mai- 
keau a fair reward, shina da 
akiba it is useful. 

akodi, box, drawer. 

akoi, probably a contraction 
of akayi, there is, there are. 
Very commonly used as an 
affirmative answer to a ques- 
tion. It is sometimes pre- 
fixed to the personal pro- 
nouns ; thus akoishi he is, or 
he is there ; akoim they are ; 
mai-akoi, a rich man. 

akokari, divination; see ko- 


akoko, grey baft, 
akora, a kind of acacia, 
akoshi, a wooden dish, pi. ako- 
sai, akum* ; cf. M. H. p. 72. 




akotia, pistol. 

akras, yin akras to file or 
sharpen, e.g. a sword. 

aku, parrot. 

akugwaru, a kind of white 
European cloth with large 
black or blue check. 

akumari, a pad placed on a 

akurike, akurki, pi. akurikai, 
a place where fowls etc. are 
kept ; akuriken kaza, a coop. 

akusa, pi. of akoshi, q.v. 

akuti, akwati, a box, e.g. of 

akuturche, leprous ; see kutur- 

akwara, a rifle ; a Nupe word. 

akwia, pi. awaki, goat, f.; cf. 
bunmru he-goat. 

al, in the case of many words 
which have been borrowed by 
the Hausas from the Arabs, 
the initial al represents the 
Arabic article; where the 
word has been regularly 
adopted as a Hausa word, 
e.g. alberka, it will be found 
in this dictionary under al; 
in other cases, i.e. where the 
word is an Arabic word pure 
and simple, it will be found 
under the letter following the 
prefix al. Thus for altvali 
relations, see under wall. 

alSda, custom ; see ada. 

alafa (cf. Ar. ■«*»•, to go foot- 

sore), a disease on horses' 
feet just above the hoof. 

alagwami, a leather bag closed 
by two strings pulled in oppo- 
site directions. 

alajabi, a marvel ; see ajabi. 

alala, pain, distress, leanness. 

alalache, bad, rotten ; see la- 

aisle (cf. Ar. rt J*t), trouble, 
annoyance; also used as a 

al&ma, pi. aldmomi ( Ar. JU^x), 
frequently pronounced hala- 
ma; 1. sign, instruction, cf. 
B 131 ; 2. apparent intention; 
3. a large white bead in a set 
of black beads used for prayer, 
a book-marker ; cf . alamta. 

al&mari (cf. Ar. j*\\ work, 

task, affair, talk, palaver; 
alamaringa behold something 
wonderful ! alamarin dunia 
. the course or vicissitudes of 
life whereby the poor become 
rich, the rich poor ; cf . M. H. 
p. 198, kaka wonan alamarin 
yahi what about this strange 
war % ya bada gashia ga ala- 
marin allah he believed in the 
providence of God, M. H. 
p. 210; hazo alamarin kaka 
the harmattan wind is usual 



in harvest time ; want da wu- 
yan almari so and so is hard 
to get on with ; suka sa ma 
alamarin allahido they watch- 
ed what God would ordain. 

alambo, a slender shrub with 
narrow jointed pods common 
on river banks. Ormocarpum 
spinosum = paiya paiya or 
waken rafi. 

alamta, to put a mark upon. 

alangaba, alankafada, collar- 

alftro, a day's wage or hire: 
maialaro or dan alaro a carrier, 
yin alaro to work as a carrier, 
bada alaro to hire, sarikin 
alaro a head carrier. 

alashaf, mould. 

alaura (Ar.), pudenda. 

alayadi, domesticated pig, cf. 

alayapo, alefu, a kind of 

alayedi, the oil obtained from 

the kwakwa palm, any dark- 
coloured oil. 
albada, pi. albadu or albadodi 

(cf. Ar. rt jl^), the strips of 
cloth of which a dress is com- 
posed, a seam. 

albaras (Ar. ucj>i)t leprosy, 

white leprosy. 
albarka or alberka (cf. Ar. 

d£&j4), blessing, thanks ; in 

bartering it is equivalent to 
'no thank you/ cf. use of 
French merci ; as an epithet 
applied to a field it means 
fertile ; yin alberka or sa al- 
berka to bless or to thank; 
cf. prov. alberkachin kaza 
kadangari ski kan sha man 
kasko thanks to the fowl, the 
lizard finds water to drink 
in the pot : this is said when 
a man gains some benefit 
through no virtue of his own; 
cf. ko jibi ma alberka ba ku 
kai gari ba you won't even 
reach the town the day after 
albarkaehi, blessing, B 20; see 

albarus, albarushi ( Ar. )jj(t), 

albasa, pi. albdsosi (Ar. J^), 
onion ; aJbasan kwadi a white 
flower something like a water- 
lily; albdsa maikune, spring 

albashi, advance payment. 

albishir (Ar. SJJL^), good news; 
albishirinka good news for 
you ! the usual reply to this 
salutation is goro; cf. bisha- 

alera, altera, the two heddles 
of the loom which carry the 
divided warp threads. 




alewa, a sweetmeat made with 

honey (cf . Ar. ^jJU.). 

alf&dari, f. alfddara, pi. alfd- 
daru, mule. 

alfahari, boasting (cf . Ar. j±3). 

alf&kani, interpreter. 

alfanda*, a title of respect for 
a king. 

alfarma, power, tyranny, a man 
who swaggers, pride : autho- 
rity, leave, anbashi alfarma 
he was given leave : also = 
force, ya nuna masa alfarma 
he bullied him, ya yi abu 
bisa ga alfarmansa he took 
advantage of his position. 

alfarwa, pi. alfaruwa (Ar. 

*}>?)' a ^nt, ma d e of skins 
or leather. 

alfasha (cf. Ar. iUj), alfasha 
magana blasphemous or 
shameless language. 

alfStiha(Ar.i^JUJI, the open- 
ing chapter of ihe Koran), 
prayers said daily in the early 
morning, prayers said by a 
mallam at a marriage or a 
funeral ; cf . fatiha. 

alfawami or alhowami, tin- 
der, anything used to catch 
sparks, e.g. cotton of the rimi 


* * * 
alfijir (Ar. ja*t, daybreak), the 

first glimmer of light in the 

east ; cf . jijifi. 

alfin (cf. modern Ar. ^aJI), 

two thousand, 
alfinti, white cotton cloth. 
alfowa, a gambling game 

played with a long piece of 

leather and a needle. 

alfuta, pi. al/utai (Ar. *!*>?), a 
handkerchief used by women 
to bind round the head. 

algaba, pi. algabobi, a kind of 
embroidery on a shirt, M. H. 
p. 206. 

algaderia (Ar. Zj\ Si), a small 

algaita or algaitu, a wind in- 
strument blown in a some- 
what similar way to a bag- 
pipe ; a flute. 

algarib, algaru, the seeds of 
the laumru, q.v. 

algarwai, a stick of honey. 

algashi, f. algasa, pi. algasai 
or algasu, green. 

algideri or alkideri (cf. Ar. 

jjJ), a brass cooking pan 

with a handle. 

algungumanchi, gossip. 

algungumi, f. algunguma, an 
idle gossip. 

algus, algusu or algushi, de- 
ceit, cheating at a game, yin 
algushida to deceive. 

alhaji (Ar.), one who has been 
on the pilgrimage to Meoca. 




• m * 

alhaki (Ar. U^), judgment, 
condemnation, oppression, 
right or claim put forward 
by one who has been de- 
frauded, B 1 1 ehi ke da alha- 
ki he receives judgment, hu 
dauki alhakin allah you will 
bring upon yourselves the 
judgment of God, M. H. p. 
210 : also just wage ; alhaki 
da ha dauha the rights you 
seized, i.e. the wrongs you com- 
mitted : ya dauki alhakin 
laifi he is responsible for the 

alhamis (K), alhamishi (S.) 

(Ar. ipMA^aJt), or rana alha- 

mw, Thursday, lit. the fifth 

alhanzir, hanzir (Ar. jjjJ**), 
wart-hog (phacochoerus). 

alharini (Ar. jjj+>), silk; F 
217 rigan8u na alharini, 


alheri (Ar. j^), kindness, free 
gift ; yin alheri to do a kind- 
ness,*^' alheri a form of greet- 
ing, all well ! allah ya kaika 
alheri God prosper your jour- 
ney, em mutum ya zama tar 
da makiyema ba alheri there 
is no happiness living with 
one's enemy. 

alhowami, tinder; see alfawa- 

alhudahuda, the name of a 

alibida, a species of rubber 


alif (Ar. s*)l), thousand. 

aljama or aljima, story, nar- 
rative, speech; B 153 aljama 
maianfani words which will 

aljan, aljani, f. aljana, pi. al- 
janu (Ar.), a demon; cf. 

9 S * 

alj&na (Ar. &».), a garden, 
paradise ; cf. F 222 aljana ta 
nima ; A 58 gidan aljana. 
The word suggests to a Hausa 
the Mohammedan paradise 
pictured in the Koran. 

aljanjani, one who refuses to 
listen or obey. 

aJjftms, alzibus (Ar.), chalk, 

aljifi, aljifu, pL aljifaye, aljifai 

9 * + 

(cf . Ar. y*a^), pocket, a small 


9 * • j »t 

aljima, jimua (Ar. a»«fc)l), 

aljinu, demons ; see aljan. 

alkafura, the position with the 
head bowed to the earth, so- 
called because regarded as 
distinctively pagan. 

alk&jia, reed stalk. 

alk&lami, pi. alkalaniai, alha- 




lama (Ar. Jj&\ pen, reed 
used as pen. 
alkalanchi (Ar.) or yin alka- 
lanchi, to act as alkali ; see 

alkali, pi. alkalai (Ar. <^li), 

judge; E10 alkalai dama- 
suzua sheria the judges and 
those who come to be judged, 
alkama (Ar.), wheat. It is 
grown in the north-east part 
of Hausaland. alkaman tu- 
rurua (= spermacoce stachy- 
dea) a common weed eaten 
by goats. 

alk&mura (cf . Ar. J^, to be 

white), calico ; it is imported 
into Hausaland from the 
East; cf. kambori. 

alkaria (Ar. Jbj-i), a large 
town, prosperity ; dan alkaria 
a man who knows all that is 
going on in the town, a well- 
informed man. 

alkarif, alkaru, seeds of a plant 
used as medicine. 

alk&wali, alk&wari, promise, 
agreement ; dauki alkawali 
or gama alkawali to make 
a promise, saki alkawali to 
break a promise, chika alka- 
wali to keep a promise. 

alkawali, a black horse. 

3 j 
alkSba, pi. alkebu (cf. Ar. %^i, 

a cowl), a sort of burnous. 




alklderi, a cooking-pan; see 

alkila, blue and white or black 
and white shawl made in al- 
ternate strips. 

alkiyama, resurrection ; see 

alkororo (K.), a woman who 
sells corn, etc. ; cf . kororo. 

alkoto (S.), a snail shell. 

alkllki, pi. alakukai, shelf or 
niche in a wall 

allah ( Ar. aJUI), God ; the plural 
alloli is only used of the gods 
of the heathen; allah wadan- 
ka, allah wadarka, allah wade 
common forms of impreca- 
tion, cf . allah wade ba ta komi 
da biri a curse does not affect 
a monkey at all, allah waden 
rashin iyo rua what a curse 
it is to be unable to swim ! 

alleluba, a tree resembling a 
fig-tree in appearance with 
sweet-tasting leaves. 

alii, white earth, the white 
ashes of burnt bones, used 
by spinners to rub on their 
fingers to make a spindle 
revolve easily, also used for 
making a whitewash. 

alio ( Ar. *.y ), a writing board, 

made of a smooth piece of 
wood used for writing charms 
etc. on ; the ink is afterwards 




washed off and drunk by the 
person who is to be benefited 
by the charm. 

almajirchi, instruction. 

almSjiri, f. almajira, pi. alma- 
jirai (cf. Ar. rt j*J vm, to 
give alms), disciple, beggar. 

almakashi (Ar. ^^uU), scis- 


almanftni, lintel or beam a- 

bove a door or window, 
almara, a story which is not 

true, an allegory, 
almasihu (Ar.), the Messiah, 

Jesus Christ. 
almauru, almuru, very late 

in the evening. 

* * 
almdsa (Ar. <j*y*)> a small 

almuda (S.), a woman who sells 

almugrub, see magarub. 


aloba(Ar. ty^), sickness, pesti- 

alshafi, fern, ahhafa, horse 
speckled white with black. 

alu, a vocalised corruption of 

the Arabic alif a thousand, 

cf. alu wa minya 1100. 
9 si 

aluma (Ar. £•!), people, nation, 

assembly, C 42. 
alura, pi. alurai (probably from 

Ar. Sj^l), needle, 
alwala, ablution ; see lullo. 

alwftshi (cf. Ar. .«&}, to mis- 
represent or denounce), 1 . dis- 
cussion preliminary to mak- 
ing a bargain or doing busi- 
ness; 2. threat to do that 
which is impossible ; 3. boast- 
ing, suna alwashinmu they 
are fooling us with illusory 

alwoyo (S.), fine white calico. 

alyara, a tree with a milky sap. 

alzlbus, chalk ; see atjtbus. 

amache, dead ; see mache. 

amadeshi, a large hammer used 
by blacksmiths. 

amadu maidauro agato, an 
ant with an abdomen like a 
grain of dauro. It humps its 
back up when walking. 

amagi, a kind of cloth = bunu. 

amai, sickness; yin amai to 

am&le (Ar. J>*ju), a large male 

am&mi, mats used for roofing, 
made from leaves of palm- 
trees (a Nupe* word ?). 

amftna (cf. Ar. £>Ut), arrange- 
ment in regard to sale of 
goods, part payment for 
goods, earnest money; cf. 
E 15, 25 masutabin amana 
those who steal a deposit; 
trust, goodwill, confidence, 
security ; cf . G 4 kam amana 




ga mutane duka security of 
land-tenure for all; garin 
amana a town where peace 
prevails with another town ; 
chinye amana to betray con- 


amara (Ar. 2>*t), marker in 
book, land-mark, mark on 

amarchi, wedding festivities; 
also the state of a bride, 

amare, bride, also used of at- 
tendants on bride, brides- 

amaria, bride, the latest wife ; 
cf. kishia. 

amasai, haversack. 

amasani or amasana = chi- 
won sainyi f q.v. 

amawali, a veil, worn over the 
mouth and hanging down in 
front, loose fold of turban 
hanging from mouth over 
chest, if white = a sign of 

amaye, to vomit ; cf . amai. 

amba, a horse disease. 

ambarua, a feast for a bride- 
groom and his friends. 

ambata, ambato, ambache, 
to address, make known, men- 
tion ; ambatoni explain it to 
me, ya ambacheshi he made 
it known to him. 

ambato, a memorial, record. 

ambeche, water-buck. 

ambola, a gesture of disap- 
proval, the hand being ex- 
tended and all the fingers 
pointed forwards = dakua. 

ambuta, a shed. 

amere, worthless, vain. 

amin (Ar.), amen, verily; cf. 
ya che ba amin ba he refused 
to accept the statement. 

amina (Ar. &u*t, lit. faithful 

one), a name given to the 
hyena (kura), when appear- 
ing at night it is regarded 
as an evil spirit. 
aminchi, amintaka (cf. Ar. 

(j_«t , faith), faithfulness, 

security ; D 98 allah shina 
dada aminchi may God in- 
crease faith, B 84 dunia ba 
tan yi aminchi ba the world 
is not to be relied on. 

amlni (Ar.), friend. 

amintache, pi. amintatu, safe ; 
used of a person who has 
escaped from peril. 

amlru (Ar.), prince, emir. 

annua, but. 

amo, hum, buzz, noise, report 
of a gun; dmon huge sound 
of a war-drum or bell which 
has several distinct notes, dmo 
or yin dmo to hum. 

amddari, ophthalmia. 

amdsani, see amasani. 




amre, amri, amra or aure (cf . 

Ar. 5tj-«l, woman), marriage; 
amre or yin amre to marry, 
ba ta amrua (or aurua) she is 
not marriageable; cf. M. H. 
p. 1 75, kina so ki yi arimensa 
do you wish to marry him ? 
maiaure a married person. 
auren so a love match, i.e. 
without pecuniary considera- 
tions, auro to marry a bride 
and bring her home, amra da 
to give a woman in marriage. 

amsa, amshe, 1. answer; amsa 
or yin amsa to answer, accept, 
agree to, ba ka amsa ba wilt 
thou not reply 1 munjia mun 
amsa we hear and obey, mun 
amsa gaisua we accept the 
salutation ; 2. receipt, accept- 
ance ; 3. deliverance, amso to 
take again. 

amsawa, answer. 

amshi, amshe, to take, snatch; 
amshiwa taking, snatching 

amunchiwa, confidence; an- 
other form of aminchi, q.v. 

amurgude, twisted, distorted : 
cf . M. H. p. 1 28 ; see murgude. 

amya (K.), beehive; cf. ainya. 

an, ana, verbal prefixes to de- 
note the passive voice of the 
perf ectand the present tenses ; 
an is prefixed to the perfect 

passive and ana to the passive 
of the continuous present, e.g. 
ankoreshi he has been driven 
away, anakoreni I am being 
driven away ; cf . Gr. pp. 39, 

5 - 

&n&bi, pi. dnabawa (Ar. ,«*$), 

prophet, dnabanchi prophesy- 
ing, the office of a prophet. 

anade, rolled up ; cf. nade. 

anago, dysentery. 

anagudawa, dysentery ; seegu- 

anamimi, anamimanchi (cf . 


Ar. rt^J), evil-speaking, tale- 

ananan, forthwith ; ananan 
ananan har ranan, so things 
went on till one day... 

anas&ra (Ar.), a Christian, lit. 
the Nazarene ; cf . nasara. 

anche, see che. 

anche, enche, verily, indeed ! 

aneshuwa, livelihood, occupa- 

anf&na, to confer a benefit 
upon ; allah shi anfanashi 
may God bless him. anfani is 
used before a pron. obj. 

anfftni, n., 1. use, advantage, 
benefit; enna anfaninsa of 
what use is it? da anfani 
useful, babu anfani useless, 
anfaninsa dayawa it is of 
great use ; maianfani useful, 




B 44 addua maianfani a 
prayer that shall be effective; 
2. the profit of a crop, a 

anf&ni, anfane (before a 
pron.), to make use of, gain 
advantage from, profit by. 

angaje, angashe, weariness, 
slumber; cf. muna yin an- 
gaje we are nodding ; cf . gaje. 

angarma, f . angarmia, a large 
stallion ; see ingarma. 

ango, pi. anguna, angaye, a 

angonchi, the condition of a 

angua, hamlet ; see ungua. 

angulu, agulu, augulu, f. an- 
gula or agula (cf. Italian 
aguglia, Lat. aquila), vul- 
ture ; angulun kwagwa } crested 

angaria, seeds of the cotton 
plant, also used of raw cotton 
from which the seeds have 
been taken out. It is some- 
times spelt yanguria and is 

9 » ' 

probably the Ar. j^i, cotton. 
anini*, button, used also to de- 
scribe the eighth of a penny 
coin which is in circulation ; 
cf . fulaho. 

aniya (Ar. J^Le), diligence, 
haste, intention ; yin aniya 
to show diligence, to hasten, 

D 25 ku dan aniya take to 
yourselves diligence ; cf . Gr. 
p. 131, 1. 41, aniyansu chin 
hatsinku their purpose is to 
seize your corn. 

anjima, by and by; sai an- 
jima good-bye for the pre- 
sent ! ,see jima. 

anka, verbal prefix to denote 
the passive voice of the narra- 
tive or dependent past. For 
further explanation of the 
way in which this prefix is 
used cf. Gr. p. 39. 

annabi, prophet ; see dndbi. 

annas&ra, see anasara. 

ansaki, pincers; see hantsaki. 

anta, hanta, liver. 

antaya, an offer made in bar- 
gaining : nawa antaya what 
offer has been made ? cf. l&ya. 

anya, an expression of incre- 
dulity, really ! 

anza(S. ), bush with edible fruit. 

ap, an exclamation of wonder. 

&ra, a pit for catching animals, 
a pot for catching fish. 

&ra, to lend, borrow; see dro. 

&ra&ra, a large Bornuese ram 
with conspicuous horns. 

ar&du, clap of thunder, thunder- 

bolt ( Ar. jsj) ; ya yi aradu 

or aradu tafaru it thunders. 

arafia, very fine (thread) (Ar. 




arafichi, fineness. 

araha, arha, cheapness; da 
araha cheap (probably from 
the Italian arra, Lat. arrha 
earnest money). 

arame, lean, thin, emaciated ; 
see rania. 

aranfaki, lying in w&it, eaves- 
dropping ; see ra/ake. 

arangaza, a disease of cattle. 

aras, brittleness, breakage ; ka- 
yan aras a load of breakables, 
e.g. crockery; zaka aras da 
kanka you will get your head 

arataye, hanging ; see rataya. 

arausa, bumping shoulders, a 
children's game. 

arbaa or arba, i.e. Ar. i*^t, 
four, often used for four thou- 
sand ; cf. Gr. p. 66 ; arba mi a 
four hundred. 

arbain (Ar.), forty. 

arewa, ariawa, north. 

arewachi, the northern region, 

argini (an Asben word), an 
animal of the cat tribe, small 
leopard with white skin and 
black spots. 

arigingini, prone on the back ; 
see rigingini. 

aija (K.), alja (S.), harm, tor- 
ment ; yin arja to injure. 

arkana, to cause trouble. 

R. H. D. 

arkane, n. pain; jin arkdne 
to feel pain. 

armaahi, beauty; da armashi 
beautiful, fine. 

arne, arna or azna, heathen, 
i.e. the worshippers of idols ; 
cf. E 6 addini na asna idol- 
atry ; arnan kasa aborigines, 
no necessary reference to re- 

• * * - 

&ro ( Ar. 5jfc), loan, bada aro to 

lend, yin aro to borrow ; cf . 

ya karbo aronhe took the loan 

of ; ya ara doki or ya yi aron 

doki he lent a horse, maiaro 

a tenant ; see ara. 
arr, be off ! = t&fi chan. 
arr&du, see aradu. 
arrafia, very fine thread; see 

arsaberi, asberi, mat, made 

of thick marsh grass; see 


arsas, pi. arsashi (Ar. JLeLej), 
bullet, lead for bullets. 

artai, dung, excrement; yin 
artai to beat, drive away. 

aruwa, arwa, soothsaying. 

arwala, ablution ; see alwala, 

arziki (cf. Ar. Cijj), prosperity, 

riches; a euphemism for death: 
also used for chance, luck ; A 
65 allah ya kan gama arzi- 
kinka God may give thee 
prosperity; ya yi arziki a 





common expression for 'it 
was fortunate.' 
ftsabat, ftsubat, &sabar, asibit, 

&shibi (Ar. iljf), Saturday. 
&sali, origin, race, ancestry; 
see Usali. 

asalo (cf. Ar. J**), a rush), a 
round mat made of plaited 

ftsalwayi, &salawi, ftsalwai, 
&saulai, halter, leading rope 
of a horse. 

asanchi, azanchi, azenchi, 
meaning, explanation, know- 
ledge, understanding, clever- 
ness ; yin asanchi to devise ; 
enna azenchin w&nan what is 
the meaning of this ? 

asftra, misfortune ; see hasdra. 

asasaji*, girth strap. 

asben, pi. asbenawa, the name 
of a tribe of Tuareks in the 
Sahara Desert. 

aserimi (cf. Ar. j*j**, to cut in 

pieces), round flat pieces of 

ashS, an exclamation, Oh ! 
ashana, matches; aNup^word. 
ashar, disrespectful language, 

contempt of court, 
ashara, abortion, 
ashasha, a kind of bag made 

of grass with narrow opening, 
ashauma, ashoma, salt used 


ashe, ashior aje, surely, indeed, 
it implies incredulity and is 
a rude way of receiving a 

ashSgi, profligate ; cf . shSge. 

ashibta, a snare ; see ashuta. 

ashirin (Ar.), twenty; see 

ashuta, ashibta (S.), a bird 
snare made by a line of run- 
ning nooses supported by a 
row of spikes. 

asiri, ashiri (cf. Ar. rt jj) y 
secrecy; buden asiri (lit. 
open secrets) scandal ; allah 
ya rufe asirinka God pre- 
serve thy secrets : a salutation 
to a superior. 

asirka, a hole in the nose of an 
ox ; see azirka. 

asirta, to make secret, to dis- 
cuss secretly. 

aska, pi. asaki, askake, 1. razor; 
2. a triangular piece of em- 
broidery on a tobe. 

aska, aske, aski, v. to shave. 

askalaye (S.), a kind of green 


• * • ^ 
askar, pi. askarawa (Ar. j£**£) 

(Turkish, Persian id., (?) Eng. 

lascar), soldier ; the ordinary 

word for soldier in Hausa is 


askunia, anything used to 

cover the opening of a door- 




way or window opening, e.g. 
grass-mat; windows proper 
do not exist in Hausaland. 

asna, heathen ; see arna. 

asnanchi, heathenism. 

asu, pi. asoshi, a moth from a 
small black caterpillar, its 
larva is very destructive to 
cloth, wool, etc. 

9 * » J 

asuba (Ar. i**^), often pro- 
nounced azuba, dawn, the 
time between jijifi and han- 
chi'y a88U8uba very early; cf. 

asurimi, a sphere; see azu- 

&suwa, an ass. 

aswaki, a stick for cleaning 

&tagara, kwakwan dtagara 
coco-nut palm. Atagara is 
said to be the old home of 
the Arago tribe. 

fttajirchi, riches. 

&tajiri, f. dtajira, pi.- Majirai 
(cf. Ar. j^l3), a person of 

rank or wealth, a merchant. 

&tanin (S.), ran 9 litini Mon- 

ataras, a name given to kola 
nuts newly imported from 
Gwanja, also used generally 
for kola nut ; see under goro. 

atatare, completely, collected 
together ; see tatara. 

atile* a large tree with edible 

atisha(cf. Ar. ±jJo&\ to sneeze, 
atishawa sneezing. 

atsabibi (Ar.), doctor. 

attabibi, ettabibi (Ar. U**l*)> 
doctor, witch doctor. 

atuni, dysentery. 

aturkum&mi, f . aturkumdma, 
a two humped camel. 

audiga, cotton ; see abduga. 

augulu, vulture ; see angidu. 

auka, to collapse, subside, of a 
trap for animals, to close 
up; i.q. afka, q.v. 

auki, expansion as of rice when 
boiled, abundance, prosperity, 
aquantity of salt ; i.q. o/!fci,q.v. 

anna, awnna, auni, to weigh, 
to measure; F 139 ayuka 
awunsu actions are weighed; 
to measure length or width; 
mu auna guzunsa we measur- 
ed the bottom (of the tree) ; 
auna ma to weigh out, i.e. to 
sell; maauni scales; maaunia 
a corn dealer (a woman's 

aura, a red ass. 

aure, to marry; seeamre. 

auro, to marry ; see amre. 

ausigi, half a piece of cloth, 
zone, i.e. about 2£ yds. 

auta, smallest, youngest; autan 
yasathe little finger; cf. M.H. 
p. 167, tumfafia ta auta the 





smallest pumpkin ; autan Ji- 
kqfiki the small feathers in a 
bird's wing. 

auzu, dog. 

awa, awada, how, like as, 

awai*, a species of rubber tree. 

awaki, goats ; see akwia. 

awart&ki, tongs ; see awort&ki. 

awarwaro, a convolvulus with 
small white flowers, eaten by 
sheep and goats. = yeriadi 
and yambururu. 

aw&za, a rib ; see awdza. 

awo, measure, weight; abin 
awo anything to measure or 
weigh with; yin awo to mea- 
sure, to weigh ; awo shi tuku- 
na there is a remainder : awo 
is specially used of weighing 
corn ; cf . ya kawo mata awo 
he brought corn for her bo 
buy. yin awo is sometimes 
used of a gun, to aim; cf. 

awoje, abroad, outside; see 

awort&ki, awart&ki, hawor- 
t&ki, tongs. 

aw&za, aw&za (S.), pi. awdzai, 
rib, side. 

awuna, to weigh ; see auna. 

aya, an interjection, well ! 

ftya (arachis hypogaea), a kind 
of ground nut, sweet inside, a 
quarter of an inch in length ; 

it has a yellow pea-shaped 
flower ; its pods contain from 
two to four reddish seeds, 
from which an oil, e.g. the oil 
used by watch-makers, is ob- 
tained ; cf . guchia. 

aya, pi. ayoyi (Ar. duX), 1. a 
verse of the Koran, also ap- 
plied to the points ° used 
as a sign of punctuation; 
2. sign, wonder; 3. an ex- 
pression of incredulity. 

&yaba (Yoruba id.), 1. banana 
tree ; 2. banana fruit. 

ayagi, the Hausa name for the 
Yoruba people. 

ftyari, caravan ; cf . aiyari. 

ayu (Fulah id.), the name of 
a mythical man or creature 
supposed to live in water and 
to drag anyone in who hap- 
pens to see it. ayu is also 
used as the name of a river- 
fish from which oil is ob- 
tained; cf. M.H. p. 37. 

ayyareye, a meaningless word 
with which nursery rhymes 
sometimes begin. 

&za> to put a thing on another, 
e.g. on a pack horse, distinct 
from aje to put down, cf . M.H. 
p. 206, shi kan aza tsaranka 
bizbiz dakai it places your 
companion above you. aza 
ma to place on, used of taxes, 
to assess. 



• " ". 

azftba (Ar. ^J**), pain, punish- 
ment, illness; wurin azdba a 
dark place in which criminals 
are confined, a place of exe- 

azabta, to cause pain. 

9 <» - 

azakari (Ar.j£>$), penis, word 

used by educated men for 

azalia # , misfortune (Ar. Jjt). 
az&Tomi, deceiver ; see tealimi. 
azanchi, cleverness ; see asan- 

ftzara, a cross-beam on top of 

a doorway, also rafters (e.g. 

of deleb palm) used for ceiling 

a flat-roofed house. 
az&ra, segment of kola nut. 
azargagi, azazargi (S.), ma- 

zargi, a noose for catching 

animals with, zin azargagi 

to tie in a bow. 
azawa, treasures, F 94 alaza- 

azbin, Asben ; see asben. 
azenchi, meaning; see asanchi. 

azirka (cf. Ar. ii>l>), a hole 

made in the nose of an ox to 

put a rope through, a nose 

azne, heathen ; see arne. 
azuba, dawn ; see asuba. 
aztthur, az&har, az&far (S.) 

(Ar.), the time about 2 p.m., 

the call to prayer at that 

time; cf. rcma. 

azuji, a gossip. 

ftzumaki, &zurmaki, worms 

in horses or asses. 

• • «- 
ftznml (cf. Ar. j>yo), fast, yin 

azumi to fast, D 22 kuna azu~ 

mi kuna zaka da haji you fast 

and go on the pilgrimage. 

ftzurfa or &zurufa (cf. Ar. 

k^Uj**), silver. 

ftzurmuki, see dzumaki. 
azurumi, asurumi, a large 

pyramid (of salt), a sphere, 
azuzanchi, gossip ; cf . azuji. 
azuzuka, to be lucky. 

b. There are a number of Hausa 
words, in which an initial 
or medial b has an explosive 
sound and is quite distinct 
from the ordinary b. In this 
dictionary this explosive b is 
written b. The following are 
a few instances : barao, bare, 
bdri, bdtd, bdchi, bdta, bdche, 
batasda, bauta (a dance), bera, 
boye. Instances of words with 
medial explosive are gdba 
(forearm), sdbo, lebo, tabo, 

b — for interchange of b and f 
sounds, cf. burtumi— -furtumi, 
rubsa — rufsa., not. It is placed be- 




fore and after the verb or the 
sentence which it negatives, 
thus we may have ba ya gani 
ba mutum or ba ya gani mu- 
tum ba he did not see the 
man ; the latter is the more 
idiomatic. In the case of a 
negative interrogation the se- 
cond ba is frequently omitted ; 
ba ya and ba'ya yi are usually 
abbreviated to bai ; ba na is 
abbreviated to ban, thus ban 
sani ba I do not know, 
ba, a prefix to nouns to denote 
origin, ancestry, etc. ; thus 
bahaushe a Hausa native,' ba- 
laraba an Arab, bature a 
white man. 

ba, to give, to cause ; ya bani 
daria he made me laugh, ya 
bashi tsoro he made him a- 
f raid, ban hanu clapping, ban 
magana flattery : ban kwana 
saying good-bye, ba labari to 
bring news, pass. part, bayu 
given. For distinctive uses 
of ba and bada see bada ; cf . 
bayes, bayasda. 

baa, n. mockery (cf. Ar. U^, to 
attack with evil eye), yin baa 
to deride, to scoff at, baache 
to mock at. 

bftb&, father. 

baba, babba, pi. mainya, or 
maiya, often pronounced bab- 

ba, great, large; as used of 
persons, important, of high 
rank. When placed before 
the noun which it qualifies 
it is usually written baban; 
thus baban kai great head 
(a very common Hausa sur- 
name) ; baba dajeka marabout 
stork = borintumki ; baba ga- 
reka = gaskiarka, used by 
children to confirm an as- 
sertion; ban magana big talk, 
flattery. The use of -n after 
baba suggests that the word 
was originally a substantive; 
cf . baban gari, babar sarauta. 

b&b&, pi. babani, eunuch. 

bftba, pi. babobiy babuna, babai- 
bai (indigof era endecaphylla), 
Indigo. It grows wild in 
many parts of Hausaland. It 
is also cultivated for the sake 
of its dye which is obtained 
by the fermentation of its 
leaves in water ; for descrip- 
tion of the indigo plant cf. 
M. H. p. 56. 

bftba-juji, a common weed with 
small pink flowers, so called 
because it grows on dung- 

babake, to become black; see 

babaki, to singe, blacken at a 
fire, used of the growling of 
a lion, or of the crackling of 





hell-fire, A 31 rana kiama kan 
wuta ta babaki. 

babaku, black, pi. of baki, q.v. 

babambade or bade (lit. great 
bade fool), jester, buffoon, a 
king's singer, a public crier, 
M.H. p. 303 ; cf. bambada. 

b&bani, uncle, father's brother. 

b&bania, aunt, father's sister. 

babarkiya, a special kind of 
earth used for making the 
cement which is placed on 
fiat roofs. 

Mbauchi, baubauchi, bad 
Hausa, patois ; see bobowa. 

b&be, f. babania, pi. babaye, 
babuna, a large species of 

bftbu (i.e. ba abu not anything), 
nothing, no, not, without; 
babu wonda no one, babu 
komi nothing, or there is no- 
thing the matter, babu keau 
it is not good, babu watva 
F 137 without doubt (cf. simi- 
lar use in Kanuri of ago 
something, and bago nothing). 
babu is often used idiomati- 
cally, e.g. kajina duka babu 
all my fowls are gone ! M.H. 
p. 170. ba abin da babu there 
is nothing lacking, cf. prov. 
komi ya bache hankuri a ba- 
bu everything goes wrong 
where patience is lacking. 
jinjiri ba ya san babu ba a 

baby won't take No for an 

b&che, to lose, see b&ta, yaki ya 
bache the battle is lost. 

bftche, b&chi, to destroy, to 
spoil, to be spoiled, su bache 
tare they perish together, daji 
ya bache the bush is spoilt 
(i.e. nothing can be obtained), 
M. H. p. 196; cf. bata. 

b&chi before n., bache before 
pron. obj., to curse, bdehin 
zuchia quarrelling. 

ba-chuche-ni (lit do not de- 
ceive me), pi. chuchenawa, 
the bachucheni was a sort of 
household servant who could 
not be sold ; cf . dimajo, 

bada (S.), without. 

bftda, to give, to give up, usu- 
ally joined with some other 
word ; thus bada girima to 
honour, badagaskia to believe 
or to acquit, bada laifi to 
condemn, bada umri to give 
place to ; used with hainya it 
means to lead, hainya ya ba- 
damu the road led us to. 
Where the accusative follows 
the verb directly bada is used 
in preference to ba, where the 
indirect object follows the 
verb directly bada must not 
be used. Ex. ya bani kurdi 
he gave me money, but, ya 
bada kurdi ga mutane he 




gave money to the men, ya 
ba8hi ita he gave her to him. 
bdda, before a pron. obj. boshe, 
to give away, betray ; cf . ba. 

badada, badabada, a fool; cf. 

bad.&de, bad£de, some day. ko 
badade some day or other, 
prob. connected with dMe. 

badai, a sedge. 

badagula, foolish talking. 

badawa, a kind of guinea-corn. 

badblla, belbela or bilbila 
(buphus leuconotus), a white 
bird like a small heron; cf. 
belbela chi da moshin woni O 
b — you live by the move- 
ments of others, i.e. it feeds 
off ticks found on other ani- 

bade, jester ; see babambade. 

badl (cf. Kanuri bali), next 
year; B 1 20 makada maizache 
badi meditating coming next 
year ; cf . banna and bara. 

b&do, water lily (nymphaea 
lotus), wasar bado a child- 
ren's game in which the white 
petals are removed and the 
stalk peeled down to the ca- 
lyx in strips which are wound 
round it, when released like a 
top the flower falls revolving. 

baduka, baduku, pi. dukawa, 
a worker in leather, a maker 
of shoes ; cf. M. H. p. 76. 

bafade, bafadi, a king's minis- 
ter, a hanger on at court; 
\A. fad&wa, q.v. 

bafayu, parents, relations. 

bafulatana, 1. a' plant like a 
dandelion with edible fruit. 
2. a reddish biting ant so 
called from its colour. 

bafdr, a gum used as incense 
made from roots of the taura 

ba-gabazi, one who has come 
from the east. 

bag&re, a chieftain : pi. garewa. 

bagarua, by metathesis for 
gabarua (acacia arabica), 
acacia tree, the bark of which 
is used for tanning ; it grows 
near water; from its seeds 
is made an ink or dye. 
For use of it in tanning cf. 
M. H. p. 57. b. kasa = cassia 
mimosoides, a low herb with 
spindle-shaped edible tubers. 

bagashi, vernonia pumila (com- 

bagidaje, a stupid or rustic 
yokel (cf. gida). 

b&go, ambush, lurking place; 
cf. niabdga watch-tower. 

bagwonja*, a brass pot. 

bahago, a left-handed person ; 
cf . hagum. 

bahar ilmal,the Mediterranean 
Sea, M. H. p. 207. 

bahasi, enquiry, investigation 




(At.), used of an alkali's 

bahilchi, shirking, greed ; cf. 

bahili* (Ar. J^v), a miser, 
an idle or cowardly person. 

bai, a contracted form of ba ya 
or ba ya yi t also a contraction 
of baya back, M. H. p. 223 etc. 

baia, after ; see baya. 

baibai (a contraction of baya 
baya), backwards, akandar- 
mishi baibai he was bound 
with his hands behind him. 
wadanan abaibai those about 
(or who followed) him. 

baibai, baibaiya, pi. baibaiyi 
or baubawa, barbarous peo- 
ple, people who only wear 
grass clothes. 

baibaiya, bebeya, to thatch a 
house with grass = yin jinka. 

baibaiyi, a ring put through a 
man's lower lip. 

baiohin = bay an after, baichin 
wonga after this. 

baiki, roar, D 72 ; see babaki. 

baiko, a gift; kurdin baiko a 

baini (K.), a very small bird. 

baiso, a drink, i.q. beso, q.v. 

baiwa, bauya, female slave; 
baiwan allah, lit. slave of 
God, a bird rather smaller 
than a sparrow; cf. bawa. 

baiwa, generosity, gifts ; A 83 
maibaiwa generous, M. H. 
p. 194. 

bajajache*, light coloured. 

baji, baje, to raze or destroy a 
town, to level a road, ya 
bazu it is made level. 

baji, applied to large hips in a 

bajini (K.), bajimi (S.), biji- 
mi, a bull; also used as an 
adj., very strong. 

bajinta, complaisance ; yin ba~ 
jinta to comply with. 

bajumba, a red coral bead. 

b&k&, pi. bdkuna masc, bow ; 
bakan kibia bow and arrows, 
bakan allah (lit. God's bow) 
or bakan gizo (lit. spider's bow) 
a rainbow; cf. also maslian 
rua. 8arikin baka a good 
hunter, bakan gizo used of 
arched roof of house, also 
name of white turban with 
several colours on its edge; 
bakan shiba a bow-shaped in- 
strument used for cleaning 
and preparing cotton ; cf . 
ganderi, masabi. 

baka, bakan gishiri a load of 
salt after it has been cut up 
into small pieces ; cf. kanto. 

bakache, 1. v. to fan, to win- 
now ; 2. n. a fan ; maiba- 
kache one who fans or win- 




bftkanta, bakanche, to live an 
idle, useless life, bakanchi a 
gambler, cadger. 

bftki, pi. bakuna, mouth, edge, 
brink ; bakin kofa doorway, 
bakin rua the bank of the 
river, bindiga da baki biu gun 
with two barrels, bakin wuta 
stick on which meat is placed 
to be cooked over a fire, torch, 
bakin gatari the handle of the 
axe, yin baki to promise, yin 
baki data to make an agree- 
ment, to conspire, gama baki 
to speak the same language, 
to agree together, baki daia 
in drill, altogether, at one 
stroke, bakin dutsi foot of a 
hill, abakin in exchange for. 

b&ki, often pronounced baiki, 
f. bdka, pi. bdbaku, babake, 
black ; A 21 sun sanfari sun 
san baki they knew the dif- 
ference between black and 
white, bakin zuchia (lit. black- 
ness of heart) evil disposition, 
evil thought ; bakin chiki 
sorrow ; bakin rua plain water 
with no meal in it; babake 
to become black ; bdki bdki 
blackish or dark blue, baki 
kirin very black. 

bakintaka, blackness. 

bako, f . bakua, pi. bdkuna, baki or 
bakokuna t strange, stranger, 
guest, visitor ; A 15 bako da 

dangari stranger and citizen, 
yin bako to have a stranger 
staying with one, cf. Gr. p. 
131, 1. 44 gobirawa kun yi 
baki ye men of Gobir ye have 
guests with you; bakuar mache 
a strange woman. 

bakon dauro, see bakwondoro. 

bakonchi (K.) or bakontaka 
(S.), the service done to a 
stranger; yin bakonchi is to 
show hospitality. 

bakua, a glittering earth or 

" sand (?). 

bakurme (K.), chief of the 
prison ; cf . sankurmi. 

bakuru, bukuru, a kind of 
saddle; dan bakuru a, donkey. 

bakwondoro or bakon dau- 
ro, an eruptive skin disease 
which usually appears when 
the dauro is ripe. 

balaga (Ar.), to arrive at the 
age of puberty, balagage, pi. 
balagagu, onewhohan reached 
the age of puberty ; lokachin 
balagage the age of puberty, 
M.H. p. 228. 

balagande, a plant from which 
a yellow dye is obtained. 

balagiro, cattle sickness. 

balaguro, a bachelor. 

balami, a large-nosed ram (?). 

b&lanta, b&lante, much less; 
usually preceded by a nega- 
tive; cf. bale. 




balas*, a kind of trousers. 

balftsana, a small plant or grass. 

balatache, worthless. 

balausara, a plant with small 
blue flower ; cf . lausuru. 

balbadu, barbadu, to spring 
up, of water ; cf . barbadi. 

balbalnia, flame. 

balbela, a bird ; see badbila. 

bale (usually preceded by a 
negative particle), much less, 
not to mention, much more 

balla, to fasten or tie up as of 
a button or loop ; past part. 

balle, to unfasten, untie; ma- 
balli fastening, loop : of a 
bone, to break. 

balle, balla, to sting. 

balli, a large bony fish. 

balli balli, sores, scars, scabs. 

balma, an inferior kind of salt, 
perhaps originally = the salt 
from Bilma, the salt mine at 
the south of the Sahara. 

balshe*, but ; cf . barshe. 

bam, bami, bumbi, palm wine ; 
D 10 aber ska gia da bam da 
buza leave off drinking in- 
toxicants. The wine is ob- 
tained by direct incision into 
the stems of the palm-tree 
(tukurua), it begins to fer- 
ment on the second or third 

bamaguje, pi. maguzawa, hea- 
then, esp. those living among 
Mohammedans. It is usually 
applied to pagan Hausas in 
Kano and Katsena; cf. ma- 

bambada, plur. bambadawa, 
mounted singers who accom- 
pany a chief; cf. babam- 

bambagi, fornicator. 

bambam, different, separate, 
distinct from; F 146 tambaya 
bambam ga kowa the ques- 
tions at each are different, ya 
yi bambam it is different, 
bambam ddga different from. 

bambami, the name of a small 
bird. It usually builds its 
nest of cotton. 

bamb&mi, macaranga sp. (eu- 
phorbiaceae), a tall woody 
creeper used for dyeing the 
dark strands in mats. 

bambana, 1. a large tree, with 
edible fruit (asclepias gigan- 
tea 1) ; 2. an aquatic plant. 

bambanche, to differentiate. 

bambanchi, bambanta, dif- 
ference, distinction ; cf. da- 

bambanta, bambamta, v. to 
differ, ba su bambamta there is 
no difference between them. 

bambara, roasted maize. 

bambare, to loosen or drag 




gently off, suka yisu b. hanu 
they tried to set the hand 

bambaro, to peel off; cf. bare. 

bambarokai, dimness of sight. 

bambaroki, 1. egg-shell ; 2. 
scab, or boil. 

bambu, binding up (of corn). 

bamda, besides, apart from, in 
addition to ; bamda wanan 
in addition to this. 

bami, a beginner, learner. 

bamdta, bamawuta, butterfly. 

ban, a contracted form of ba-ni 
or ba-na. 

ban-gaskia, faith, e.g. ina da 
ban-gaskia da abokina, I rely 
upon my friend ; see ba. 

ban-hanu, clapping; cf. ba. 

bana, the name of a fish. 

bana, a small tree with edible 

bananche, to mock, to declare 
falsely; cf. banna. 

bananchi, jesting, horse-play ; 
M. H. p. 229. 

banche (for bante), a loin- 

banda, besides ; see bamda. 

banda, roasting, drying; ban- 
data to roast. 

bandam bandam, the noise of 
a rushing torrent. 

bando, a preparation of food. 

banga, a drum, banga banga, 
bunga bunga, 1. a royal pro- 

cession ; 2. the name given to 

a famine ; cf. M. H. p. 201. 
banga, the heap of earth which 

covers the yam in the dry 

bangai* ribs, 
bangaje, to knock, kick, 
bango, bungo, pi. bangaye, 

banguna (cf. Kanuri bongo), 

1. the wall of a house built 
of mud ; 2. the stiff cover of 
a book. 

bango (K.), the head of the 
market or prison. 

bangori, piece, lump. 

ba-ni-da-mugu, a pimple. 

bankada, bankade, to turn 
round, turn over, push aside. 

bankami, very large. 

bankare, to tie the hands to- 
gether behind, to stretch out. 

banke, 1. a patch on cloth ; 

2. v. to patch, to mend, 
bankuru, bamkuru, a cake 

made with oil and meal. 

banna (Kanuri id.), 1. waste, 
evil ;. 2. adv. to no purpose, in 
vain, B 133 wonda ya zazari 
banna he who hastens after 
evil; 3. v. to destroy, to waste. 

banna, this year ; when used of 
age of cattle = a year : sa na 
banna uku a three-year-old 
bull, banna data a yearling ; 
cf . bara and badi. 




• fi* 

bannai* ^^, harm, evil; B 12, 
i.q. banna, q.v. 

bannawa, children (of both 
sexes) approaching the age 
of puberty. 

bante, banche, pi. bantnna 
(Nup^ id.), towel, apron, a 
man's loin-cloth. (A woman's 
=f atari.) bakin bante the 
badge of a thief; the usual 
colour is blue and white. 

bante, to give short measure. 

ban-tsoro, a fearful or terrible 

banupia, a kind of bird. 

banya, banye, 1. to loose, let 
go ; 2. to admit, acknowledge. 

banza (Fulah id.), vain, use- 
less, worthless, evil, without 
reward, gratuitous ; banza ba 
shi kai zomo kasua idleness 
does not bring a hare to 
market ; D 20 aber rikichi na 
banza leave off vain deceit. 

b&ra, to beg, supplicate, cf. C 1 
na bdra dominka tsarsheni I 
supplicate that thou would'st 
save me. maibdra a beggar. 

bara, masc, the swoop of ahawk. 

b&ra, point aimed at : yin bdra 
or barata to aim at. 

bar&, to recover after sickness ; 
used esp. of vomiting after 

drinking poison (Ar. \£jj)\ 
cf. seq. 

bara ( Ar.), to be guiltless, to be 
discharged from the court. 

b&ra, to divide ; see bare. 

b&ra, f. bdrania, bar any a, pi. 
bdrori or bdrurua, a servant 
as distinguished from bawa a 
slave. A servant ( bara) could 
not lawfully be sold. The 
plural bdrurua implies a large 
number of servants such as 
a king would have, baran 
sariki an officer of the king's 

bara, baria, last year; bara 
wonchan the year before last. 

bara, a charm ; cf . sha bara ; 
maida bara the name of a 
Hausa song concerning the 
guinea fowl. 

bar&bara, single; cf. baran- 

barage, a narrow line in a piece 
of cloth, usually made with 
silk (cf. 8aki a broad line in 
cloth) ; it is also applied to 
the whole garment which is 
usually white and red ; cf . 
M. H. p. 100. 

bar&ka, a slit or hole in a seam ; 
cf. barke. 

barakonchi,thieving ; cf . bardo. 

baramchi*, the name of a 
large fish. 

baran-baran, separation, vari- 

baranchaki, a creeping plant 




the fruit of which is used by 
children as a rattle. 

baranchi, stealing ; cf . barao. 

baranda, a system of sale under 
which the broker arranges to 
give seller a fixed price, keep- 
ing for himself any profit and 
taking risk of loss, dan 
baranda a broker who accepts 
business on these terms. 

barandemi (cf. (?) Ar. jJ^, 

an old sword), a hatchet with 
broad blade. 

barankam, difficulty of en- 
trance, sticking fast in a 
passage, ya yi b. he stuck 
fast, used of a dog trying to 
get through a hole in the wall; 
cf. bokoto. 

barant&ka, service, yin baran- 
tdka to serve. 

baranya, servant ; see bdra. 

bar&o, f. baraunia, pi. bardye, 
barai y thief. 

bar&ra, freed ; see bara. 

b&rata, barache, to aim at; 
see bdra. 

baraunia, f. servant. 

baraya (S.), private room or 
sleeping apartment of the 
head of a household; cf. tu- 

baraza, barasa, an intoxicating 
drink, a name esp. applied to 
imported gin. 

barbada, to scatter ; barbadua 

spilling, e.g. of corn or 

barbadi, berbadi, crumbs of 

food, grains of sand. 
barbaji, a blood-sucking fly; 

see berbaje. 
barbara, berbera, the coupling 

of animals or birds, not used 

of a horse ; see baye. 
barbaro, a kind of cloth. 
barde, pi. barade, cavalry. 
bardinuwa, birduduwa (cf. 

Ar. lOjj, locust's wing), a 

black locust which flies about 
at night, it is frequently at- 
tracted by a light. 

bardo, a pigeon ; see her do. 

bare, much more therefore 
= bale 9 q.v. 

b&re, bara, 1. to peel, to divide 
in half ; 2. bdre t the half of a 
goro nut. 1. cf. ya barn it 
peeled off; 2. also half a piece 
of cloth ; guda ba bari ba the 
whole not a half, mu bareshi 
'let us divide it' is used as 
the name of a turban, this by 
metathesis becomes barmushi. 

bare* (cf. Ar. iytj^), an alien. 

bareshi, a shrub ; see duruku. 

barewa, pi. bareyi, antelope: 
properly applied to Thomp- 
son's gazelle. The following 
are some of the antelopes 




found in Hausaland. gtvenki, 
a roan-coloured antelope. 
kanki, hartebeeste. mareya, 
cob antelope or oryx, d&ri or 
ddri, a Senegal hartebeeste, 
Senegalensis damaliscus, kor- 
rigum. bezia or betsia, a very 
small antelope, dinker. gada, 
a small red antelope, oribi. 
gwambaza, water buck, do- 
doka resembles last = cobus 
defassus unctuosus. kivanta- 
rafi, reed buck. uxdwaji, 
antilope leucoryx. kishimiy 
q.v., a solitary male of any 
species, mazo bush buck. 

barga, burga, stable, horse- 
lines, stable master. 

bargo, burgo, marrow. 

b&ri, to dry in the sun, to cast 

the young, to miscarry ; hai- 

fua b&ri, still-born : also used 

of letting a water-pot slip 

from the head and break* 

baria, hole, opening (a Kanuri 
word ?) ; cf . dambaria. 

baria, last year ; see bara. 

barka (cf. Ar. i)j^> n), 1. to 
thank, to bless, to congratu- 
late, F 2 1 5 suna barka dajiuna 
they congratulate one an- 
other; 2. barka or berka (q.v.) 
n. an expression of congratu- 
lation; cf. albarka. 

barkata, a herb used in mak- 
ing soup. 

barkatai, confusion, untidi- 
ness ; shina magana barkatai 
he talks nonsense, or, he is 
confused ; duka gidansa bar- 
katai ya ke everything in his 
house is in confusion. 

barke, berke, barka, tr. and 
intr. to tear ; dan barki a rag 
or piece of cloth ; cf . baraka. 

barkonchi, foolishness, daft- 
ness, deceit. 

barkua, a tear, e.g. in cloth. 

barmakai, young of hyena. 

barmushi, a turban ; see ber- 

barna, damage ; see berna. 

barna, twisting of a double 
turban round the head ; see 

barnat&da, to injure. 

baro, plenty. 

baroro, a bird's crop. 

barra, to beg ; see bdra. 

barshe, so much the more ; or 
following negative, so much 
the less ; cf . balshe, bale. 

bartaka, to point a gun or aim 
an arrow. 

baru, see bare. 

barwa, sand grouse. 

barza,togrind flour thoroughly. 
barzawa regrinding flour. 

barza, outer ditch round a 
town ; see berza. 

barzo, badly ground flour. 

basa*, the name of a vegetable 




poison used for smearing ar- 

b&sara, the hottest part of the 
dry season ; see bdzara. 

b&s&sa, raiding, civil war. 

bashasha, joy. 

bftshe, to betray, seduce; see 

bashi, pi. basusuka, debt, credit; 
shina da bashina he owes me ; 
this might also be expressed 
inabinsa bashi; cf.Gr. p. 131, 
1. 47. hin tdfo kun dauki 
bashi ye have come to collect 
a debt, maibashi a man who 
wants to buy on credit, mai- 
chin bashi a debtor. . 

baslra* (Ar. 5j*-*^), prudence, 

sagacity, discernment; B 152. 

basiru, b&sur, a venereal 
disease (Ar.). 

baska, a kind of gourd. 

b&so, batso, dodowar b&so, 
a kind of dodowa (q.v.) made 
from fruit of the yakua tree. 

b&ta, barta, pi. bdtochi,bartochi, 
a small box usually made of 
skin, e.g. a snuff-box. 

b&ta, to talk, converse ; see bdtu. 

b&ta, b&che, to lose, be lost. 
na bdta, or na yi bdtankai, I 
lost myself, na bdche hainya 
I lost the road, hainya ta 
bdche the road is lost, bdchewa 
or batta losing ; see bdche. 

b&ta, bfichi, to destroy, be 

spoilt ; see bdchi. 
b&tache, f . bdtachia, pi. bcttatu, 

spoiled, destroyed, wasted. 
b&tachi, destruction, 
ba-taka (do not tread), used 

of a prohibited place into 

which no one may enter, 
bat&ka, to defend, protect, 
b&tas, to destroy, to waste, to 

b&tasda, bdtasda hainya, to 

lose the way. 
batsia, antelope ; see betsia. 
batso, a kind of dodowa ; see 

b&tu, conversation ; yin bdtu 

to converse ; cf . bdta. 
b&tun, prep, with reference 

bature, baturi (Kanuri id.), 

Arab, lit. son of Arab (ture), 

a word applied to any white 

man or stranger; baturen 

chacha a foolish man who pays 

out without counting; cf. 

baubauwa, unintelligible talk; 

see bobotva. 
bauchi, the land of baibdyi, i.e. 

of pagans who cannot speak 

Hausa; cf. bobowa. 
bauchi, slavery ; cf. bauta and 

bauchi, 1. a strange or foreign 

speech, 2. the name of one of 




the provinces in N. Nigeria 
where Hausa is little spoken. 

bauda, used with hainya = to 
deviate from a straight course ; 
baudua deviating. 

baude, to dodge to one side, 
baudia dodging, e.g. to avoid 
an arrow; baudiwa causing 
to deviate; C 23 tana baudiwa 
kowa she makes everyone to 
deviate (from the right way). 

bauderi, a small bad-smelling 
cat ; see budari. 

baudi, to avoid. 

bauji, girth ; baujin doki horse 

bauna, pi. bakani (cf. Fulah 
mbauna), buffalo. 

bauni, pi. baunuka (S.), fore- 

baura (S.), a block of potash or 

baura, a proper name, dan 
baura the jackal; cf. M. H. 
p. 198. 

baure, bore, a species of ficus 
which yields a milky juice 
like rubber, and has an 
edible fruit; see gamji. 

bauri*, bitter taste, da bauri 

baushe(terminalia macroptera, 
combrataceae), a large tree 
with flat, winged fruit, bows 
and sticks are made from 

B. H. D. 

baushia, a hedgehog; see 

bauta, a dance performed by 

young men. 
bauta, 1. slavery; 2. bauta or 

yin bauta to serve; D 42 

bawa wanda ke bauta ta banza 

a slave who has served a vain 

bawa, f. baiwa, bauya or ba- 

wuya, pi. bayi, bai, slave; 

bawan allah (lit. a slave of 

God), or simply bawa, a 

servant of God. 
bawali, boali, boli, urine (Ar. 

bawan-allah, esp. applied to a 
learned man. 

bawanchi, slavery. 

bawo or bawa (bawon being 

" the connective form), rind, 
bawon kwoi eggshell, bawon 
doiya peel of yam, bawal 
kamanu (lit. the outside of 
appearances) the colours of 
things. M. H. p. 227. 

baya, baia, the back, the hinder 
parts, used also as preposition, 
behind, beyond, below, be- 
sides; bay an hanu the palm of 
the hand, abin baya the past, 
that which lies beyond, bay an 
h&ka moreover, after this. 
baya is frequently followed by 
ga, baya ga chin tuo after 
eating food, chimbaya back- 





biting, nabaya is used ad- 
verbially, 'afterwards.' baya 
baya, cf. 33, * creeping/ an 
expression applied to a cat. 
bayansa in his absence, ddga 
bayana while I was away, 
bay an daki away from home; 
cf. M. H. p. 198. jin baya 
to miss, feel the loss of, ka ba 
dokinnan dusa kada ya ji 
bayan dawa give this horse 
bran lest he miss his corn. 

baya, to give; cf. mabaya a 
giver, F 14. 

bayala, 1. margin of a page; 
2. a sufficiency of goods. 

bayan mareya*, a grass used 
in thatching. 

bay&na or baySna (cf. Ar. 

^)G n), 1. to declare, make 
manifest, spread out, appear; 
F 203 mamriba akabayenasu 
those who have made unjust 
profits are made manifest; 2. 
n. manifestation. 

bay&re, pi. yarawa (S.), prison 

bayas, bayar, to give up, re- 
store; when followed by an 
object da is added, e.g. na 
bayes or na bayas da shi I 
gave it up. 

bayasda, to give, restore, cf. 

baye, the covering of a mare by 

a stallion, anyi ma godia 

baza*, a girdle made of fibre. 

baza, moat, fortification; cf. 

baza, to spread out, e.g. to 
spread out wheat to dry. baza 
doki to spread out horsemen 
in front of an army, bazaje 
spread out ; cf. baji. 

b&zara, the hottest part of the 
dry season just as the rains 
are beginning : the dry season 
rani, including bazara, lasts 
about eight months ; then fol- 
lows dam&nd the wet season 
which lasts three months, then 
kdkd the harvest season which 
lasts one month. 

bazawara, a woman without 
a husband. 

bazaware, courting. 

bazere*, a tree the root of 
which is used as a charm in 

bazu, to be level ; see baji. 

bebantaka, deafness. 

bSbe, pi. bebaye, a deaf and 
dumb person. 

bebeya,to thatch; see baibaiya. 

begeyi, a tree the fruit of which 
when eaten acts as a charm to 
reconcile a husband and wife. 

bSgi, bSge (cf. Ar. J&), long- 
ing, e.g. for an absent friend. 




begua (Nupe" id.), porcupine. 

belbela, a bird ; see badbila. 

bSli (K.), a disease on the 

bSlu, uvula ; cf . hakin wuya. 

bene, a tower, the upper room 
in a two-storeyed house, a 
two-storeyed house, used with 
soro, q.v. 

benema, a small white diving 

benue, the river Benue" or Binue\ 
According to Dr Barth the 
word belongs to the Balla 
language and means ' mother 
of waters.' 

ber, to leave ; see beri. 

bera or bira, pi. beraye, masc. 
(cf. Ar. Sjl$), mouse; beran 

kamro a reed-grass (water) 

mouse, beran bisa a field 


bera, bira, a young maiden. 

berau, barau, the sole survivor 
of a family. 

berbadi, crumbs; cf. barbadi. 

berbaje, a horse-fly, called 
damisan dawaM, because spot- 
ted like a leopard : tsetse-fly*. 

berberi, pi. bernawa, a native 
of Bornu : berberchi the Kan- 
uri (Bornuese) language. 

berbira, a small black bird that 
eats mosquitoes. 

berchi, berichi, sleep; yin 
berchi to sleep. 

berdo, pL berdaye, a wild 

pigeon, also applied to a small 

red bird with black beak and 

some white feathers, 
bere, [much less, a form of bale, 

berere, f. bereria, pi. bereru, 

freed; cf. beri. 
berewa, antelope ; see barewa. 
bergima, to roll over and over, 

used of a horse or donkey; 

cf. birgima. 

bergo*, burgo (cf. Ar. %i^, 

a veil etc.), covering, blanket. 

bergo, cutting the arms of 
prisoners of war ; cf . birgiji. 

berho, knife with one sharp 
edge; cf. vmka with two edges. 

beri, ber, to leave, leave behind, 
suffer, allow ; maiberi an epi- 
thet applied to a carrier who 
keeps putting down his load; 
bero to leave a thing and come 
back, ya beroshi umri chart he 
left it there and returned. 

berichi, sleep ; see berchi. 

berikata*, fruit of yakua plant. 

berima* (Ar. Z+jjj), gimlet. 

berka, used in greeting, berka 
da zua welcome ! a blessing 
on your coming, berka da 
yini welcome to you for the 
whole day ; see barka. 

berke, to tear ; see barke. 

berkono, barkono, pepper. 






bermushi, barmushi, a varie- 
gated cloth used for making 

berna, barna, waste, damage, 
loss, mischief ; cf . barnata to 

berna, barna, the folding of 
two black and white coloured 
turbans round the head. 

bero, to leave ; see beri. 

bersa,birza,to grind thorough- 
ly ; see barza. 

berza, barza, 1. mud dug out 
to make a wall ; 2. wall ; cf. 
D 28 idan ya fita hankalinsa 
da berza if he go out, his wits 
remain at home, also used of 
glacis in a fortification. 

beso, baiso, betso, a drink 
made of honey, pepper and 

betsia, batsia, bezia, dinker 
antelope, very small. For 
list of antelopes found in 
Hausaland, cf . under barewa. 

beza, biza, akind of salt brought 
from Asben. 

bi, to follow, to obey ; biyo to 
follow in direction of speaker; 
in the expression ina binka 
bashi you are indebted to me, 
bi is used in the sense of 
dunning a person for a debt ; 
kana bina bashi lam indebted 
to you. Used with hainya or 
tafarki, A 22 suna bi tqfarki 

wanda ta fandare they fol- 
lowed a path that was crook- 
ed ; bi dere to go by night ; 
cf . Jcdda obi guzunsa let not 
its cause be enquired into; 
M. H. p. 161, also to go the 
round of, cf. na bi denginsu 
I went the round of their 
family ; cf . idiom sunanka ya 
bika you are true to your 
name, biyeya following, used 
of loyalty to a patron, pass. 
biyu y ta biyu it is followed. 

bia, biya, 1. to pay, to reward; 
2. n. payment, wages; bia 
bashi to pay a debt, biya 
bukata to meet the needs of, 
kowa ya biya bukata tasa each 
obtained what he needed. 

biar (Ko.), bial (Rats.), biat 
(S.), five. 

biawa, following ; see bi, E 39 
mu ke biawa har bakura we 
follow the road to Bakura. 

bibia, 1. n. judgment; 2. v. to 
judge, to discern, to look 
carefully into. 

bibini, grumbling ; see bimbini. 

biche, to put out a light, of a 
fire, to go out. 

bichia (S.), a kind of tree. 

blda (S.), a large curved needle 
for thatching. 

blda, small snake with tail like 
a second head, and with two 
mouths, dan blda pin used 




for pressing cotton, so called 
from resemblance to this 

blda, bide (bef. pers. pron.), to 
seek, to search after; aai 
ambideka (wait) till you are 
sought for. blda is also used 
as a verbal n. and is either 
masc. or fern, ina bidan mache, 
suna bided alberka. 

bidi, the inside of a small ground 
nut; cf. seq. 

bidi, a strong horse ; cf . prov. 
sai anfasa akansani bidi only 
when a rout occurs is a fast 
horse known, bidi is usually 
applied to a roan horse, bidi 
kernel of a ground nut the 
colour of which resembles 
that of a bidi horse. 

bldo, to seek and return with ; 
abidota let her be sought and 
brought here ; cf. M. H. p. 219 

kuka na zua abidoka the out- 


cry about going to seek for 
you and bring you back. 

bif, used of sound of a blow, 
or of a stone falling on 
a roof. 

bige, used as a preposition like 
wuri, bigensu to their place. 

bige*, bigi, seat, placeonground 
for sitting ; cf. F 71 duniarga 
babu bigi ha zamna there is 
no place for sitting down in 
this world. 

bigSri, bigire, place ; bigerinsa 
instead of it, in its place ; cf. 
M. H. p. 227 allah ya yi bigeri 
God made everywhere. 

bijaji, buji buji, biji biji, 
plaits or knots projecting 
under a woman's head-cover- 

bijigi, to trample down. 

bijimi, bull ; cf. bajini. 

bijinta, victory, prosperity; ya 
yi bijinta he is prosperous. 

bika, pi. bikoka, baboon. 

blki, purification of a woman 
after the birth of her child. 

biki, marriage feast ; see buki. 

bikiki, wide. 

blkilli, a dark bay horse. 

bikira, a virgin. 

biko, tribute. 

biko, to go after a wife who has 
returned to her parents' home 
to persuade her to return. 

bilbila, cf. badbila. 

bille, tribal marks on cheek. 

bima, 1. hole in the ground 
used as a trap ; 2. the falling 
in of a well etc. 

bimbini or binbini, bibini, 
1. grumbling, fault-finding; 
B 54 rika binbini refrain from 
grumbling ; 2. to grumble, to 
examine in order to find fault 
with, B 18. 

binchlki, binchlke, f. ques- 
tioning; anzo binchlken ma- 




gana it came to an exami- 
nation of the story; yin 
binchtki to enquire, to ask 
for news, 
bindiga, pi. bindigogi, gun; 
bindiga da baki biu double 
barrelled gun. The word ban- 
duka is used by the Arabs in 
N. Africa for a gun. It is 
perhaps a corruption of the 
word ' Venedigo ' ; in former 
time guns were largely im- 
ported into N. Africa by the 
Venetians. The Egyptian- 

Arabic for gun is JLijLJ. 

bundaka in Egypt = bullet, 

in Hindustani bundak = gun. 
bindo, a sling. 
bindu, an edible reed, which 

grows in water, 
bingi, a large dark-coloured 

male donkey, 
bingi, a large cistern, or a pond 

of stagnant water, 
bingira, bingire (bef. pers. 

pron.), to roll, to roll over in 

sleep; cf. birgima. 
bingiri, a cattle disease. 
bini-da-zugu (jatropha curcas, 

euphorbiaceae), a shrub used 

for hedges, the * physic nut ' 

of the West Indies ; cf. chini 

da zugu. 
binjima, bijima, a kind of 

shirt without arms or pocket. 

bio, to follow and come here ; 

see biyo. 
bira, 1. v. to hop, skip, 2. n. 

bira, a mouse ; see bera. 
birane, pi. of birni, q.v. 
birbira, coupling of animals ; 

see barbara. 
birbiri, a small species of bat 

= kanen jemagi. 
birbizo, dung-hill. 
birdudua, black locust ; see 

birga, reproach, abuse. 
birga, to break a horse, to drill 

birgami (Z.), a large bag for 

holding cowries made of skin; 

cf. buhu (K.). 
birgima or birkima, rolling ; 

D 27 shina birkima kamanda 

chocha he rolls like an ant; 

cf . note on harawa. 
birgiji, one who cuts off the 

hands, e.g. of thieves; cf. 

biri, n. yin biri to set free ; 

cf. berere. 
biri, pi. birai, biraye, biruna, 

monkey ; perhaps derived 

from bira to skip. 
biribiri, a yellow - breasted 

birji, hillock ; see burji. 
birkichi or birkiche, to upset, 

overthrow, to shake like a 




leaf, birkiche, usually follow- 
ed by da. birkichi or birkita 
is used of a path, to bifurcate. 

birkida, to dance ; D 13 ajashi 
da birkidawa he shall be 
dragged and turned over and 

birkita, tr. to turn over. 

birkonehi, trickery ; see bar- 

birna, waste ; see berna. 

birna, to bury ; see bizne. 

birni, pi. birane, birnua, town 
[Kanuri berni, Fulah berniol] ; 
the word is usually applied 
only to large and walled 
towns, smaller places would 
be called gari, e.g. masuzua 
ga kqfofin birane those who 
frequent the gates of the 
cities, bimin kano = Kano. 

birobiro, a low coarse grass. 

birtuntnna = dawa babu ido, 
i.e. wheat or guinea-corn 
which has gone bad, or failed 
to ripen. 

birza, to grind thoroughly; 
see barza, 

bfe&, pi. bisashe, bisaje (Fulah 
id.), animal, beast; bisashen 
daji wild beasts, lit. animals 
of the desert, bisashen gida 
domestic animals, lit. animals 
of the house. 

blsa, 1. n. top, summit; 2. bisa 
or abisa on, upon ; bisa doki 

or bisan doki on horseback, 
G 7 wanan litafi ta chika bisa 
yerdan allah this account is 
completed by the will of God. 
abisa is sometimes used for 
* in order that.' bisa gave con- 
cerning, mi ka che bisa gareni 
what did you say in regard 
to me? bisa zancheff nan 
concerning this conversa- 

bisa, blshe, to bury, dig under, 
pass, bisu (cf. Ar. rt ^J^ n, 
dig holes for planting trees); 
cf . biso. 

bisalami* a curved sword 
worn by Arabs. 

bisaye (?), erect, an epithet 
applied to a tail; cf M. H. 
p. 94. 

bishara (cf. Ar. jJtu, to rejoice, 
or in ii to bring tidings), 
1. a letter or paper of intro- 
duction ; 2. yin bishara to re- 
joice with anyone; cf. albi- 

bishe, to bury ; see bisa. 

bishi, a small drum beaten to 
announce games etc. 

bishiga, helmet ; see bushia. 

bishimi, bull, M. H. p. 182; 
see bajimi. 

bisne, benne, to bury; see 

biso, burial, also applied to 
planting of seeds. 




biu,biyu, sometimes contracted 
to bi, two; nabiu, f. tabiu 
second, biu biu used idio- 
matically to express folly. 
na yi biu biu I threw away 
the substance for the shadow. 
za ayi biu it will be made 
two, i.e. there will be double 
labour or trouble. 

biya, to pay ; cf . bia. 

biyarana (crotelaria elata (?), 
leguminosae), a yellow flower- 
ing shrub. Its leaves are 
powdered along with honey 
or alewa. 

biyaya, statement, declaration, 
e.g. before a judge. 

biyo, to follow and come here. 
bio bashi to collect a debt and 
return here ; cf . bi. 

biz biz = bisa btea, cf. M. H. 
p. 206 tcUauchi ski Jean aza 
tsaranka biz bizdaJcaij>overty 
places your companion above 

biz a, a kind of salt ; see beza. 

bizki, a careless person. 

bizne, 1. to bury; 2. (S.) to 
sow a field ; cf. biso. 

bizni, n. sepulture. 

bizo (S.), a dung-hill. 

boali, cf. bawali. 

bobawa, bobowa, pi. bobai- 
yi, foreign or unintelligible 
speech; su yi bobawa they 
talked foolishly ; cf . Gr. p. 1 37, 

1. 10, ya yi bobowa da Jcun- 
fa he made much spluttering 
and froth. Another form 
babauchi is used of unintel- 
ligible jabber, esp. of pagans ; 
cf. bauchi. 

bobua, a large fly which attacks 
horses and donkeys. 

boda, lowing of a cow or camel. 

boda, kurdin boda, the En- 
glish Govt, tax of 15 p.c. paid 
by caravans. 

bod&mi, a kind of fish. 

bodari, see budari. 

boiya, secret; cf. boy a. 

bojua, bojua, a contemptuous 
word applied to a small trader 
who carries his own load. 

boka, f. bokanya, pi. bokaye, 
quack doctor, wizard, usually 

used in a bad sense, 
bokanehi, the profession of 

a boka) cf. prec. 
bdkoi, seven; nabdkoi, f. ta- 

bdkoi, seventh. 
bokoko, yin bokoko to blow 

up, e.g. an empty bag. 
bokoto, difficulty of entrance, 

squeezing through; cf. baran- 

bola, a horse with white face. 
boli, urine ; see bawali. 

bombegi (cf. Ar. * L5 »^), harlot. 

bora, a neglected wife, a concu- 
bore, a plant with edible fruit. 




bori, pi. boruruka, boruruwa, 
1. evil spirit, demon, delirious 
person ; 2. an inspired dance. 
masubori or masuboli, persons 
possessed with an evil spirit, 
or in a condition of frenzy or 
ecstasy ; kurdin bori tax or 
licence fee paid by dancers ; 
cf. ta rika borin kunya she 
was mad with shame, ta hau 
bori she (drank the medicine 
and) became possessed. 

borintunki, the marabout 

bota, handle of knife. Kano 
equivalent = kota. 

boto, grass covering to a wall 
or roof to keep off rain ; also 
used for the conical grass top 
of a roof ; cf. kwadandemi. 

bots&ri, kicking of a donkey. 

boya, boiy&> hiding, secret; 
maboiya hiding-place. 

koye, boiye, boiyi, 1- to hide, 
to be hid, B 140 munafadi ba 
mu boiye ba we tell you and 
hide it not ; 2. boiyi or aboiyi 
secretly, B 163 muna da mur- 
na boiyi we rejoice secretly ; 
boiyeyahidden, boyiwa hiding, 
pass, boiyu, boiyo to hide one- 
self, intens. form boboye to 
hide oneself right away. 

bu, yin bu to bleat, bellow. 

buaya, buwaya, n. overpower- 

buaya, buwaya, buaye, to 
exceed, to be too much for, 
ya buayeni he is stronger than 
I, na buayaka I am stronger 
than you, abin ya buayeni it 
is too difficult for me, na 
buaya I could not do it ; cf . 
/ashore, fu. 

bub§, a contracted form of the 
name Abubekr. 

bube, way, road. 

bubuga, an intensive form of 
buga to strike. 

bubukua, a short-legged peli- 
can, a Sokoto word; cf. kwa- 

buda, bude, budi, to open; 
abude openly; budu to be 
open ; budede opened; hainya 
ta budu (or budi) the way is 
open, to open a way through 
the enemy ; ya budem = ya ho- 
resu-y butfar kai the ceremony 
of taking the wedding veil off 
a bride; cf. allah shi buda 
daji a salutation to a hunter ; 
intens. form bubude, ta b. id- 
anu she opened her eyes wide. 
budebaki evening meal during 
a fast. 

buda, the winter season, esp. 
the fog and wind in the win- 
ter season. 

budari, bodari, bauderi, a 
small bad-smelling cat about 
the size of a weazel. 




budi, n. opening. 

budi (ct Ar. rt c j^ iv, to 

excel), wisdom, cleverness. 
bududugi, large species of frog; 
cf. burdudugi, 

budurua, budurwa, pi. bu- 

durai (cf. (?) Ar. jj^, to be- 
come full grown), virgin from 
age of puberty ; C 16 yal bu- 
durua dunia the world is a 
virgin child. 

buduruchi, budurchi, bu- 
duruanchi, virginity. 

bftga, to strike, to beat ; ambuga 
mata mundaye rings were 
fastened on to her. bugi 
before a n. obj. intens. form 
bubbUge. buga buga to strike 
repeatedly, buga kof a to knock 
at a door, buga bindiga or 
simply buga, to fire a gun ; 
buga tambari to beat a royal 
drum ; cf. ya buga gaya he 
called for help, ambuga musu 
tara they were fined, buga 
jangali to assess the cattle 

buga, a small back entrance to 
a fox or rat hole. 

bugaji, the slaves of theTuaregs 
(a race name ?) ; see buzu, 

bugu, to be drunk, past part. 

bugu, bugo, a blow. 

buhu, a large sack (at Zaria) 

made of skin (=birgami at 

buj&ji, a tuft of hair on front 
of a woman's head. 

buje (K.), a kind of trousers. 

bujua, one who carries his own 
load ; see bqjua. 

biika, pi. bukoki, tent, tempo- 
rary shed. 

bukacbi, to be in need of any- 

bukari* (Ar. jl£^), 1. iron 
compass for drawing circles ; 
2. circle. 

buk&ta, pi. bukatochi, bukatu- 
na, 1. business, merchandise, 
need, desire, C 52 bai kala 
domin bukdta he cared not for 
merchandise ; 2. need, M. H. 
p. 228 allah shi babu bukatal 
gero God needs not to eat 
millet, abin bukatar rai the 
necessaries of life. 

buke, helmet of chain mail. 

buki, pride, luxury, power to 
do what you like; da buki 
proud; cf. prov. wiyar buki 
rashin abin buki the difficulty 
of the feast arises from the 
wherewithal to provide the 
feast ; cf. M. H. p. 228 allah 
mu ne abin buki nasa. 

buki, biki (Fulah id.), marriage 
feast; abin buki anything 
good to eat, D 83 yin buki 
to make a feast. 




buku or bukui, folding the 
arms and hunching up the 

bula* (cf. (?) Ar. J*g, to be 

white), a long white robe. 
bulaka*, a hole or crevice in 

the ground. 
bfil&la (EL), pi. biildlai, a whip, 

usually made of hippopotamus 

bulbudi*, crumbs; see bar- 


bulbule, bulbula, to pour out 

buli, an ox with red body and 

white face, 
bulma, the jump or rise of a 

fish or frog. 
biilo, to go round. 
bultu, name of a bird ; see burtu. 
bum, suddenly, lo ! 
buma*, a trap ; see burma. 
bumbi, palm wine ; see bam. 
bumbu, child carried on the 

back (cf. (?) It. bambino). 
bumburua, a grass (eragrostis 

tremula) which is eaten in 

times of famine; cf. burburwa, 
bummi, intoxicating drink, 

palm wine ; cf . bam. 
buna* eel (?). 
bundi (S.), swan. 
bundum bundum, used of 

the splashing of water. 
bunga bunga, a procession; 

see banga banga. 

bungo, cover of a book etc.; 
see bango. 

bungu* an idiot. 

bungula, to pour out. 

buniya, husk enclosing an ear 
of corn. 

bunk&sa, to be great or strong, 
mag ana ta bunkasa the matter 
has become serious. 

bunsftru, pi. bumurai, bunsu- 
raye, he-goat. 

bunsurun daji, a long stringy 
grass from the root of which 
a scent is made. 

buntu, rice husks, used in 
schools for washing ink off 
writing boards. 

bunu, pi. bunaiy grass for thatch- 
ing or for door-covers ; cf . 
prov. magana zarar bunu a 
word spoken is as the pulling 
out of thatch, i.e. it cannot 
be recalled, maibunu a gindi 
a man with a kilt of grass. 

bunli, black-striped cloth from 

bura, penis; cf. azakari. 

burbishi, brim, that which is 

burbura, birbiri, 1. a bee; 
2. a kind of bat. 

burburwa, bumburuwa (era- 
grostis tremula, gramineae), 
a grass eaten in famine times 
and given to horses; see 
bumburua; cf. komaya. 




burbushi, crumbs; see buru- 

burdinuwa, a locust; see 

burdudugi or bubudigi, edible 

frog larger than kwado. 
burdumi, 1. wrapping made 

of grass, used for packing 

natron or salt ; 2. a heap of 

burga, to churn ; see burka. 
burga, to terrify. 
burga, stable ; see barga. 
burgami, a bag for carrying 

cowries ; see birgami. 
burgo, bargo, marrow, 
burgo, covering ; see bergo. 
burgu, a large rat, larger than 

burgu, a coarse grass which 

grows in water and is eaten 

by horses, 
burguje (S.), a small stone. 
burguma, a young goat, 
burima, burma, a large bag 

made of grass, used by women, 
burji, birji, a hillock, 
burka, burga, to churn, to 

twist thread, 
burkuti, to grope about with 

the hand in the dark, 
burma or buma, a trap, a hole 

in the ground used as a trap, 
burma, a sack ; see burima. 
burme, to break into, of a well, 

to fall in. 

burmi, a calabash used as a 

water vessel. 
buro, a dead man's effects (1). 
burtu, a species of ground horn- 
bill (bucorvus pyrrhops) ; cf. 

ba ayi burtu ma biri, i.e. you 

cannot deceive a monkey; 

hunters put the skin of the 

burtu on their head when 

they stalk game, 
burtuli (S.), burtoli, a hedged 

road used by cattle between 

burtumi (S.), a beehive; see 

burtumi, a castrated bull ; see 

buruda, coarse (thread), 
burugu, a kind of cane which 

grows in the water. 

fragments, splinters, used of 

bricks broken up by the sun ; 

cf . M. H. p. 42, or of splintered 

buruji, a lucky day. 
burum, a vague unexplained 

buruntu,loot, the sack of a town, 
burushi (K.), a tuft. 
burzu(vernonia perottetii, com- 

positae), a weed which grows 

in cultivated fields with a 

thistle-like flower, 
busa, pi. bushe bushe, any kind 

of wind instrument. 




bUsa, to blow, to blow a trum- 
pet ; maibusa one who blows 
a trumpet, A 78, rana da 
maibusa ya busa kafo nasa 
on the day when the sounder 
of the trumpet shall sound, 
F 241, busashe blown upon, 

bushe, 1. to blow away, ya 
bushe masa kiyashi he blew 
the ants off him; 2. to be 
dry, the past part, used is 
either busheshe or busashe 
dry, bushe bushe is also some- 
times used in the sense of 

bushia, baushia, a hedgehog. 

bushia or bishiga, helmet, 
protective covering for the 

buss (cf. mod. Ar. wi), suffi- 
cient, enough, onty, less (=ga- 
riri), e.g. metin goma bus8 = 
190, lit. 200 less 10. Used 
as an exclamation = do not 
speak more! 

busu, a mat ; see buzu. 

busu*, an intransitive form of 
busa to blow (a pipe). 

buta, small earthenware bottle. 

buta, to throw, besprinkla 

butulshi* or butulchi (cf. Ar. 

JJajy falsehood, vanity), in- 
gratitude ; E 5 maibutulshi 

ba shi tsira he who is un- 
grateful shall not be saved. 

butulu, ungrateful; cf. pro v. 
butulu kaman chiki an un- 
grateful person is like the 
stomach (which is always 
wanting more); see prec. 

butumi, burtumi, beehive. 
In Hausaland a beehive con- 
sists of a cylinder of matting 
or of plaited bushes placed in 
a tree. 

butuntuna, burtuntuna, 
blighted corn; aeebirtuntuna. 

buwa, a small species of bird. 

buwaya (S.), to overcome, to 
be too much for ; see buaya. 

buza, boza (Ar. 5j^», beer), 
intoxicating drink made with 
salt, honey and water ; D 10 
aber sha gia da bam da buza 
leave off drinking intoxicating 

buz&re, bucking of a donkey, 

buzu, pi. bugaje, slaves of the 
Tuareks ; cf. M. H. p. 224. 

buzu, busu*, a mat made of 
goat's skin with the hair on, 
buzu na salla, prayer mat. 
M. H. p. 120. 

buzu, slave; it is specially ap- 
plied to the offspring of a negro 
father and a Tuarek mother. 

buzurwa, a long-haired species 
of goat. 




buzuzu, a night-flying insect 
which falls into food and 
has a bad smell. 

chaba, to sharpen, da chabi 

chabe*, to speak unintelligibly. 

chabe, to be sharp. 

chabi, slush, mire ; apparently 
the same as tabo. 

chacha, a gambling game 
played with cowries or ground 
nuts, karen chacha dice, dan 
chacha a gambler ; cf . ba- 
turen chacha. 

ch&ch&ka, to prick with a 
spur, to press down ; cf . chdka. 

chada, a small bird like a 

chada*, dearness, for tsada, 

chadu, man chadu Lake 

ch&fa, ch&fe, to take up, catch ; 
ch&fiya catching, taking up. 

chaffa, chappa, homage; yin 
chaffa to become a retainer 
of, also to go into partner- 
ship, kwrdin chappa fees paid 
on establishment of a partner- 

eh age*, to tear; see tsaga. 

chaiaki, a corruption (?) of 
tsaki, chicken. 

chainye, chinye, to eat, to 
devour; see chi. 

ch&ka, to throw (a spear), 
choice to wound, to spear. 

Ch&ka, n. a throw. 

chakagi, a large wading bird 
with white breast. 

chakankami, rings made of 
brass or iron worn on the 
feet by women as orna- 

chakara, an edible root like 
a yam. 

chakasabra, bells for horses; 
see chikasabra. 

ch&ki, a rattle; yin chdki to 

chali, a net used when carry- 
ing grass. 

champi, fear, panic; cham- 
pache to be afraid of. 

chan, chana, 1. yonder, there; 
2. that ; used as a demonstra- 
tive pronoun agreeing with 
preceding noun; a substan- 
tive preceding chan usually 
suffixes n, thus yaron chan 
that boy; cf. H. Gr. p. 12. 
chan spoken on a higher note 
and with a pause after it is 
used to emphasize the pre- 
vious word aka jima chan at 
that place there was a long, 
long delay. A longer form, 
chananka is sometimes used 
in written Hausa. 

chanchanga, a piece of meat 
roasted on a stick. 




chandi (S.), a disease of the 

chanfa, to avoid, be afraid of; 
cf. champi. 

chanwa, green. 

chanwaka, a small bird with 
green feathers. 

chanza, hazel nut, almond (1). 

chappa, to become a retainer ; 
see chaffa, 

ch&ra, crowing; zakara ya yi 
chara the cock crew. 

chari, pure, clean ; see tsari. 

charindu, a species of lizard. 

charki, purity ; see tsarki. 

charki, pi. charkoki a black 
bird with a red beak. 

ch&sa, to thresh (e.g. rice). 

chashe, to make known, de- 

che, to say, to suppose ; mi 
anche (or akache) da shi what 
is its name ? pres. participle 
chewa, q.v., shina chewa he is 
saying, da ka che is used as 
though it were equivalent to 
da kun semi had you known, 
cf. Gr. p. 138, 1. 25; ya ka 
che is also used idiomatically 
of a man who regrets what he 
has done ; cf. Gr. p. 152, 1. 9. 

che, the fern, form of the sub- 
stantive verb; ita che it is 
she, or she is; or, followed 
by masc. = it is, e.g. A 43 ita 
che dalili this is the reason. 

chechewa, a swallow; see 

eheehi, to save, to discharge 
a prisoner ; cheche, bef . pron. 

ehedia, a large tree with milk- 
like sap, a species of ficus; 
cf . gamji. 

ehefani, commission, errand. 

ehefanne*, the ingredients for 

cheffi, to throw up and catch ; 
cf. chdfa. 

chegi, spite ; don chegi for 

cherki, charki, i.e. Senegal 
magpie (cryptorhina afra). 

cheru (S.), chiru, dagger. 

cheta, chetas, to intercede for; 
maichechi an interceder. 

cheto, deliverance; A 4 rana 
da ba cheto a day on which 
there shall be no salva- 

chewa, 1. saying, sometimes 
abbreviated to cha y kowa cha 
ya ke = kowa chewa shi ke ; 

2. that, used after the verb 
Ho say' in written but 
not in colloquial Hausa, and 
only when it is desired to 
lay special emphasis on the 
statement which follows ; 

3. because, cf. also domin- 

chi, frequently used as a suffix 




in forming abstract substan- 
tives, used also to denote 
office or work of person or 
thing, e.g. dabamchi differ- 
ence, diyauchi freedom, tu- 
ranchi that which belongs to 
a foreigner; cf. also mutumchi 
position in life, kauyenchi 
brogue, country dialect; cf. 
similar use of suffix ji in 
modern Arabic, 
chi, to eat, to devour, to de- 
stroy, to gain the advantage 
of or over, to gain jurisdiction 
over; chin riba to make a 
profit on a business trans- 
action, chin kdro to meet un- 
expectedly, chin sarota to 
gain possession of a kingdom, 
chin kura to cheat, chim bay a 
backbiting, chim bashi to owe, 
chin wuta to catch fire, chin 
abduga to pick cotton, chin 
gari to capture or to destroy 
a place, chin kasua to trade 
successfully in the market, 
F 169 masuchin zaka those 
who stole the tithes ; used in 
gambling na chi (or chinta) 
I win ; cf. M.H. p. 172 kadan 
na chika if I win as against 
you ; anachin kasua, or kasua 
ta chi the market is going 
on ; ku chi gaba go in front, 
abinchi anything to eat ; also 
to use, cf . em ba kira mi ya 

chi gawaye if there is no 
smelting how will the char- 
coal be used? cf. wanda ya 
chi zomo ya chi gudu who- 
ever catches a hare has to 
run for it; chi da dakansa 
to earn one's own living; 
followed by prep, ma to 
make up for ba ski chim 
masa } it won't make up for 
it (i.e. the other), chiwo to 
capture and bring back a 
prisoner, chituo gari to send 
an expedition against a place, 
and to bring back its inhabit- 
ants ; machiyi a defendant ; 
chiday chishe to give to eat, 
chishe is used when followed 
by a pronoun, e.g. na chi- 
sheshi I gave him to eat ; cf . 
M. H. p. 202 sarautal allah 
tachishemu; chida kaina sup- 
port myself, chinye or chainye 
to eat up; cf. prov. chiye 
chiye ya Ji chainyewa to eat 
a little at a time is better 
than to eat up all at once, 
babu shi ne chia there is- 
nothing to eat; cf. M. H. 
p. 205 chima feeding, victuals. 

chi* (Kanuri id.), mouth. 

chia, bad luck ; cf. tsia. 

chiako, fowl ; cf . tsako. 

chi&wa, chiy&wa, pi. chiayi y 
grass; chiawa dainyi green 




chiawar tamba, a species of 
grass with black seeds. 

chlbara, tsibara* also chi- 
bira, chibra, chura to roll, to 
roll into the form of a ball ; 
used of rolling mud into balls 
prior to using it to build 

chlbaru, to be rolled together, 
to congeal ; jinina ya chibaru 
sabada dari my blood is con- 
gealed with the cold. 

chibda (Kanuri id.), or daclin 
chibda a sweet smell. 

chlbi (S.), cMbia (K.), pi. 
chibobi, navel. 

ehibia* arrow ; see kibia. 

chlbiri, chlbari, tsibiri* any- 
thing round, an island, a pill, 
a small piece of anything, 
e.g. of sugar; chibirin kasa 
a round piece of mud. 

chibirikinkini, chibirkin- 
kine, small reddish berries 
growing on a shrub found in 
sandy places. It is used by 
Hausas in N. Africa to de- 
note grapes. These are un- 
known in Hausaland; cf. 
M. H. p. 63. The word is 
a corruption of chibiri kan- 
kani little balls. 

chichSro, a speckled black and 
white horse ; adj. speckled. 

chichifi, flea; cf. koma. 

chiohlka, pride, F 32 kana 

R. H. D. 

chichika girma ya hauka thou 
swellest with pride, thou fool ; 
cf . chika. 

chichira, to tear up ; see chira. 

chiehiya, tsaitsewa, tset- 
sewa, house swallow. 

cMda, distant rolling thunder. 

ehlda, to give to eat ; see chi. 

chidacheto, to bribe, e.g. a 

chigia, search ; yin chigia, or 
bada chigia to make diligent 
search for. 

chigita, to search for. 

chi-goro* (lit. kola eater), a 
small brown bird like a finch 
with red feathers round base 
of beak, which are thought 
to resemble the stained mouth 
of a man who has been eating 
kola nuts. 

chij i, chij e, to bite, chije baki to 
bite one's lips : ya yi havshi 
har ya chije bakinsa he bit 
his lips with spite ; cf. chizo. 
machiji snake, lit. the biter. 

chlka, to fill, to be filled, to 
be complete, in moral sense 
to be perfect ; ya chika it is 
full, or it is completed, chika, 
cf. chika alkawali to fulfil a 
promise, chika da to catch 
up, ku chika hurry on and 
catch up, abin nan ya chika 
mani child this exhausts my 
patience, ya chika mutum it 





is to a man's credit, chika ko 
mara even or odd (a gambling 
game), maifada da chikawa a 
terrific fighter, chikawa part, 
filling, completion, chikake, 
chikakia, pi. chikaku, filled, 
full, complete, D 52 kuna 
salla chlkaka kuna azumi 
chlkaka say your prayers in 
full, fulfil the fast; chika 
bindiga to load a gun; achike 
(q.v.) full ; cf. chiko, chichika. 

chikalkora, the pulley of the 
loom on which the peddles 
work, usually made of the 
hard shell of the dum palm. 

chikanta* chikanche*, to 
make pregnant. 

chikasabra, chikasora, the 
small bells placed on horses' 
heads, rattling of a bridle. 

chiki, 1. a breadth between 
two seams of cloth; 2. the 
embroidered strips on tur- 

chiki, the inside, the belly; da 
chiki pregnant, rufa chiki to 
lie at full length, face down- 
wards, ya-chiki a short shirt, 
chiki daia an expression used 
of brothers or sisters, chil- 
dren of the same mother, 
also used to denote kindness, 

chlkin or d&ga chlkin, within, 
into; chikin gida at home, 

chikinsa may either be 'in- 
side it' or 'its inside. ' 

chikirikida, a fowl plucked 
for cooking. 

chiko, complement, kawo chik- 
onm fill them up : also change 
of money. 

chiko wa, chichikdwa, a flood. 

chili, a small present, e.g. a 
sip or a whiff of a pipe : mai- 
chili or masha chili a cadger. 

chilikowa, a species of horn- 
bill which eats locusts (Lo- 
phocerus) : it is probably 
derived from prec. 

chim, a little, e.g. rana ta 
fita chim sunrise. 

chima, chimaka, food, vic- 
tuals ; see chi. 

chim-baya, lit. to backbite, 
to slander, to whisper; cf. 
chi and baya. 

■chimi* (cf. Ar. ^3, to put 
right), skill, contrivance, 
D 49 babu chimi ba dabara 
no skill nor craft. 

chimma, chimayi, to go with, 
to accompany, overtake. 

chin&ka, chirnaka, very small, 
black, stinging ants. 

chinchia*, a broom ; see tein- 

chinchinta, worthiness, ban 
chinchinta en yi haka I am 
not worthy to do this; yin 




chinchinta or chenchenta to 

chinewa, to spread false news 
= kormoto. 

chingara, to skip words in 
reading (lit. to eat like ants), 
i.e. leaving spaces here and 
there untouched, A 73 kada 
ka ratsa chikinta kai mata 
chingara do not pass over 
its contents, or miss a word 
in saying it (the Koran). 

chingi, to eat much, to devour. 

chinia, chinya, pi. chinioyi, 
thigh, leg; cf. Gr. p. 138, 
1. 35 ; ya gudano rha&uchinya 
he fled from a bare-legged 
people. The Fulahs did not 
wear trousers : cf . Fr. ' sans 

chini-da-zugu, a shrub used 
as a hedge ; see bini da zugu. 

Chiniki (cf. Fulah yaunoki), 
trade, business, barter; yin 
chiniki to do business, to 
haggle over the price of 
anything; chinikin gida an 
hereditary profession, chini- 
kin dunia the way of the 
world ; maichinika a trader. 

chinkai*, edge of a mat bor- 
dered with cotton or fibre 
thread ; cf. madaji. 
chinkaia, to look at ; see trin- 

chinkai, tin (Ar. >*JL3). 

chinoya (weight lifter), a small 
blue kingfisher with red beak 

chinta, in casting lots = my 
win; cf. M. H. p. 232 chin- 
tansa, i.e. his lot, or fortune. 

chintua, a find ; see tsintua. 

chinye, chainye, to eat up, 
chinye chinye, gluttony; see 

chira, c. hanu to raise the hand; 
c. tuta bisa to hoist a flag. 

chira, chire, to pluck, e.g. 
fruits from trees, to pull out 
by the root, to lif t up ; chi~ 
chira to tear up. 

chira, to arise ; see tsira. 

chira, to be saved ; see tsira. 

chirara, nakedness; see tsirara. 

chiraro, deliverance; see tei~ 

chira wa, step, yin chirawa to 

chlri, flight, yin chiri to flee. 

chiriri, a gum-bearing tree or 

chirkia, a bow-string; see 

chirnaka, ants ; see chinaka. 

chiroma, title given to a son 
of a king, sometimes applied 
to the heir to the throne. 
The word is probably bor- 
rowed from the Bornuese 
language, in which the syl- 
lable ma when used as a 





suffix corresponds to the same 
syllable in Hausa used as a 
prefix ; cf . gcdadima. 

chiru, a dagger ; see cheru. 

chisal, a disease in the mouth ; 
see chizal. 

chisga, chizga, to gnaw. 

chishe, chisa-da, chiyarda, 
to feed; see chi. 

chitft, small red pepper; cf. 

chlta, the day following goto, 
which = the day after the day 
after to-morrow, i.e. the fourth 

chitafo, a corruption of chiton 
afo ( Aio, the name of a pagan 
district), ginger. 

chiuta, n. sickness, disease, evil ; 
chiutan birni = syphilis. 

chiutu, to become ill; B 143 
kowa shiga chiki nata ya 
chiutu whoever enters it be- 
comes diseased. 

chiwa, see chewa. 

chiwo (Landolphia florida, 
apocynaceae), a tall woody 
climber with white fragrant 
flowers and orange-coloured 
edible fruit; see dankon chiwo. 

chiwo, sickness, illness, jin 
chiwo or yin chiwo to be ill, 
da chiwo ill, or to be ill ; it is 
not considered polite to use 
the word chiwo of a friend or 
person of importance. Thus 

a Hausa would say abokina 
bashi da lafia. chiwon sainyi, 
gonorrhoea, nakwanta chiwo 
I was laid up sick, chiwon kai 
headache, chiwo na sabon 
dawa a fever which breaks 
out when the guinea-corn 
(dawa) is ripe; to prevent 
being attacked by it, the 
Hausas give presents of dawa 
to the poor. 

chiwo, to capture and bring 
back; see chi 

chiwuki, a noise made by the 
mud-fish (gaiwa). 

chiwurwuta, sickness. 

chiwuta, see chiuta. 

chiy&wa, grass ; see chidwa. 

chiy&ya, food in common. 

chlza, a small animal about 
the size of a cat. 

chizaki (lit. lion-killer), a tree 
with long thorns, white flowers 
and edible leaves. 

chizal, chisal, a disease of 
the gums or lips, a disease of 
the mouth in cattle. 

chizara, a disease of the eyes. 

chizga, chisga, to gnaw. 

chizo, n. a bite ; yin chizo to 

chizo, chiza, with pron. obj. 
chije, frequentative form 
chichije, to bite. 

chocha, worm, D 27 %hina bir- 
kinia kamanda chocha he rolls 




like a worm, another form of 

cliokali, tsokali, a wooden 

choro, another form of teoro, 
q.v. ; the Fulahs who speak 
Hausa generally say choro 
instead of teoro. 

chuchi, chuche, to injure, 
deceive, chucheni inchucheka 
= deceive me I willdeceive you. 

chuda, chude, to mix milk 
with anything, to mix to- 
gether, to rub, scrape ; chuda 
yimbu to mix mud for build- 
ing purposes ; chudawa mix- 


chudanya, to rub smooth, 

chude, to rule over. 

chukumara, chuku, cheese. 

chukurufa, a bag used for 
cariying salt (probably bor- 
rowed from the Tuareg 

chukwichuki, rags. 

chuna, 1. to invite another to 
share one's food; 2. to in- 
stigate, urge on. 

chuna*, pi. chunoni*, gusset, 
M. H. p. 206 ; see teuma. 

chura, to take a handful of 
anything, to roll into a ball ; 
cf . chibara. 

churi, a handful of mud, flour, 
etc., squeezed out. 

chusa, chushe, to press down, 
squeeze together. 

Chushe, pi. chusoshi, 1. a large 
amount collected together, 
e.g. men, grain, etc.; 2. a 
medicine which is poured into 
horses' mouths. 

chuta, sickness ; see chiuta. 

chuta, to cause distress to. 

chuya*, to be obstinate; cf. 
D 52 kada ku chuya kuna 
takama be not stubborn nor 
walk proudly. 

d. There are two distinct d 
sounds in Hausa. In most 
words d is pronounced as in 
English (with inspiration of 
breath), but in many cases 
the d is sounded with the 
expiration of the breath and 
in its pronunciation the 
tongue touches the edge of 
the upper teeth, a sort of dt 
sound being produced some- 
what similar to a French or 
German t; cf. da son, daia 
one, etc. etc. This d is 
generally written J» by Hausa 
scribes. Where it occurs in 
this dictionary it is dis- 
tinguished as d. 

da, and, if, da... da both . . .and. 

da, with, used to denote the 
instrument; ya yenki da 
wuka he cut with a knife: 
used with verbs of coming 




and going to express the act 
of taking or bringing, ya tafi 
da shi he took it away, ya zo 
da shi he brought it here. 
ya che da shi he spoke with 
(or to) him. It is combined 
with substantives to form 
adjectives, e.g. da rai alive, 
da anfani useful ; when pre- 
ceded by tare= together with; 
da safe in the morning, da 
wuri early, da rua in the 
rain, da-yawa much, dadadi 
sweetly, dakarifi powerfully. 
da sometimes denotes from, 
cf. allah ya tsare gatari da 
noma sai fatainya God keep 
the axe from farm work, only 
the hoe is needed; cf. ena 
shi ne da wanan where is 
he with reference to this? 

da, when, is used in the same 
way as saanda or yanda. 

da or -nda is used like wanda 
or wadanda ; A 31 mata da 
ke tafia a woman who goes, 
abinda that which. 

da, to have, to possess. In an 
expression such as suna da 
yunwa they are hungry, da 
may be either a prep, or verb; 
ina da shi or simply da shi 
there is, there are, ina da su 
dayawa there are many. 

da or daa or lokachin da, 
of old, in olden time. 

da (connective form = dan), pi. 
yaya or ya, 1, son; dan 
amina Mohammed, dan 
uwana (lit. child of my 
mother) is used for brother 
or as a term of endearment ; 
2. da when followed by the 
name of a place means a 
native of that place, e.g. dan 
zozo a native of Zozo; 3. it 
is used to suggest character 
or occupation, e.g. dan daki 
a servant, dan kasua a sales- 
man, danmakaranta a scholar, 
dan yaki a soldier, dan gari 
a citizen; 4. it forms the 
diminutive of many nouns, 
e.g. dan gatari a small hat- 
chet ; 5. it denotes the young 
of animals, e.g. clan tumkia 
lamb, dan zaki a young lion, 
yon itache fruit; 6. free as 
opposed to a slave ; ni da ne 
ba bawa I am free, not a 
slave, cf. diya; dan alaro a 
carrier, dan garumfa one 
who carries his own load ; 
dan rua a little stream, dan 
rua kankani a little water, 
yan chiki entrails, dan kasa 
foot soldier, dan sanda a 
policeman, dan banza worth- 
less, da sometimes = mai ; 
cf. tuji dan baban sheka O 
bustard with big nest, yin 
da to beget. 




da, used in comparisons, e.g. 
ya Jlsona dakai he likes me 
more than you, ba ya sonka 
da riga he does not like you 
well enough to give you a 
coat, gwoma yau dajia better 
to-day than yesterday. 

da, if; da na yi wonan gara 
en mutu rather than I do 
this it would be better to 
die, da na sani da ban yi 
shi ba had I known I would 
not have done it, da ya zo 
nanjia da na tashi gobe had 
he come yesterday I should 
have gone to-morrow ; cf . M. 
H. p. 168 da mun sani da ya 
kirayemu da mun tafii had 
we known when he called us 
we would have gone ; cf . seq. 

da is used to express unfulfilled 
intention, e.g. da zani tafia 
I intended to go, cf. Gr. 
pp. 34, 56 ; da na sani da 
ba ni jefata da gang an had 
I known I would not have 
thrown her down on purpose; 
M. H. p. 184. 

daa (Ar.), obedience; ba shi da 
• " daa he is disobedient. 

dab da, daf da, close to, 
touching; cf. dabara. 

d&ba, d&bo, pi. dabuna, dabobi 

(probably from Ar. <L}\y an 
animal that crawls or moves 
slowly), Fulah id.; beast, 

creature; applied to horses, 
cattle, etc. 

dabam, daban, dabam da- 
bam, different, apart from ; 
yin dabam to differentiate ; 
cf. bam bam. 

dabamchi, dabanchi, differ- 

d&bar, yin ddbar to blow 

d&bara, alongside ; see daura. 

dabara, dub&ra, dib&ra (Ar. 

3)b^), contrivance, skill, coun- 
sel, good sense; dabara ta hare 
I am at my wits' end ; sake 
dabara walk warily; yin da- 
bara to advise; damra dabara 
to plot together. 

d&be, dSbe, to stamp down, 
e.g. to beat a floor, so as to 
form a sort of concrete by 
beating in pebbles, ddbe ddbe 
stamping down. 

dabebeyi, dabaibayi, a rope 
to hobble the front feet of a 

dabgi, a species of ant-eater ; 
see dapgi. 

d&bi, pi. dabuna, an open shed. 

dabia* (Ar.), character; see 

dablno (Fulah id.), date; ita- 
chen dabino or dabino date 

d&bori, d&boli, dftburi, palate, 
lips, e.g. of cows. 




dabra da, close to ; see ddbara. 

dabu, dabo, sorcery, sleight of 
hand, M. H. p. 222 ; cf. tetibu. 

dachi, bitterness ; see doachi. 

d&da, to sharpen a knife, sword, 
etc. by rubbing a stone on 
the steel. 

d&da, dSdi, to increase, to go 
on doing anything, to aug- 
ment, to surpass, to exceed ; 
C 49 muna ddda godia we 
continue giving thanks, ddda 
mani kurdi give me more 
money, wcmcm ya didi won- 
chan this is better than that, 
allah shi d$di da rainka may 
God prolongyourlife,d&fot0a, 
dddewa lasting, dddua in- 
crease, growth of a plant. 

d&da (S.), again, used in histori- 
cal narrative for by and by, 
later on, so then; also for 

dadade, from a long time. 

dadafa, used in Sokoto for 
daidai correct, etc. 

dadaga, to grind to powder; 
see dadaka. 

dadai, ever, or used with nega- 
tive verb, never until now; 
dadai ban gani ba I never 
saw it; possibly connected 
with daia one. 

dadaidai, a plural form of 
dadi ; cf. B 49 muji dadaidai 
we feel glad. 

dadaka, intensive form of 
ddka, q.v. 

dad&ra, to pay attention to, 
to take heed. 

d&dara, to rub the back of a 
knife backwards and for- 

daddowa, daddawa, also 
cakes made from beans of 
dorowa tree. 

d&de, dSde, to wait, linger; 
ddde muna isofa wait till 
we grow old, mu zamna nan 
ya d$de we stopped here a 
long time; kaka dedewanka 
lea zaka kare how long will 
it be before you finish ? mun 
ddde we have waited ; dadin 
guehi or dadun gushi a 
hurried pace. ' 

d&dewa, lasting ; see ddda. 

dadi, pi. dadaidai, sweetness, 
happiness, comfort ; cf. A 12 
zaka sha dadi nata thou shalt 
taste of its sweetness, dadin 
zuchia happiness, jin dadi 
to feel happy, sa dadi to 
please, maidadi pleasant, da 
dadi sweet, nice, agreeable. 

d&di, sharpening ; yin dadi to 
sharpen; cf. ddda. 

dadoia*, a plant resembling 
mint ; cf. daidoiya. 

dadowa, cakes made from the 
dorowa tree ; see dodowa. 

d&dua, increase ; see ddda. 




dadume, to seize in the arms, 
daf, up; used of climbing, ya 

hawa itache daf 
daf da, or daf daf, close to; 

cf. ddbara. 
dafa, to support oneself with 

the palm of the hand in 

raising oneself up. 

d&fa, d&fe (Ar. wJb), to cook, 
boil, maddfa, ivurin ddfa, 
wurin ddfua a place for cook- 
ing, maiddfi a cook, ddfdfe 
cooked, ddfafe da rua boiled. 

d&f&fi, blue; possibly from 
ddfa to cook, i.e. prepared 
in a dye pit; see ddfua. 

daf&ra (vitis sp.), a woody 
climber, used in making medi- 
cines; from the root-bark is 
obtained a viscid solution 
which is used in making 
cement : its root is also 
beaten up with a pestle and 
put in milk to keep it good, 
and also to thicken it and 
increase its bulk for cheating 

daf&ri, at first, before, informer 
times ; cf . nafari and fari. 

d&fau, cooked flesh ready for 

d&fe, to stick to, to cleave to. 

daferko, at first. 

d&fi, poison ; cf. defi. 

d&fua, cooking ; see ddfa. 

d&fua, dark blue ; cf . ddfnfi. 

d&ga, battle-field, line of battle : 
ja daga to form line of battle ; 
kayan daga instruments of 

d&ga, an armlet or wristlet 
made of leather and wood. 

d&ga, from, from within, out 
of, at; ddga enna whence, 
daga enna ka fito whence 
did you come? ddga chan 
thence, there, yonder, ddga 
nan here, from here, ddga 
chiki in, from within, ddga 
garem from them, ddga nesa 
from afar; often used to intro- 
duce a statement, ddga nan 
well then. 

d&ga, to hold up at arm's 
length, to raise up. 

dagachi, pi. dagatai, a village 

d&gagaji, to be very tired. 

dagangan, on purpose ; see 

d&ge, a small animal. 

dagi, a claw, paw. 

d&gi, a kind of straight pick, 
a crowbar. 

dagogo (Kats.), weak. 

d&gu (K.), meat. 

dagume, to seize a person by 
the collar. 

dagumi, a collar made of cloth 
used in war or hunting as a 
protection for the back of the 
neck, a dog collar. 




dagura, nerves, veins, na da- 
gura emaciated. 

daguya, to eat. 

daguyau (K.), hyena. 

dagwolo, dagalo, old, used- 
up indigo. 

dahir, of necessity ; cf. daMr. 

dai (frequently pronounced de, 
i.e. like the Eng. day), again, 
indeed ; usually found in com- 
pounds, e.g. saidai, hardai, 


daia, thrust, blow. 

daia, daya, one ; daia daia one 
at a time, one here one there, 
daianku one of you, daiana 
me alone, daiansu they alone, 
or, one of them, ku berni ni 
daiana leave me alone, bershi 
daiansa leave him alone; 
daia is often used as an in- 
definite article, wuri daia to- 
gether, ko daia (in negative 
sentence) not even one, duka 
daia ne they are all alike, 
wanan daia kaman wonchan 
this is the same as that. 

daiawa, much ; see dayawa. 

daibo, to take out ; see debo. 

daidai, a contracted form of 
daia daia one at a time. 

• a 

daidai, dede, alike, correct, 
just, suitable ; ya yi daidai 
it is correct (an expression 
used in counting money), na 
tsaya daidai I stand upright ; 

sometimes used as a prepo- 
sition, lada d, aikinsa pay 
equivalent to his work, itache 
d. bakin kofa a piece of wood 
of the same size as the 

daidaiche, to be similar to; 
cf . A 9 suka daidaiche chikin 
alkafirai they are alike among 
the heathen. 

daidaita, to make things equal 
or parallel, to make like, to 
direct aright, to be equal. 

daideya, a harmless centipede 
= kadandunia. 

daidoiya (of dan doiya), a 
fragrant herb, ocimum Ameri- 

daii or dayi, a small prickly 
herb with bitter taste eaten 

by camels (= Ar. j\ja). 

daiki, room ; see daki. 

daimu* for ever, D 17; cf. 
dawama and duma. 

daina, dena, to cease, to desist 

dainya (Spondias lutea, Ana- 
cardiaceae), a tree with yellow 
plum-like fruit, very common 
in the northern provinces. 

dainye, dainyi, pi. dainyoyi, 
dainyu, fresh, green, unripe, 
raw ; dainyen itache leaves, 
nama dainye uncooked flesh, 
dainyan kasko an unbaked 
pot. dainyan chiawa a harm- 




less green snake = damatsiri, 
q.v. (cf. (?) Ar. J>#). 

daje, to hem round, make a 

border round, 
daje, fern, dajia, pi. dazodi, 

a smart fellow, 
daji, thick bush, uncultivated 

forest land (cf. jeji scrub, or 

farm bush). 
d&ka (Ar. id.), to beat, pound, 

thresh or grind corn. 
d&ka, sometimes used in Kano 

for ddga from. 
daka, see daki. 
dakachi, n. waiting; cf. dakata. 

dakali (cf. Ar. l&j, thin clay), 
a mud bed built in a house, 
a seat outside a house. 

dak&ra, dakftre, pi. dakaru, 
a foot soldier belonging to a 
king's body-guard, also, gene- 
rally, a man on foot; cf. 
(?) dogari. 

dakata or dakanta, to wait 
for ; na dakata maku I waited 
for you ; cf. dakachi. 

daket (&), dakir (K.), with 
difficulty, with might and 
main; cf. na gudu dakir. 

d&ki, daiki, pi. dakuna, a room 
in a house (gida), but often 
used for the house itself, 
especially if it consists of 
but one room; A 13 dunia 
nan kamal daki ta ke this 

world is like a room, madaM 
chamberlain, F 227, dakin 
dufu prison; another form 
daka is used as a subs, also 


as a verbal form, e.g. yana 
daka he is in the house. 

dakile (Ar. J**), to prevent, 
to refuse, to forbid, to sulk, 
refuse to answer; B 130 ka 
dakile shiru ba ka amsa ba 
dost thou silently refuse and 
givest no answer] ido ya 
deda dakUewa his eye was 
becoming more and more 

dakir, with difficulty; see daket. 

d&ko, n. waiting ; yin dako to 

dakokoi (? f r. da akoi), abund- 
ance of anything, e.g. food, or 
cowries ; = da shi or akoishi, 
i.e. there is plenty. 

dakolua, dakolwa, dokolua, 
a hen which is laying eggs; 
the word is also applied to 
a woman. 

daku (S.), an army. 

dakua, a gesture ; see amhola. 

dakua, a kind of sweetmeat 
made from the fruit of aya, 

dakulum, always ; cf. kulum. 

dakiisa, bluntness ; yin dakma 
to be blunt. 

dakushe, to be blunt. 

d&kwora, dakwara, the name 




of a species of acacia tree 

from which a gum is obtained, 
dala, a yellow clay made into 

a dye for women's faces, 
dala, the name of a rocky hill 

inside Kano. 
dala, dSlla, a word for dogs 

used in poetry ; cf. Gr. p. 136. 
dalailu* a little book of prayers, 
dalaje, the name of a dance, 
dalashe, dallashe, d&lishi, 

daldishi, to be blunt, 
daldal, pulse. 

dale* = yin dale, to settle at. 
dalele, spittle, M. H. p. 2. 

dalili (Ar. J*b), cause, origin, 

proof, sign, reason ; the facts 
of the case, the truth of the 
matter; cf. mekia ba M, saukan 
banza sai maidalUi O eagle 
you do not settle on the 
ground without a reason ; 
F 19 dalili ko akan maitam- 
bayawa this is the reason, if 
anyone asks. 

dalma, delma, derma, n. lead. 

dalulu or danlulu, a small 
bottle; cf. lulu. 

dama (in Kanuri dama = re- 
covery, etc.), improvement, 
opportunity; jin dama to 
feel better, to improve in 
health, da dama a little more, 
da dama dama moderately, 
sai na ga dama unless I wish, 
ya yi dama it were better, ba 

ya samu dama ba he had not 
the opportunity, ba ni da 
dama I have not time to, 
I do not wish to, dama ban 
yi haka ba would I had not 
done this; cf, gari ba da 
girima amma shina da dama 
the town was not big but 
was of moderate size, samun 
dama the ability to do what 
one likes. 

dama, right-hand, right. 

d&ma, to confuse ; see dame. 

dama, to mix, stir as mortar. 

damachiri, damatsiri, a small 

damafif Ito, a wasp. 

damagi, a medicinal herb. 

damai, confusedly ; B 142 ka 
kafia damai maiafkawa thou 
slippest confusedly and art 
about to fall. 

dam ami a, what is mixed up 
together, mortar; see dama. 

damana, damuna, the wet 
season which lasts about 
three months ; yin damana 
to pass the wet season. 

damank&da, a small plant used 
as a medicine for guinea worm. 

damara, 'girdle; yin damara 
to gird oneself; cf. damre. 

damarichlki, girdle ; cf . damre 
and chiki. 

damasa*, confusion, D 9. 

damasara, maize; see masara. 




damatsiri, snake; see dama- 

damba or tsamba, q.v., float- 
ing grass. 

dambara, to put blue stain on 
the face, also to paint any- 
thing. An intens. form dan- 
dambara also occurs. 

dambaria, mouse ((?) child of 
the hole ; cf . baria). Another 
form is dambera ; cf . bera. 

dambe, 1. to give a blow, to 
box; 2. a blow; dan dambe 
a boxer. 

dambiri, a small monkey. 

dambu*, a dish made of gari 
(flour) boiled in a calabash. 

dame, dami, dSmi, pi. dd- 
muna, bundle, bunch, sheaf; 
cf. M. H. p. 204 hachi dami 
dari uku 300 bundles of corn. 

dame, dama, to confuse, make 
giddy, to perplex, annoy, 
stagger ; cf . prov. kowa yayi 
karia ta dameshi whoever 


tells a lie it will confound 
him. dame also means to 
tease, worry; cf. ba na da- 
mua I am not to be annoyed ; 
ya chika dama mutane he 
worried people beyond en- 
durance ; ya damesu it as- 
tonished them ; damn to be 
perplexed; damua astonish- 
ment, jin damua to be as- 

damfare, to press ; see danfare. 

damichi, damshi, damtse, 
pi. damasa (Fulah damche) y 
the lower part of the arm 
from the wrist to the elbow, 
the right arm ; F 242 shina 
damshi muhammad he shall 
be at the right hand of 

damlsa, pi. damlsai, m. leopard ; 
damisan dawaki horse fly. 

damka, damke, to hold in the 
hand, take a handful : also 
to clasp or grip with the 
hand; cf. dunko. 

damka, handful. 

dammuna* for dumia, goose; 
cf. M. H. p. 197. 

damo, lizard ; see damn. 

dampara, to plaster, daub, 
stain the face ; cf. dambara, 

damra, damre, daure, or 
darmi* D 13," to bind, 
tie, gird, put under a spell; 
F 233 adamra siliyu dama 
hauni chains shall be bound 
on their right and left hands; 
damrare, pL damraru, bound, 
girded ; damre fuska to frown. 
akadamre bound, has a pi. 
akadamarmare ; cf. D 13 
akandarmishi baibai he shall 
be bound with his hands be- 
hind him, damre magana to 
concoct a story, to bear false 
witness, ya daure mani ma- 




gana he brought a false 
accusation against me, dam- 
raren magana (or daukekian 
magana) yaji daia da mashi 
chiwo a libel hurts more than 
a spear thrust. 

damren-or dauren-guga, ceil- 
ing, arched roof, the name is 
derived from similarity in 
shape to handle of a bucket ; 
an oblong roof = bakan gizo. 
maidaurin jiki the accoutred 
man, maidaurin aniya he 
who has made up his mind. 

damshi, arm ; see damichi. 

damshi, danshi or denshi, 

damtse, arm ; see damichi. 

damu, to be confused ; see dame. 

damu, damo, a lizard (monitor, 
varanus exanthematicus). 

damua, astonishment ; see da- 

damuna, sheaves ; cf . dame. 

dan, son of ; see da. 

d&na, to pull, to lay an arrow 
to a bow ; see dene. 

danbe, to box ; see dambe. 

dan-bida, a pin for pressing 
out cotton seeds ; cf . bida. 

danbubu, calf of the leg. 

danda, a horse with white fore- 
head and white forelegs ; mu- 
tum ya yi danda the man be- 
comes white, i.e. with disease. 
danda saki, a roan horse. 

dandaka or dendaki, an in- 
tensive form of ddka to strike; 
D 15 azaba anadandakasa Tea- 
man kilago his pain is as 
though he were a skin that 
is beaten ; to pound or break 
up again ; to castrate. 

dandali (Kanuri id.), court, 
yard, or entrance-room of a 
house, esp. of a king's house. 

dandambara, to stain; see 

dand&na, n. taste. 

dand&na, dand&ni, to taste, 
test, examine ; madanddni 

dand&na, a plant used as a 
medicine by women. 

dan-doiya, a sweet smelling 
plant with a red flower. 

d&ne, to press down. 

danf&mi, fence, hedge. 

danfara, danfare, to press 
down, press together, squeeze, 
collect people in one place. 

danfarka, child of a harlot. 

danga, pi. dangogi (Kanuri id.), 
a fence round a garden, a 

danga, relation ; see dengi. 

dang&b a, breast-band for horses 
made of cloth or wool. 

dangana, 1. to lean upon, to 
recline, 2. to rely on, 3. to be 
patient, 4. to tack on to, to 




dangana, patience, trast,pledge. 

dangana, children whose pa- 
rents having died soon after 
their birth have been en- 
trusted to a stranger to bring 

dangarafai (S.), wooden clogs. 

dangarama, threshold or raised 
ridge in front of a door ; cf . 

clangari, citizen. 

dangi, a shield wade with 
buffalo hide. 

dangira, head of the ramma 
plant, said to cause irritation 
when handled. 

dangole, dungole, spot. 

dan-gorumfa (lit. son of a hat), 
a carrier who carries a load 
belonging to himself as con- 
trasted with dan-alaro a 
hired carrier. 

dangwale, a hobbling rope. 

dangware, a lucky person = 


d&ni, bite, e.g. of a scorpion. 

dani, the span measured by 
the thumb and first finger, 
the comb of a duck. 

dan-jig&wa, a species of guinea- 

danka, cf. damka; ya danka 
mini ranche he handed me 
a loan. 

dankadafi, louse. 

dank&li (convolvulus batatas), 

sweet potato, very common 
throughout the whole of 
Hausaland and in some dis- 
tricts it forms the only avail- 
able food; its shape resembles 
that of a thick parsnip, in 
taste it is sweeter than either 
parsnip or yam ; for descrip- 
tion and use of cf. 'Hausa- 
land/ p. 155. 
dankam*, for ever; B 73 da- 
dai anazama dunia dankam 


will the world indeed last for 

dankam, pond, pool. 

dank&ra, to press, to compress, 

dan-katanga, a kind of cloth. 

danki*, a table on which wed- 
ding presents are spread out. 

danki, a handful ; cf . damka. 

danko, dunko, gutta-percha; 
dankon chiwo vine rubber: 
dankon zumua beeswax ; dan- 
kon kedainya oil from the 
shea-butter tree. 

dankosa, dankoshe, to strike 
with the fist. 

dan-magurji, snake; see ma* 

dan-r&guwa, a red bird (a 
species of plover ?) ; see r&go. 

danshi, moisture ; see damshi. 

danuba, the strips of skin at 
the root of the nail, so called 
because the plucking of the 




skin from the nail causes pain 
as would the forcible separa- 
tion of son and father. 

danye, fresh ; see dainye. 

cjanzumu, the son of a friend 
or relation ; see zumu. 

dao, porridge ; see dawo. 

dapgi, dabgi, or daugi, a 
species of ant-eater. 

d&ra, to laugh, to ridicule ; ina 
jin teoro kada sudarani I fear 
lest they should laugh at me ; 
cf . daria. 

d&ra (S.), to excel, exceed. 

d&ra, dSra, a game played with 
cowrie shells, which are 
placed in little holes in the 
ground, or are arranged on a 
board marked with squares. 
It is considered a disreputable 
game, though not so closely 
connected with gambling as 
chacha ; F 1 1, E 16 ku ber na 
dara da tealumshi musulmi 
cease from playing dara and 
from deceit, O Mussulmans. 

daraja, darajia (Ar. £*.jS), 
glory, honour, gorgeous dress; 
A 47 ya ba iyaye daraja he 
showed honour to his parents, 
also value, worth, enda aha- 
son darajar goro where kolas 
are estimated at their proper 

darambua, an arm- wrap made 
of grass ; see dirumbua. 

darap, above ; see daf. 

darara, used in phrase dariar 
darara to laugh at laughter. 

darazau, a woman's apron. 

d&re, to crack or open up, used 
of a wall. 

dargaza, the name of a tree, 
from its branches walking- 
sticks are made. 

dari, a hundred. 

d&ri (cf. (?) Ar. ji, to rain 
copiously), cold ; ya yi dari 
it is cold, dari ya kamani I 
have caught cold, na ji dari 
I feel cold. 

d&ri, dSri, Korrigan or Senegal 
hartebeest (damaliscus Sene- 
gal ensis) ; for list of antelopes 
found in Hausaland, cf. under 


daria, dariya (cf. (?) Ar. |p, 

to treat with contempt), 

laughter, smile ; yin daria to 

laugh, ba (or bada) daria to 

cause laughter; ya bashi daria 

he turned him into ridicule. 

d&rimi, a court official atKano, 
Bauchi, etc. 

dariwoye, darw&ya, to rinse 
with water, to clean. 

darje, derje, to rub smooth, 

darmi, to bind ; see damre. 

darni (cf. (?) Ar. &*/*> dr y 
branches), fence, post 




d&ro, d&ru, a metal basin. 

darsa, to leak, yin darshi to 

darso, d&so, a drop; dason 
jini, a drop of blood; cf. 
M. H. p. 76. 

darwaya, n. rinsing out. 

darza, to twist thread. 

dasa*, a bottle, = tasa, q.v. 

dasa, dashi, desa, dashe, to 
plant out, dashe the plant- 
ing out of corn, da&a&he a 
cutting, dashin yar-rani vac- 

dasashe, to be blunt; cf. da- 

d&sashi (K.), dasori (S. ), gums; 
maidasashi a person who has 
no teeth. 

dashi, a tree, the bristles of 
which are used for rubbing 
the teeth with ; the tree has 
a milky sap. 

dask&ra (of milk), to curdle. 

dask&re, to cause to curdle. 

dasori, gums ; see dasashi. 

dasusu, a horse disease which 
causes the hair to fall off. 

datana, gall, gall bladder. 

datijo, a person of importance; 

see dotijo. 
datsa, a disease of the mouth. 
datsa, to cut in pieces; see 

datse, to hold up water by 
means of a breakwater. 

B. H. D. 

datsi, a grass used in making 

dau, a contracted form of dauka, 


dauda (cf. Ar. >l>, to be mag- 
goty), dirt, filth, da dauda 
dirty, yin dauda to make 
dirty ; daudan kune the wax 
in the ear. 

daudanbayi, tops or bristles 
.of a grass, which have short 
spikes and are very adhesive. 

daudau, a grass found near 
water and used in thatching. 

daudawa, a kind of pepper, 
M." H. p. 123. 

daudu, dauda (Nupe* id.), a 
title of respect given to a 
ruler ; in Kano it is given to 
the heir to the throne; in 
Zaria to the galadima. 

daugi or dubgi, ant-eater ; see 

dauka, doka, dauki, dauke, 
often contracted to dau or do. 
to take, take up, take hold of, 
take away, receive, dauka 
rua to draw water : dauki 
bashi to collect a debt ; dauki 
lumfashi to hold the breath; 
dauki alkawali to make a 


promise; akadauke rua the 
rain stopped ; daukakiyar 
magana the telling of false 
tales ; ya doka jeji he went 
into the desert; dauko to 





take for oneself; daukaka, 
daukake a strengthened form 
of dauka to lift up, exalt, 
honour, B 147, ta daukakaka 
yanzu ta gochima it takes 
you up now, it makes you 
fall ; madaukaka the exalted 


daukaka, a substantival form 
of foregoing, exaltation, glori- 
fication; C 39 maison dau- 
kaka nana dunia he who 
desires the possessions of this 

dauke, to cease, rua ga dauke 
the rain stopped. 

daukekenia, to surge back- 
wards and forwards in battle. 

daukekian-magana, a con- 
cocted story; cf. damre. 

dauki, gallantry ; ya yi dauki 
he did a daring feat; mai- 
dauki dauntless. 

dauko, to take for oneself, to 

daula, state, kingdom, power; 
yin daula to be fortunate. 

daura or d&bara, alongside 
but not so close as to touch ; 
when followed by da it is 
used as a preposition, e.g. m 
tsaya daura da juna they 
stood side by side, ka zona 
daura da ni sit over against 

dauraro, doraro, daurara* 

n. looking round, spying ; cf. 

daure, occasionally used for 
damre, to bind, q.v. 

daure, to endure patiently, to 

daurewa, n. patient endurance 
of suffering. 

dauri, 1. a medicine given to 
young children as a preventa- 
tive against disease ; 2. twist- 
ed locks of hair arranged on 
either side of a woman's face 

(cf. Ar. Sjl^,*, curl of a mou- 
stache) ; 3. 8ania maidauri a 
cow with a horn growing 

dauri, early ; see dawuri. 

dauria, a small addition to a 
carrier's load. 

dauro, a small edible grain like 

dauro, doro (cf. Ar. rt j^>), 
to look at, to fix the gaze 
upon; cf. dauraro. 

dausayi, a marsh, or bank of 
a stream. 

daushi, damp, mildew; cf. 

d&wa (sorghum vulgare), gui- 
nea-corn, i.e. a species of millet 
with small red grains, called 
in Egypt dhurra. The plant 
grows to the height of eight 
or ten feet. The grain, which 
is exceedingly hard, is ground 




between two stones and made 
into a sort of porridge which 
has a sour insipid taste. The 
four principal kinds of dawa 
are kaura used for feeding 
horses, farfara used when 
ground up for making gruel, 
muramura cooked and eaten 
whole, giwakamba used as a 
medicine for rubbing on the 
eyes ; dawa forms the staple 
food of the Hausa people (cf. 
'Hausaland,' pp. 153, 154); 
an intoxicating drink is made 
from it ; cf . gia. 

dawa (Ar. ?t^>), an unin- 
habited place, e.g. a desert 
or forest; mainyan d&iva the 

dawainia, plague, disease. 

dawainiasda, dawainiashe, 
dawainiarda (K.), dawai- 
nialda (S.), to plague, dis- 

daw&ki, horses, pi. of doki, 

dawama (cf. Ar. rt >£>), to 
remain, to continue, maida- 
wama continuing ; cf . duma. 

dawama, duma, continuance; 
C 15 enna da zama na da- 
wdma where is a state of 
continuance; D 79 gidan 
daw&ma, i.e. heaven. 

daw&ra, a dance, 

dawaya, n. return ; cf . dawoiya. 

dawo, to come back; see 

dawo, porridge (fwra) when 
balls have been dissolved; 
it is used in Sokoto for 

dawoinya, to toil for, to seek 
after ; B 52 shina dawoinya 
da abin wqfi he toils after 

dawoinya, n. esp. used for 
attention shown to strangers. 

dawoiya, dawoya, dawaya, 
to return from a place. 

dawoiyo, dawoyo, dawayo, 
to return to a place. 

da-wuri, dauri, early, long 
ago, in former time. 

da- y aroma, in the evening; 
see yamma. 

da-yawa, daiawa, sometimes 
pronounced diyawaovdeyawa 
much, great, abundant; see 

dayi, a small herb with thistle- 
like prickles eaten by horses, 

dazu, already, before, formerly. 

de, indeed ; see dai. 

dSbe, beat a floor of a house. 

debe, a military expedition. 

debe, dlba, dSbo, to take off, 
take out, pluck from, un- 
dress; debe kamna to put 
an end to friendship; debe 
rua to draw water; madebi 





a measuring spoon ; debo used 
as an imperative means, take 
and bring it here. 

dfibi (S.), a grass shelter or 

decha, datsa, dertsa, a sore 
at the corners of the mouth. 

deddi, to continue ; cf. d&da. 

dedS, correct ; see daidai. 

dfifi, d&fi (Fulah id.), poison 
obtained from snakes, plants, 
etc. The following are names 
of vegetable poisons used for 
smearing arrows : zabon deH 
a plant belonging to the aloe 
family, gwazan ktvado, masa- 
ran giwa, kafa /ago, rogon 
daji, talonia, kadanya rafi, 
alkaman tururuwa, kiria, 
basdyjato, tawasa, kabankura, 
kokia a plant belonging to the 
strychnine-producing family, 
aia aia, tururibi. 

dege, pi. degogi, a gramini- 
vorous animal, it comes out 
at night; perhaps another 
form of dabgi ant-eater. 

degetai, headmen; aeedagachi. 

dSki deki, separately. 

dela, numbness ; dela ya kama 
kafata my leg is gone to 

d&a, d&la, name applied to 
the Austrian Maria Theresa 
dollar which circulates to a 
limited extent throughout 

Hausaland, value about three 

delist, dogs ; see ddla. 

delma, dalma, derma, lead. 

demanta or dimanta, to lose 
oneself in the bush, demana 
the state of being lost. 

demanta (Ar.), to do a thing 
every day. 

demi, dumi, dimi, used with 
rua, man demi hot water; 
rcma da dumi it is hot; jikina 
ya yi dumi I have fever. 

demi, a sheaf ; see ddme. 

dena, to cease ; see daina. 

dendaki, to strike; see dan- 

dene, dfina, to press, cover 
up (e.g. a hole), to entangle, 
hold down, pounce upon, to 
put straight, pull trigger of 
gun, to pull a bow. ya dena- 
8hi he was holding him down; 
ya d&ne riga tasa he pulled 
his gown tight round him; 
andena yarinia the girl was 
caressed, andena kunama the 
trigger was pressed. 

dengi, denga, dangi, degi, 
pi. dengoyi, relation, friend, 
class ; cf . maza dengin gujia 
sai anfasa akansan bidi men 
are like a lot of ground 
nuts, only when they are 
pounded are those with 
kernels seen. 




denki, a handful ; cf. damka. 

dera, to jump ; see dira. 

derduma, a mattress made of 

der§, a game in which the ends 
of pieces of string or grass 
are exposed in the hand ; the 
drawer of the longest piece 
wins. So called because the 
drawers are * in the dark.' 

dere, deri, night, esp. the time 
between lisha and jijifi ; cf. 
H. Gr. p. 87, da dere by 
night; cf. proverb, kadan 
mutum ya yi maku rana ku 
yi masa dere, if a man makes 
day for you do you make 
night for him? ie. do you 
reward evil for good ? B 56 
chikin dere ko ko jijifi by 
night or just before the dawn ; 
jia da dere last night ; ya bi 
dere he came by night; wo 
dere or yiwo dere to start 
business or on a journey at 
sunset ; dere ya yi dere it is 
really night ; dere ya yi mam 
the night overtook him; 
when followed by the name 
of a day of the week dere 
means the night before, deren 
lahadi Saturday night, but 
lahadi da dere Sunday night. 

derejia, honour ; see daraja. 

dSri, Senegal hartebeest; see 

derje, to rub smooth in work- 
ing leather ; see darje, derto. 

dero, to jump ; cf. Mr a. 

derto*, a file ; see derje, zerto. 

dertsa, a sore at corner of 
mouth; see decha, derje. 

desa, to plant out ; see ddsa. 

dia, offspring ; see tfiya. 

diba, to take out ; see debe. 

dibajo (Ar. id.), brocade, cloth. 

dib&ra, contrivance; see da- 

didi = bivra, a word used by 

didlga, crumb ; cf. dlga. 

didigi, heel ; see dtiduge. 

didindin, onomat. tinkle. 

dlga, a drop, a minute of time, 
yana dlga it is dropping. 

digirgire, to balance a load on 
the head. 

dlgo, dropping; dlgon rua drop- 
ping of water. 

dikushi, to kneel ; see durku- 

dila, pi. diloli, jackal, jackal = 
mallamin dawa, M. H. p. 197. 

dila* f melon. 

diiaii (Ar. JU>), a broker. In 
Hausaland nearly all buying 
and selling are conducted 
through brokers, who receive 
5 p. c. of the price paid ; yin 
dilali to do business, to trade. 

dilanchi, trading ; maidilanchi 
one who trades. 




dilari, a large (Phoenician?) 

dilka, a fork-shaped piece of 
wood, fetter. 

dilkushi, to kneel; see dur- 

dilo, a tall straight tree. 

dimajo (Fulah id.), the off- 
spring of two slaves that may 
not be sold ; cf . hachucheni. 

dimbujin zufa, dumbaji, 
small red beads worn round 
the neck by women, 

dimi* (cf. Ar. **j>, striped 

cotton stuff), a white native 

dimi-dawa, firefly. 
dimilmilo, a black water fowl, 
dimota (S.), fear, 
dimso, to take a handful, to 

fill the hand, 
dindiba, f . a species of grass- 
dindimi, to be dim, used of 

the eyes; cf. dtmdumi. 
dinga, continuation; cf. ana- 

dinga magana there is much 

talking ; see dunga. 
dingisa, to be lame, to limp. 

dingishi (cf. (?) Ar. £J>, to 

walk with difficulty under a 

burden), lameness. 
dinini, masudinini those who 

blacken their teeth, cf. Gram. 

p. 138, 1. 23. 

dinkin, a tree with edible 

dinya, a goose ; see dunia. 
dinya, black plum; see dainya. 
dlra, diri, dlro, dera, dero 

(cf . (?) Ar. j>, to run swiftly), 
to jump, jump down, leap as 
a grasshopper, to surpass. 

dire, n. hopping. 

dirgila* a climbing plant with 
sweet smelling flower. 

dirime, to upset ; see durimi. 

dirje, to rub ; see darje. 

dirka, a large beam stuck in 
the ground to support a roof, 
the pi. dirkoki is used of 
the shorter poles on which 
framework of house rests. 

dirka, agame played by fortune- 
tellers, etc. in order to dis- 
cover secrets; F 11 ka ber 
dara duka da dirka duka 
da sata give up all playing 
of dara and dirka and steal- 
ing ; when the game is played 
balls of clay are stuck on 
quills and held up till they 
drop off. 

dirka or tsirka, q.v., to beat ; 
F 106 suna dirkanka liar 
ku8he-ku8heya they beat thee 
till thou art sore. 

dirumbua, darambua, an 
armlet of plaited grass worn 
by children ; cf. rumbua. 

dishamida*, a dollar, imported 




from North Africa, M. H. 
p. 217. 

diwa, 1. anus; 2. a grass 
used for making baskets; 
cf. iwa. 

diya, 1. offspring, whether male 
or female, daughter, maiden, 
girl, brood of animals, the 
fruit of a tree; 2. one who 
is free as contrasted with a 
slave ; diyal-rana mirage : it 
is also used of a girl who is 
in charge of one who is not 
her own mother and who 
may be expected to care for 
her only during the day when 
she can be seen and to neglect 
her at night. 

diya (Ar.), price paid for acci- 
dental homicide = 1,000,000 

diyantaka, freedom ; cf . seq. 

diyauchi, diyanchi, freedom, 
liberation from slavery, son- 

do, dau, to take, a shortened 
form of dauka; A 20 wajib 
mu do hayasu we ought to 
take their road; cf. use of 
du for duha. 

doachi, dachi, bitterness ; ya 
yi doachi it is bitter (e.g. as 
a kola nut) ; cf . allah shi 
boyeshi a kogon dachi may 
God hide him in a hole of 
bitterness (to prevent witches 

eating him), a salutation when 
a child is born ; madachi y 
1. gall; 2. bitter. 

dobane, self-defilement. 

doda doda, a fragrant herb 
with viscid leaves and small 
yellow flowers (stylosanthes 
erecta, leguminosae). 

dodo, pi. dodonai, evil spirit, 
spirit of a dead man which 
is supposed to walk about on 
the day of his death but to 
rise and disappear the same 
evening : it appears at times 
in trees and catches men. 
The word is often applied to 
a rhinoceros or elephant or 
any large and dreaded animal. 
gidan dodo the juju house 
in a pagan village. 

dodo, yin dodo to show any- 
thing exposed in the hand 
and then snatch it away. 

doddka, waterbuck (cobus de- 
f'assus unctuosus) ; for list of 
antelopes found in Hausa- 
land, cf. under barewa. 

dodonia, mantis. 

dodowa, dadowa, the cakes 
made from the kalua, i.e. the 
fruit of the dorowa tree. 

dogara, ddgare, to lean upon, 
prop oneself up by, trust in, 
ask favour from ; B 20 mun 
dogareka mima karmia we 
trust in thee, we love thee; 




dogareshi da guiwa press him 
down with the knee; mado- 
gara a pole to keep a door 
dogarchi, the office of a police- 
man {dogari). 

dogari (cf. (?) Ar. ^£>, to re- 
pulse), a soldier of the king's 
body-guard, an executioner, 
a policeman. 

d5gari, support, stay. 

dogo, f. dogua, pi. dogaye, tall, 
high, long; lokachi dogo a 
long time. 

dSgua, 1. an evil spirit sup- 
posed to injure tamarind and 
other trees: persons eating 
the fruit become paralyzed 
and die; 2. paralysis caused 
by the dogua, 

doii, doyi, a bad smell, yin 
doyi to emit a bad smell. 

doiya, pi. doyoyi (dioscorea 
sativa), yam ; the root of the 
plant is eaten after being 
boiled or fried, doiyan ku- 
rege (curculigo galla baten- 
sis, amaryllideae), a yellow 
flowering herb with stout 
underground stem, doiyan 
dctji, or doiyan bisa a climb- 
ing plant, with small, hard, 
edible fruit. 

doka, plaiting of the hair by 
a woman with the object of 
making it stand erect ; cf. 

prov. buhin wata doka bukin 
wata kundumi the desire of 
one woman is plaited hair, 
the desire of another is a 
shaven head; Le. different 
things please different people. 
doka is also used for a loose 

doka*, used by Hausas in N. 
Africa as equivalent to twelve 

dok&, large tree with white 
flowers and shining leaves 
(Berlinia sp., Leguminosae) ; 
see farin-doka. 

doka, to take ; cf. dauka. 

doka or doki, used of any 
authorized proclamation; ka 
chika da doki you have gone 
beyond your orders. 

dokachi, all, total (derived 
from dauka), 

doke, duka, to beat : intensive 
form = doddoki ; see ddka. 

doki, pi. dawaM, dawdkai, a 
horse. The pi. is used for 
horsemen which, regarded as 
followers, are indicative of 
the importance of a chief, 
etc. For words denoting 
various kinds or colours of 
horses, cf. bidi, bikili, soft, 
dukushi, guzuma, furde, sari, 
akawali, chichero, aharus, 
bola, kili, danda, cdshafi. 
dokin allah butterfly; dokin 




buntu starling; doki kuru 
or kuru a pony. 

dokolua, a hen ; see dokolua, 

dolashi, order, commission. 

dolata (Fulah id.), to compel. 

dole, a blot (of ink). 

dole, to upset, pour out. 

dole, doli (Fulah id.), by 

doli-doli, a white grub. 

dolo, f. dolua, pi. dolol% fool, 

domana, 1. a blight on corn ; 
2. a soporific draught. 

domashi, a small tree, the root 
of which is cooked and used 
as a medicine for dysentery. 

dombubu, dongudu, wrist, 

domi, why? wherefore? domi 
is a contraction of don mi on 
account of what ? 

domin, because of, in order 
that ; dominsa for his sake, 
domin hdka for this reason, 
dominsa (or donsa) shi ji in 
order that he may hear, do- 
min kdda lest, in order that 

dominchewa*, sometimes con- 
tracted to chewa therefore, 
for this reason; not used 

don, 1. because, because of; 
2. in order that ; don wanan 
for this reason, don kdda 

lest, in order that. . .not ; don 
wanan ba komi> or ba komi 
don wanan that is nothing. 

done, to hang up, to put meat 
on a stick, to draw back. 

dongudu, ankle-joint, wrist; 
see dombubu. 

dono, yin dono to pluck out. 

dora, 1. to heap up, increase, 
place; 2. to begin; 3. used 
with bindiga to load a gun. 
D 44 8u dora bukata suna sa 
masa uku uku they heap up 
blows, they give them three 
at a time, F 99 dora murna 
to rejoice, F 176 su dora kira 
they cry aloud, D 43 shi dora 
makarkata he begins to 
tremble, D 14 lial ta yi 
dorawa azdba till the pain is 
increased; also to put one 
thing on another, ta dora 
masa she put his load on 
him ; cf. dura. 

doraro, to look round ; see 

dori, to endure ; see daure, 

dori, the setting or binding up 
of a fractured limb ; maidori 
a bone-setter. 

dorina, pi. dorinai, hippopota- 

doro, hump, swelling; maidoro 
hump-backed, a doro on the 
shoulder, ta ke daukar kaya 
a doro she humps her load. 




dorowa, doriwa (Parkia 
nlicoidea, leguminosae), a 
tree resembling an acacia, 
its fruit, called kalua, is con- 
tained in a pod like that of 
a bean and is eaten in soup ; 
the cakes made from its beans 
are called dodowa. 

dosanna, to set a light to any- 
thing, to kindle a fire. 

doshi, dosa, to front, turn 
towards, pass close to, ya 
do8hesu he fronted them. 

doso, to turn towards an ob- 
ject which has just been 
mentioned, e.g. sun dosogida; 
dosa a verbal noun is also 
used, e.g. ina dosar ydbaz. 

dotijo, datijo, dotizo (Fulah 
id.), a person of importance, 
usually a man with a long 
beard. It is usually, but not 
necessarily, applied to elderly 
men, the feminine equivalent 
is giyatuma. 

doya, yam ; see doiya. 

doyi, a smell ; see doii. 

du, a contracted form of duka, 

duade, to stop up, see duwade. 

duba, n. divination, looking at 
signs in order to foretell the 
future, a frequentative form 
of the v. dudduba is found. 

duba, dflbo (cf. Ar. rt ^^>, 
to use diligence), to look at, 

behold, watch carefully, aim 
at ; duba da kiyo look care- 
fully after, duba behold ! 

dub&ra, contrivance; see da- 

dubbara da, close to; see 

dubbo dubbo (cf. Ar. w>>, to 
walk on all fours), an ex- 
pression used of the attempts 
made to walk by a boy of 
one year old. 

dubgi, dapgi, dabgi or daugi, 

dUbi, n., yin dubi to consider, 
to act as a soothsayer ; cf . 

dttbu, thousand. The same 
word is found in the Fulah, 
Kanuri, Teda and Bagrimma 
languages ; cf. (?) Coptic thba 
ten thousand. 

duchi, a stone ; see dutsi. 

dudttga, remainder. 

dttduge, dldigi, dttga-dttga, 
pi. dudugai, heel; ya tashi 
da duga-dugama he started 
off on foot. 

dfifil, darkness ; ya yi dtifu it 
is dark, or it becomes dark, 
dere nan ya faye dufu the 
night is very dark, dUfu 
kirim utter darkness, A 67 
ha shafa dtifu kirim huska 
tasa thou anointest his face 
with utter darkness. 





dufua, darkness, a dark forest. 

dtLga-dtiga, heel; see duduge. 

dugo, diga, pi. dugogi, a drop ; 
see diga. 

dugui, tying a piece of cloth 
round the toe of a sleeper 
and lighting it in order to 
awaken him. 

dug&mi, without horns. 

duguza, hairy all over, an 
epithet applied to Dodo, etc. 

duk, all, a common contraction 
for duka 9 q.v., duk da wanan 
or duk da haka nevertheless, 
even so. 

duka, duk, all, every, every- 
one; duka daia ne it is all 
the same, there is no differ- 
ence, duka komi everything, 
duka bin (or m biu) both 
of them; cf. dukachi, du- 

duka, to strike ; see ddka. 

duka (S.), to bend the head 
or the body, ya duka da 
kansa he bowed his head, 
to look down; cf. M. H. 
p. 180. duka or dukawa 

dukachi, dukanta, all, the 
whole ; dukachin komi every- 
thing; cf. dokachi. 
duk&da, tr. to bend ; see duka. 
dukanta, see dukachi. 
dukau, a nickname given to a 
man who stoops. 

dukawa, leather workers, a pi. 
of baduka 9 q.v. 

duki*, large carnivorous bird. 

dukiya, dukia, pi. dukoki, 
dukiyoyi, goods, property, 
riches ; maidukia a rich man. 

dukushi, f . dukusa, pi. dukusai, 
a small horse or mare, a pony. 

dull, a tree, the sap of which 
is a kind of gum. 

dulmiya, to immerse. 

dulmiye, to upset, used of a 

duma, continuance; see da~ 

diima, pi. dumaimai or du- 
mame 9 pumpkin, esp. used for 
making water-pots. 

dflmama, to warm up (food). 

dtimar - kada (crocodile's 
gourd), a creeper with white 
flower, when mixed with gero 
husks it is made into a hot 
liquid in which patients suffer- 
ing from kdba steam their eyes. 

dumbaji, necklace; see dim- 

dumbuzo, to take much out 
of, to help liberally, dum- 
buji plenty. 

dumi. warmth ; see demi. 

dtimi, dimmi (cf. (?) Ar. ,j>)> 
noise. It is especially used 
of the hum of conversation, 
B 22 k her yawan dumi 
ku ji kalmata leave off 




speaking many words, listen 

to what I say. 
dumia, goose ; see dunia. 
dumia, a tree (vitex cienkow- 

skii, verbenaceae), the fruit 

of which is sweet and edible; 

a kind of molasses is made 

from it; cf. mddi. 
dumke, dunke, dumka, 

X * * 

dumki (cf. Ar. *i)U>, to 
twist or plait), to sew ; F 88 
adutnka duk ana kuma gan- 
gamawa it is completely sewn 
and joined together, madumki 
or madunki a tailor; babu 
dumki there is no repairing ; 
kurdin dumki licence fee 
paid by tailors. A freq. 
form dundunka is found. 

dummi, a kind of fish. 

dumshe, dunshe, a tree with 
a sticky sap. 

dumu, a lizard ; see damu. 

dumya, a goose ; see dumia. 

dunane, yin dunane to im- 

dunde, duntse, duntsa, to 
take hold of, hold together, 
enwrap, F 95. 

dundu, a stiff-branched shrub 
frequent in the bush. It 
has light yellow or white 
blossoms, and produces a 
kind of gum. 

dundu*, yin dundu to strike 
with clenched fist. 

dundufa (cf. Ar. ^>, a small 

drum), a large drum, the 

drum used by the natives for 

purposes of signalling, etc. 
dundumi, n. an illness which 

prevents a man seeing at 

night, though he can see by 

day ; cf . seq. 
dundumi, to grope about ; cf . 

dindimi, madundumi. 
dundunia, the inside of a 

bird's talon, the heel of a man. 
dundurusu, an axe or pick 

used for working stones. 
dune, to close up a hole ; see 



dunga, to keep on doing any- 
thing, ya dunga berichi he 
slept on. anadunga tafia 
they continued travelling ; 
cf. dinga. 

dunge, a bad egg. 

dungo, the name of a small 

dungu, corner of a fence ; see 

dungu, the stump of a leg or 

dungule, dangole, spot. 

dunguli, dungule, 1. butter 
(a Kanuri word) ; 2. a cow 
tied up by the feet. 

dungum*, much; B 30 shi 
wanda ke jiran kabdki dun- 
gum he who waits for abun- 
dance to eat. 




dunguma, to go together in a 
crowd ; cf . gungu a mob. 

dunhu, a kind of blue trousers; 
cf. M. H. p. 203. 

dunia or dinya, spur-winged 

dunia, duniya (Ar. l,J>), the 
world, sky, atmosphere, wea- 
ther; duniadadi fine weather, 
dunia ta yi dere it is night, 
dunia ta yi rani it is the 
dry season ; na sani dunia I 
know my way about ; dunia 
is often used to denote the 
evil principle which character- 
izes the world, so dan dunia 
(lit. son of the world) a bad 
man, B 52 kowa bi dunia 
nan ya rudu whoever follows 
this world is deceived, ya 
samu dunia he has become 
rich; dunia is sometimes 
used to denote all mankind. 

dunia* (Ar. o^>)» v ^ e > despic- 
able, incredible. 

dunji, bunch, bundle. 

dunke, to sew ; see dumke. 

dunko, gum ; see danko. 

dunko, danko, to withdraw 
the hand ; see damka. 

dunkula, to roll up into a 
ball; cf. prov. dan banza 
rairai ne ko andunkula shi 
ma ya rushe a worthless man 
is like sand, if you press it 

together it falls to pieces 

dunkule, a lump or handful of 
Hour, or of anything soft 
squeezed out. 

dunkurkuda, a kind of grass- 

dttno (cf. Ar. Oj>> near), to 
draw near. 

duntsa, duntse, to take hold 
of, enwrap ; cf. dunde. 

dunu, waist.; chi dununka da 
hanu put your arms akimbo ! 

dura, to cram, give medicine 
to; cf. dora. 

duri, duli, muliebria, 

durimi, dirime, to upset, used 
of a boat. 

durktisa, to kneel, an adverbial 
form adurkushe kneeling. 

durk&shi, dilkttshi, n. kneel- 
ing ; cf . prec. 

durugu, durugun kaza a small 
stunted chicken. 

duruku, a shrub with purple 
flowers often planted in native 
compounds (Newbouldia lae- 
vis), also called ba-reshi. 

durumi, the name of a large 
shady tree, it is a species 
of ficus yielding a milky juice 
like rubber, the fruit of which 
somewhat resembles a kola 
nut ; see gamji. 

durungu, wart-hog, also called 
mugun dawa ; cf. cUhanzir. 




duruwa, yin duruwa to gird 

dusa (cf. Ar. ^b, to tread 
out corn), chaff, husks. 

dushe, to become dim or in- 
distinct ; rana ta dushe it is 
getting dark, Jitila ta dushe 
the lamp is going out, muria 
ta dushe the sound is becom- 
ing indistinct. 

dushewa, dimness, indistinct- 
ness; used of an eclipse of 
the moon. 

dushi, dimness, yin dushi to 
become dim. 

dutsi, duchi, pi. duatsu,duasu, 
duasa, darwatai, stone, a 
stone; dutsin nika mill stone; 
dutsim bindiga bullet. 

duwade, duade, to stop up (a 
hole), close down. 

duwai, duwaiwai, pL dwvai- 
waya, buttocks. 

duwatana, a kind of grass, 
man duwatana gall. 

duwu, a kind of scorpion. 

eblis, the evil spirit ; see iblis. 
echada, a small bird, 
ed&bar, black, 
efo, adj. grey. 

eko, the native name for the 
town of Lagos, M. H. p. 192. 
elawa, a sling. 
ellelele, elle, allele, a tree 

planted in towns with edible 
capsular fruit (blighia sapida, 

en (Ar. ^j\, if) (when followed 
by b or m it is pronounced 
em), 1. that, in order that, 
to; na tdfo en gaya maka 
I came to tell you; 2. if, 
whether; en and idan are 
about equally common, en 
being especially used in the 
district around Kano, idan 
in the southern part of 
Hausaland; ya tambaya en 
sufulani ne he asked whether 
they were Fulahs; 3. en is 
used in an imperative sense 
or to ask a question ; e.g. en 
tafi yawo let me go for a 
walk, em bika let me follow 
you, or shall I follow you? 
B 171 en rarafe ina aza hus~ 
kata let me crawl, let me 
place my face on the ground ! 
4. preceded by kdda it de- 
notes a prohibition ; kdda en 
ji kishirua may I not thirst, 
or lest I thirst. 

ena, enna, ina (Ar. ^t), 
where? ddga ena whence? 

enche, verily! certainly; see 

enchi, to free a slave; see 

enda, inda, where ; ban sani 




ba enda shi ke I do not know 
where he is. 

engurdigi (?), a large species of 

entaya* a small edible grain. 

enua, inua, shade, shadow, 
shelter; D 68 6a enua sai 
enda tuti muhammad there 
shall be no shade except 
where the ensign of Moham- 
med is, D 75 mu sha enua 
let us enjoy shelter. 

enuar-bauna, a white flowered 
shrub (lamprothamnus spi- 
nosus, rubiaceae). 

enuar-gada, a woody climbing 
shrub with fragrant white 
flowers (opilia celtidifolia). 

errahimi* (Ar. ^^^gjl), the 

esga, a horse's tail ; see isga. 
ettabibi,attabibi, doctor, witch 

ewa, verily, indeed ; see aiwa. 

f. The letter s^ is used by the 
Hausas to represent both f 
and p, the sounds of which 
are frequently interchanged ; 
cf. /ago, pago. The sound/ 
is also interchanged with that 
of b ; and with that of A, cf . 
hako,fako; huska^fuska. In 
certain words, e.g.fu8hi anger, 
the f represents a sort of bi- 

labial sound and might almost 

be written fh. 
fa, a rock ; see folate. 
fa (Ar. id.), therefore, then, 

fache, to wish for ; seejuta. 
fSche, 1. but, however, only; 

2. up till now. 

f&da, f&di (cf . Ar. j^, to shout), 
to speak, often implying to 
speak with authority or in a 
tone of command, to say, to 
tell ; D 1 8 kunjifa mun fadi 
do you listen, we say that.... 

f&da, to fight; A 21 duka sun 
fdda they were all at strife. 

f&da, n. strife ; fadan bata kai 
a petty squabble ; maifadaichi 
a quarrelsome person; yin 
fdda to fight (possibly fdda 
to fight and fdda to speak 
may both come from the Ar. 

J4 to trample down and to 

f&da, ip\.fadodi 9 a blow. 

fada, pi. fadodiy 1. court or 
palace ; 2. royal council ; ba- 
fada a king's councillor. 

fada, fadi, to fall down; ya 
fadi he fell down, ya fada a 
rua he fell into the water, ya 
faa\z rua he flung himself into 
the water ; fdda ma wani da 
duka to fall on a man with 
blows, to beat ; faduar gaba 




losing heart ; fatfa of an ail- 
ment to be cured \fddi is used 
as a trading idiom to lose 
money on a transaction \fada- 
da to let a thing fall. 

fadake, traders; seefatdke. 

f&dama (Fulah fadamare), 
marsh, esp. ground which is 
inundated in wet weather. 

fadanchi, yinfadanehi to hold 
a council. 

fadawa, a king's officers or 
attendants ; the order of pre- 
cedence differs in various 
places : in Kano it is sariki, 
galadima, madaki, wombat, 
makama, turahi, sarikin da- 
tvaki, sarikin bayi, chiroma, 
maji; in Zaria it is sariki, 
madaki, galadima, sarikin 
maikira (=manzo), makama, 
etc. ; cf . bqfade. 

f&di, to fall ; seefada. 

f 5di, width, breadth ; da fadi 
wide, broad ; cf . prov. fadin 
rua ba zurfi the breadth of a 
river is not (a guide to) its 
depth ; i.e. appearances are 
deceptive; fadin rai haughti- 
ness ; fadin kai conceit, ' swol- 
len head. 7 

fadi, fada, pi. fade fade, speech, 
talking ; cf . prov. fade fatfe 
ba yi ba ne talking is not do- 
ing ; tana fadan banza she 
was talking folly. 

fftdo*, to fall down ; see fadi. 

f&dua, falling; see fadi. 

f&fa, to cut up. 

fafa, to plead for, intercede. 

fftfake, to feel about as with 
the hand in searching for any- 

fafare, to drive away. 

fafaye, to exceed ; an intensive 
form oifaye, q.v. 

fafe, fofe, to fade, of leaves, etc. 

fafe, to rub, rasp, scrape; cf. 
prov. ba afafa gianduma ran 
tafia do not scrape out the 
water-bottle on the day of 
travel, i.e. do not leave a 
thing to the last minute. 

fafo, n. interceding; cf. fafa. 

fagachi, fakache, court of 
justice, a king's audience. 

fage (Kanuri id.), any open 
space, the open parade ground 
before a king's house, ground 
cleared for threshing, also a 
course; ya yi fage uku he 
rode up and down three 
times ; a king's assembly 
room ; fagen doki a place for 
riding in; cf. fako, pi. fa- 
gaigai fields. 

f&go, hole (e.g. in a hatchet) 
in which the handle is in- 

fago, pago, a woman's luggage 
carried in a bag or net (a 
Fulani word), cf. Gr. p. 138, 




1. 37. mamfago men who 
possess but a woman's load. 

fahari, fahri (Ar. jl^?), hon- 
our, pride. 

fahimta* fahumta* ( Ar.^J), 

to understand, 
fai, openly ; fai ga baki openly ; 

fai da boye openly and secretly. 
faifai, pi. fiyafai, fan or dish 

cover made of woven grass, 

fan for winnowing with, 
faifeto, fefeto, q.v., wing of a 

bird ; cf . fikafike and faifai. 
faiya-faiya, a shrub ; see paiya- 

fSja, n. purchasing, esp. whole- 
sale purchasing ; cf. haja. 
fakache, a king's audience ; see 

fak&ra (S.), pak&ra, partridge, 

francolin ; cf. makerua (K.). 
f&ke, to hide oneself ; fdke rua 

to take shelter from rain, 
fako, lying in wait, yin fako 

to set an ambush ; see hdko. 
f&ko, a hard bare spot where 

grass won't grow and where 

there is no dust, esp. used of 

a threshing floor (cf . Ar. U? , 
to take off the husk) ;» 

fai, yin fai to fill up. 

fal&dara, cap ; seefulddara. 

falaka, falka (cf. Ar. JuJ, 
used of the dawn ' to break 
forth '), to awake, arise; D 26 

R. H. D. 

ku yi berchi ku falaka ku 
tashi sleep and awake, rise 
up; ci. falka, farka. 

falala (Ar.), riches. 

falale or fa, also a smooth rock; 
e.g. for drying vegetables on. 

falasa, palasa (D.) (Ar.), to re- 
vile, disgrace, punish, destroy. 

falfada (S.), farfada (K.), a 
fainting fit ; cf . fada to f alL 

falfasa, farfasa, to bruise, 
strike, pound ; cf. fasa. 

falgaba, fear ; cf . firgaba. 

falia, faria, a fish something 
like a salmon. 

falka, farka, to awake; cf. 

falka, farka, farika, a prosti- 
tute ; see farika. 

falkada, tr. to wake, arouse. 

falke (S.), to break open; cf. 

falke, f. falkia, pi. fatake, tra- 
velling merchant, trader. 

falma, farma, to fall upon. 

falmaki, assault ; seefarmaki. 

fama, strife, battle, fighting; 
yinfama to fight, also trouble, 
vexation; muna fama da 
tafia the journey taxes us to 
the utmost ; na sha fama da 
ski it is all that I can manage. 

fandare (cf. Ar. jjju*, a 

boulder), to be crookeof; A 
58 hainya sun bi wanda ya 





fandare they followed a way 
that was crooked. 

fanfare, to take the handle off 
an axe, etc. 

fanfatsa, to break into small 
pieces; ctfasa. 

fankam (or famkan) fayo, 
meaningless words used as 
the commencement of a pro- 
verb about deceptive appear- 
ances, or generally to express 
fear or annoyance. 

fankasu, a cake made of wheat, 
flour and honey. 

fansa, pansa (D.), hansa 
(Zanf.), deliverance, revenge, 
requital, redemption from 
slavery ; yin fansa to redeem. 
fansawa ransoming, redemp- 

fanshe, panshe, fansashe, to 
ransom, redeem, e.g. na fan- 
sheka ddga bauta I ransomed 
thee from slavery ; in playing 
the game of chacha the loser 
says na fanshe, i.e. I have to 
pay; cf. Gr. p. 137, 1. 14 
sarkaki ya fanshi wansu the 
bush saved some. 
fanso, panso, i.q. fanshe. 

fantaria, a hoe, M. H. p. 54 ; 
seefartanya and fatainya. 

fara (S.), fragment. 
f&ra, pi. farori, faruna, locust; 
a locust is supposed by the 
Hausas to be bloodless; cf. 

prov. anema jini ga fara let 

blood be sought for in a locust, 

i.e. attempt what you know 

to be impossible ; farandere, 

pL farorindere (lit. locust 

of the night), a black locust 

which comes out at night, 
fara, beginning, A 2 ; cf. fa- 

rawa or yin fara to begin. 

f&ra, to begin; cf. wane gari 
zaafara isa which town shall 
we reach first? ta fara zua 
she was the first to come ; 
nafara shigowa jirigi this is 
my first experience of a canoe; 
faruar alameri the beginning 
of the affair, fara aiki to 
begin work ; cf . faru. 

f&ra, dropsy. 

faraa( Ar. m.jt), joy ;fardaor yin 

faraa to rejoice, F 232 anafa- 
raa anamuma da kowa there 
shall bejoy and gladness for all. 

farafara, farfara, a species of 
guinea-corn used for making 
gruel ; see ddwa. 

fara-kaya (lit. white thorn), 

the name of a large tree with 

white thorns from the fruit 

of which ink is made, 
faralta, to make glad ; faralta 

ma wani to gladden another ; 

allah shi faraltaka may God 

gladden thee, 
faranji, a long, white wedding 

garment for a bride. 




faranta, to whiten. 

farap, an exclamation, away 

farau farau, forau forau 

(from fari white), water with 

flour oifura mixed in it. 
farauta, hunting; yin faranta 

to hunt, to chase, 
f&rawa, participial form of 

fdra, beginning; D 1 maifa- 

rawa or maifaruwa beginner, 
faraya, pi. farayu, whitened ; 

see fari. 

farcha (cf . (?) Ar. tf*, to heat), 
to blister ; D 65 to kan rika 
farcha kai garemu it will con- 
tinually blister our heads; 
cf . farsa. 

farde, firda, to split (e.g. cloth), 
rip up. 

farfada, falfftda, fainting fit 

farf&de, to recover conscious- 
ness (?). 

farfara, guinea-corn; see far a~ 

farfaro, furforo, to pursue. 

farfasa, to strike; seefalfasa. 

farga, to perceive something 
wrong ; na farga da kai I 
am distrustful of you, i.e. I 
see that you are cheating me. 

f argaba, firgaba, falgaba, fear. 

fari, faria, boasting ; seefahari. 

f&ri, f . fdra, pi. fdrare, fdru 
fdru, white, bright; A 21 

sun san fari sun san bdki 
they know the difference be- 
tween white and black, dan 
fari a small piece of some- 
thing white, F 88 farin yun- 
wa drought, farin dabino an 
unripe date, also a name for 
beads, farin karifi (or jan ka- 
rifi) brass, fari ko bdki some- 
times denotes good or bad, 
farin wata new moon, moon- 
light, farin jini good disposi- 
tion, farin chlki joy, gladness, 
yin farin chlki to rejoice, 
fari fari whitish, or dirty 
• white ; fari fet very white, 
farin ido a bright eye; cf. 
prov. banza farin ido babu 
gani. farin ido also a pretty 
eye, i.e. a pretty girl ; farin 
abu that which is pleasant. 

fari, fori, drought ; cf. prec. 

fari, fori, firi, a break of about 
ten days' duration during the 
rainy season in June or July; 
also the early hoeing of the 

fari, used in the compound 
forms dafari, ncfari, f . tofari, 
first ; cf . fara. 

f&ri, signs of punctuation. 

faria, boasting ; see fari. 

farichi, farche, finger-nail ; 
cf. also ahaifa. 

farifasha, an extensive form of 
fashe, to break in pieces. 





farika (cf. Ar. S)jZ, used of 
a woman 'to hate her hus- 
band '), a profligate of either 
sex ; cf . folka. 

farilla (Ar. ,»), the proof or 

visible fact. 

f&rin-chlki,happiness; seefari. 

farin-doka (Berlinia panicula- 
ta, leguminosae), a tree like 
doka with paler leaves and 
bark: both have large flat pods. 

f&rin-gamu, a convolvulus with 
white flowers and silvery 
hairy leaves (Ipomaea argen- 
taurata, convolvulaceae) ; also 
a name given to a white 
mixture which is used as a 

farka, falka, ferka, to awake 
from sleep ; farko, ferko to 
revive, come to oneself. 

farkaji, tortoise. 

farke, 1. to cut, tear, ctfalke; 
2. to seduce ; cf. farika. 

farke, trader ; see/alke. 

farko, ferko, beginning = no- 
farko first, da-farko at first ; 
yin farko to begin, ferkon 
fara the very outset. 

farma, falma, to fall upon, 
probably an abbreviation of 
fada ma. 

farm&ki, falmaki, firmaki, 
attack, invasion, ambush, 
throng, tumult in war. 

farsa, farisa, a blister; yin 
farsa to cleanse a wound ; 
see farcha. 

farta or yin farta, to scratch. 

fartanya, fatainya, a hoe. 

fartat, headlong flight ; ya tsere 
masafartat he got clean away 
from him. 

faro, a wild stone-fruit from 
which a drink is made. 

faru, chiefly used in the ex- 
pression mi ya faru what 
has happened, what is the 
matter ? yafaru it happened ; 
cf . fara. 

fasa, arrow-head. 

f&sa,todef er, postpone, miss fire ; 
muna da tafia ba fasawa we 
have a journey which cannot 
be put aside, B 120 mutua... 
ba tana yi ta fasa ba death 
does not admit of delay, na 
fasa aike gobe I put off the 
work till to-morrow, fatake 
suna zua ba sa fdsawa the 
traders keep on coming 
without intermission ; cf. 

f&sa, p&sa, f&so, to break, 
split, destroy, faslie, q.v., 
to break (tr. or intr.), fa- 
8ashe, pL fdsasu 9 broken; 
cf . fdso. fdsa doki to cover 
the front of an army with 
cavalry ; masupashin hainya 
those holding up the road. 




*> X * 

fasadi*, fasada (Ar. ju*?), dis- 
cord, envying ; E 18 ku tuba 
ku ber fasadi repent, leave 
off discord. 

fasaha* (Ar.), eloquence, ima- 
gination, lucidity. 

f&sa - kworia (calabash - 

breaker), a large tree, the 
aromatic bark of which is 
ground up as a medicine. 

fasali, interpretation ; see fa- 


fasali (Ar.), 1. division, allotted 
portion, fasalin damana the 
wet season, ya yi maku fa~ 
salin aiki he will apportion 
your tasks. 2. class, cate- 
gory, doki maikeaun fasali 
a horse of good class, wuri 
ya yi fasali the place is ex- 

fasara, fasaranta (Ar. j*»?), 
interpretation, explanation, 
quickness of intelligence; yin 
fasara or fasarta to interpret, 

fasawa, postponing; seejasa. 

fashe, pashe, to break, to 
burst; kasua ta fashe the 
market is over, intens. form 
=fafashe or farfashe ; fa- 
shewa splitting ; cf. idiom 
fashewa da daria bursting 
out laughing; F 114 tana 
kona fa kainua na fashewa 

it will burn their heads, it 
will split them; maifeshe, 
mafashi brigand; see fdsa. 

fashi, fashe, v. of a woman to 
have her periods. 

f&shi, delay, interruption ; fa- 
shin kwana biu ya kan zo 
he comes at intervals of two 
days, babu fashi without 
delay ; cf . fasa. 

f&siki, pi. Jusikai, a profligate 

man ; fasika (Ar. 4jL*1?), a 
profligate woman. 

faskara, n. overcoming; cf. 
babu komi faskara ne no- 
thing is impossible ; see fas- 

faskara, to split, cleave; cf. 

faskara-giwa, a small shrub 
with purple flowers. The 
name has reference to the 
extremely tough nature of 
the wood. (Ormocarpum sp., 

faskarari, bound hand and 
foot; cf. seq. 

faskare, to overcome, to be 
unable to do anything; ya 
faskareni I cannot do it; 
also used as an impersonal 
verb ; cf. faskara. 

faskari, the shaving one side 
of the head as a sign of 
sorrow ; if a woman has three 
children who die in succes- 




sion she shaves half her head, 
if four die, the whole. 

faskari, n. splitting, e.g. of a 
plank or board, yin faskari 
to make into planks. 

faski, j>\.faskefaske,n. breadth; 
dafaski broad. 

f&SO, breaking of the skin, e.g. 
as result of cold; da fdso 
torn, rent, cracked. 

f&so, to break ; see f tea. 

tSta, jA.Jatuna, frequently pro- 
nounced pdta' } 1. the skin of 
an animal ; 2. the rind or 
bark of a tree. 

tftta, wish, desire, usually in a 
bad sense, yin fata to desire 
that which is wrong; see 

f&taf&ta, complete. 

fatainya, hoe; see fartanya, 

fataka, pataka (probably in- 
troduced from Lagos), a florin. 

fatake, merchants ; pi. oifalke, 

fatala, pi. fatalu, a woman's 
head-kerchief; cf. alfuta, 

fatalua, fatalwa, ghost, hob- 
goblin, spectre. 

fatara (Ar.), dawdling, slack- 
ness of work. 

fatara, to miss, lose. 

fatari, a woman's loin-cloth, or 

under petticoat, 
fatat&ka, rending ; cf . seq. 

fatatake, to tear to pieces. 

fatauchi, trading, travelling 

for purposes of trade; yin 

fatauchi to trade or travel as 

a trader, maifatauchi trader; 

cf . fatake. 

f&ti f&ti, a porridge like kunu. 

fStiha, the opening verse of 
the Koran; see alfatia. 

fatlla, fitUa, pi. fatllu, fatUai 

or fatUoli (Ar. 3JLJ^, wick 

used in a lamp), lamp ; main 
fatila lamp oil. 

f&to, tax, caravan tax. 

fatsa, faza, a Ashing hook, 
itachen fatsa a fishing rod, 
kugian fatsa a fish hook, 
igianfata a fishing line ; also 
a small throwing net; yin 
fatsa to fish, dan fatsa a 

fatsi*, yellow. 

fail, up to the brim, kura ya 
tashi fau the calabash was 
filled to the brim, ya haw 
fau = ya hau bisa. fau is 
probably another form of 
hau, cf. similar interchange 
in huska, fuska. 

faufau (S.), assuredly. 

fauta, to slaughter; mafauchi 
or mahauchi a butcher. 

fawa, n. slaughtering; wurin 
fawa abattoir. 

fawa, folly ; da fawa foolish. 




fawo*, a greeting ; yin fawo 

to greet. 

faye, to abound or excel in 

anything, to do something 

very much, to be addicted to 

or fond of anything; yara 

suna /aye yin worigi the 

boys are fond of play; ya 

faye da girima he was too 

big to...; makafi sun faye 

talauchi blind men are very 

poor : an intensive form fa- 

faye is also used. 

faza, a fishing hook ; aeefatsa. 

feda, fede, flda, fide, to flay, 

open out, prepare food, feda 

nama to dress meat; mai- 

fedi a skinner ; wukar feda 

a knife for flaying. 

fSdua, whistling; ci.feto. 

fefe, to fade. 

fefeto, maifefeto winged, M. 
H. p. 158 ; cf. faifeto. 

fgke (S.), to peel, shell. 

fere (K.), to peel, e.g. with a 

ferko, beginning; seefarko. 

ferko*, to revive; seefirko. 

f£sa, to spit, fesawa spitting; 
feshi spitting, mist or driving 

fet, used with fari, very white. 

f §ta, to fan ; mafechi one who 
fans; in tens, form fifita. 

f€to or flto, whistling with 
the lips; cf. fedua. 

fi, to surpass, to be better ; ya 
fi it is better so ; when used 
to express the comparative 
degree it is followed by the 
substantival form of the cor- 
responding adjective, e.g. ya 
fini tsawo he is taller than I 
(lit. he surpasses me in 
height), ya fini wiya it is 
too difficult for me, ka ji 
dama ya fi jia do you feel 
better than yesterday, see 
fifita; ya fisu kariji he was 
stronger than they; it is 
often used with duka to ex- 
press a superlative, e.g. ya 
fi duka keau he is the most 
beautiful, mafi is often pre- 
fixed to a noun or adjective 
in order to form a compara- 
tive or to strengthen the 
positive; thus mafii kunche 
narrower, or very narrow; 
fiye da over and above, shina 
da dubu fiye da wanan he 
has 1000 over and above 
this. fiyaya superiority. 
mafiyi a superior ; cf . fa, 

fi> Y^-fiy e fiy e > n - surpassing. 

fiache (probably onomato- 
poeic), to blow the nose. 

fiade, to flog; seefiyadi. 

fichi, to get away, escape; 
34 kowa ke so shi fichi 
whoever desires to escape. 

flda, to take out, cast out, 




drive away, save from, fida 
navshi to punch. The word 
is probably a contraction of 
fUa da. 

fida, to play; aee/eda. 

flda-hakuka (grass tearer), a 
plant with sharp-headed seeds 
which when expanded in 
water are used to extract 
objects from the eye. 

fida-kai, a word used to de- 
scribe the custom of adding 
four cups of grain when 
making a bargain in the 
market. This amount of 
grain if given to a mallam 
is supposed to procure the 
forgiveness of sins committed 
during the previous year. 
It is also applied to allocation 
of one measure of grain for 
each inmate of house at close 
of Ramadan to be given to 
mallams, etc. The Arabic 
name for this feast id ul fitr 
may perhaps explain origin 
of word fida. 

flda-sartse, a cactus used in 
making hedges. 

fldeli, fidili (S.), fldali, a 
shrub, from the bruised seeds 
of which an eye medicine is 

fidla, cutting out, castration. 

fifiche, n. a fan ; see mafuchi. 

flfika, ffifuka, to flee ; cf . fichi. 

flfike, wing; ci.fikafike. 

fifiko, n. surpassing, used of 
interest, or usury ; yin fifiko 
to excel ; cf . fiko. 

fifita, fanning ; see /eta. 

fifita, fifiche, to surpass, used 
esp. in comparative state- 
ments, ya fificheshi he was 
greater than he; seefi. 

flga, n. plucking, snatching. 

flge, flgi, to take, take away, 
pluck (a fowl), snatch; fige 
jiki to pluck all the feathers 
off. figa plucking ; figege, f . 
figegia, pi. figagu, plucked or 
stripped, used of an ear of 
corn ; cf . fisge. 

figina, figini, pL figinai, an 
ostrich-feather fan. 

fijir, a kind of raddish. 

flka, to sharpen. 

fikafike, fukafuki, pi. fika- 

fikai y fukafukai,fuffuke y wing 
of a bird, feathers ; cf . fifike, 

flke, a sharpened stick, a filed 

fiko, power, excellence; yin 
fiko to surpass ; fikowa sur- 
passing; cf. saying, /ikon 
dunia wofi ne the excellence 
of this world is vanity. 

fila, stratagem ; see hila. 

f Ilaflle, fulafule, a paddle for 
a canoe. 

filania, clitoris. 




filasko, the name of a plant, a 
drink made from which is 
used as an antidote for snake 
bite, also for diarrhoea. 

filfil, a tree from which spice 
and scent are obtained. 

filfilwa, a sand-fly. 

fllfita, firfita, to fan ; seefifita. 

fili, pi. filaye (cf. Ar. .J*, 

plains, deserts), plain, any 
unoccupied spot or space; 
babu fili wuri nan there is 
no room here, 
finche, used of the cutting off 
and stealing little pieces of 
meat during flaying. 

findi (cf. Ar. Sjljo?, an axe), 
a sword with broad blade. 

finfin (S.), finfini (K.), soot. 

finso (i.e. fi-n-so), preference, 
yin finso to prefer ; cf . fiso. 

fira, yinfira to shell, of children 
to lose the teeth. 

fira, hira* (cf. Ar. ijj^), con- 

versation, tale, a story that 

is not true, 
firchi, the stalk of a grain of 

firda, to rip up ; see/arde. 
firde, blocks of wood, 
firdi, lion, wild beast; dan 

firdi an epithet applied to a 

firfita, to fan ; see filfita. 

firgaba, to be distressed; cf. 

firgigi, an exclamation on a- 
wakening. sun tashi firgigi 
they started out of their 

firgita, firgiche, to frighten, 
be frightened, shiver, e.g. 
with cold, shrink, tremble. 

firi, drought; see^aW. 

flri, fdri, to heap up earth, 
e.g. round the roots of yams. 

firko, to revive ; seefarka. 

firmaki, assault; seefarmaki. 

fisa, to put out, equivalent to 

fisa, to complete. 

fisge, fusge, to snatch, draw 
forth, take out, take off; used 
of a stream, igiar rua ta fisge 
shi the current carried him 
away ; gulbifisga gareshi the 
current is very strong; cf. 


fishe, fushe, to drive out, draw 
out, enthrone (a king), take 
away, save; ci.fisa. 

fiska, skin, cuticle. 

fiso, i.e. fi so, to prefer, wish 
rather; na fiso wanan da 
wanchan I prefer this to that; 
cf . finso. 

flta, to go out of, take out, 
followed by da it means to 
take away ; ya fita da shi he 
went off with it, rana ta fita 




the sun has risen, ya fita na- 
gari he turned out well, fita 
jini to bleed, fito to come out, 
fitas to take out, fishe to draw 
out, fitasda to take out, take 
off, undress, fissai, M. H. 
p. 223, for Jlta8da8hi expel 

fita, departure. 

fltara, n. fanning. 

fitila, a lamp ; seefatila. 

fftina (Ar. ££?), to annoy, 

punish; niaifUina a scold, 
fito, feto, n. whistling ; yinfito 

to whistle. 
fito, to come out from, 
fito, n. a paddle ; yin fito to 

ferry across a stream, 
fito, 1. a tax paid on leaving 

a country, tax paid to the 

king in the Kano market 

when purchasing a slave ; 2. 

a patch on clothes. 
fitsare, urine; yin fitsare to 

make water, 
fitsarin gwauro, used of a 

disease which comes out in 

boils on the knee, 
fitta, a leaf (Thaumatococcus 

Daniellii) used by the Hausas 

for thatching a house or 

wrapping up kola nuts. 
fiy&di, fiSdi, flogging with whip 

or birch; fiyade, fiyada to 

fiy&ya, fiy&ye, superiority, ex- 

cellency ; F 51 ka duba har 
fiyayan annabawa consider 
the excellency of the pro- 
phets; cf. fi. 

f5che or fochen gishiri, a 
cake, or cone of salt. 

fofi, fafe, to fade. 

fofo (S.), altogether, used in 
emphatic denials. 

fofo, a leaf or blade of corn ; 
fqfon kifi the scale of a fish. 

foge, a sprout of rice; ta yi 
foge it sprouts up, also used 
of a rice farm. 

foma (cf. Ar. 4**^-?, pride), 
pride, boasting; maifoma a 
proud, arrogant man. 

fora, fori, fore, to instruct, 
direct; abinda anforemu da 
shi that which we have been 
instructed to do; sun foru 
they have been reproved and 
have amended. 

forau forau, foro foro, the 
water or soup in which fura 
has been made; see farau 

forna, a small tish net. 

foro, 1. punishment, discipline ; 
E 22 mambidar wushewa don 
asansu anaforonku those of 
you who seek for adornment 
in order that they may be 
known shall be punished ; 
2. instruction, E 23 ya ki bin 
foron ubamu he refuses to 




follow the instruction of our 
fathers; foro, maiforo or 
mafori, pi. mafora, instructor, 

foto, clan foto a male dancer, 

fa, fua; cf. wanene ya fu 
wanene who excelled the 
other ? see fi. 

fuche, to cool down after boil- 
ing, used of food, liquids or 
molten metal : of a wound, 
to cease from inflammation, 
pronounced fhuche. 

fuche, to rest, afuche in peace, 
to abate ; cf . fata. 

fuchi*, to pass away; see 

fuchi, hissing sound, e.g. of a 
snake, yin fuchi to hiss ; cf . 
/ J fflda, huda, to open, pierce, 
bore, dig in the ground, 

fudi, n. boring. 

fudowa or fudawa, the be- 
ginning of the day, early 

fudu, to be opened; seefuda. 

fudu, fudo, to rise or come 
forth ; cf . D 28 hal rana ta 

fudu, four, nafuduy f. tafudu 
fourth, anafuda (?) it was 
done a fourth time ; cf . M. H. 
p. 98 (cf. Coptic flu). 

fufu, huhu, 1. a mixture made 

with kola nuts and fitta 

leaves ; 2. the packing placed 

round kola nuts, 
fufu, kufu, the lungs; F 198 
fufu da hanji na zubuwa their 

lungs and bowels shall be 

poured out. 
fufuji, to pierce many holes, 

used of water dropping quick- 
ly; ct fuji. 
f&ftlka, flfika, to flap the wings. 
fufuna, mildew ; aeefunfuna. 
fufunda, the phoenix bird ; cf . 

Gr. p. 155. 
fugiima, a load ; bale of goods. 
ftaja*, affair ; see huja. 
fuji, a form of fuda to pierce, 

of a ship, to sink. 
fuji, a hole ; cf. wuri da bafuji 

a cowry shell without a hole 

through it. 
fuka, shortness of breath, 

asthma ; na yifuka I breathe 

hard; intens. form fufuka. 
fukafuki, wing; seefikafike. 
fukumchi*, judgment; see 

ful*, very many ; see pul. 
f&la, pi. fuluna t cap or fez ; 

fula saH a blue or black 

fulafule (S.), filafile (&), pila- 

pili (K.), pi. fulafulai, the 

paddles belonging to a canoe. 

fulako, 1. shame, embarrass- 




ment; 2. a coin worth one- 
eighth of a penny ; cf. anini. 

fulandara, a fez, made of red 
cloth with a tassel. These 
caps are for the most part 
imported across the Sahara 
Desert; cf. tagia. 

fulata, ba-filache, fem. ba- 
filata or ba-filatana, a 
Fulah ; pi. filani, or fulani. 

fulata, fulani, fulanchi, 
fulbe, belonging to the Fulah 
tribe; ba fulata a Fulah 
native, fulani Fulahs ; fu- 
lanchi the Fulah language. 
fulbe (a Fulah word) is used 
as the name of the people. 

fululuwa* (Ar. JJs$, to be 
superabundant), exaggerated, 
superfluous; B 154 yawan 
dumi na fululuwa much loud 
talking and superfluous .... 

fonfuna, mildew, damp, smell 
of damp. 

funi, the twisting of a turban. 

funjun, the noise made by any- 
thing falling into water. 

funtu or da funtu, naked; 
properly, stripped of the loin- 

funtunchi, nakedness. 

funturu, futuru, chill, especi- 
ally applied to cold felt at 
night; also the cold season 
beginning in Dec. or Jan. 
and preceding rani. 

fttra (cf. Ar. jl>, to boil), a 
sort of thick porridge made 
with various kinds of grain, 
it is one of the commonest 
kinds of food amongst the 

fOLra, fure, furi (cf . (?) Ar. Sjf, 
heat), used with wuta to light 
a fire, to blow; maifura 
burning, wuta ta furu the 
fire is lit ; mafuri bellows. 
fur a kUne to persuade, fur a 
kasa to swallow up the 
ground, of going very quickly, 
lit. to blow a hole through 
the ground, fura salka to blow 
up a leather bag ; cf . hura. 

furaki*, a military leader. 

furau (from fura to blow), a 
species of scorpion which 

furche, to escape, to flee away. 

furchi, confession ; seefuruchi. 

furde, a bay horse. 

fure, pi .furanyiyfuraye, flower, 
blossom, fure is often used 
for tooth-paste which is made 
from the tobacco flower, fu- 
ren tsuntsu (bird's flower), a 
shrub with a scarlet flower ; 
cf. prov. kariafure ta kan yi 
ba ta yaya, i.e. the karia tree 
(or, a lie) does not produce 
any fruit. 

furfura, grey hair ; see furu- 




furfura, furfuri, to exchange, 

furl, to blow; seefura. 

furi, fari, drought. 

furi, firi, to hoe or earth up 

farji, to sneeze, to spit. 

furnai, the piece of wood to 
which the koma (foma or 
Jioma), i.e. hand fishing-net, 
is attached ; it includes both 
the bow of the net and the 

furta, to tell, speak to. 

furtali, leather blinkers for a 

furtumi, burtumi, castrated 

furuchi, furchi or huruchi, 
confession; yin furchi to 
confess, to declare positive- 

furufi*, a chisel for cutting 

furufara, furfura, turning 

grey, as from old age, grey 

furufuran tsofua, a grass with 

a whitish flower. 
furza, to spit out ; see/urji. 
fus, onomatopoeic, pop, the 

sound of bursting, 
fusata, to be angry; ct fushi. 
fusge, to pull out ; aeefsge. 
fushe, to take out; seefisJie. 
fushi, pronounced fhushi (Ar. 

u*W)> anger; yin fushi to 

be angry ; cf . haushi. 

fuska* pi. fuskoki, fuskuna, 

face, countenance ; fuska biu 
face to face; damre fuska 

to frown, yin bakin fuska 

to frown, look angry. 
fuskanchi, fuskanta, 1. to 

face in a given direction, e.g. 

east or west ; 2. cf. na fus- 

kanta da abu nan I must 

have that, 
fuskat-riga, the pattern on the 

front of a tobe. 
fustlma, a quarrel ; see husuma. 
futa, to rest; cf. fuche and 

fQta, futawa, futu, n. rest; 

futun banza an unnecessary 

futasda, to allay, 
futo, to swim, 
faturu (S.), sunset. 
fuzu, quarrelsome ; see hutsu. 

g. The letter t, is used by 

the Hausas to represent the 
sound of the English hard g. 
It sometimes represents the 
Arabic «•; cf. galadima, 

ganduy etc. 
ga, to, at, for, towards; har 
ga until, as far as, blsa ga 
upon, falsa ga near to, baya 




ga behind ; ga and a are f re- 
quently interchanged. 

ga> to see; frequently used as 
an imperative, gashi wanan 
behold this one, gashi see 
here ! ga shi nan stop thief ! 

ga, or rather -nga^rga, -Iga sing, 
and pi. this, these ; cf . vmringa 
this place, akwialga this 
goat, f. 

g&ba, before, in front ; ya tafi 
gdba gareni he went in front 
of me, yin gdba or chin gdba 
to advance, gdba ga in front 
of, over against, gdba, gd- 
bama later on, gdbama na 
samu kwrdi later on I shall 
get some money; the form 
gdban is used as a pre- 
position, in front of. shi 
ne gdbansu duka he is the 
greatest, lit. he is great 
before all. 

g&ba, pi. gabobi, joints or limbs 
of the body, F 175 shi karya 
kashi shi yenke duk gab obi it 
will break their bones, it will 
cut all their limbs. 

g&ba, pi. gabobi, the name of a 
white bird with red beak 
which lives in trees, wild 
goose ('?). 

g&ba, forearm (cf. damshi upper 

gaba, masc. pi. gababi 9 bosom, 
heart ; cf. gabana yafadi my 

heart failed me. faduargaba 

loss of heart, 
g&ba, war, enmity; abokin 

gdba enemy, anazaman gdba 

the battle was on the point 

of starting. 
g&ba, a fathom. The measure 

is the span of the outstretched 

g&ba, g&chi, bank, shore, 
gabachi, eastward ; cf . gabas. 
gabadai, gabadaia (lit. with 

single front), together, at 

the same time or place, 
gabarua, and by metathesis 

bagarua, q.v., a kind of acacia 

g&bas, g&baz, east, eastwards, 
gab&ta, gabache, to go before; 

gabata da to take a thing to, 

masugabata those who lived 

in former times, 
gab&to, to come to, face 

towards, bring together 

(manzo), to come to announce, 

gabatoni come here to me ! 
gabche, to fall in, fall into 

ruin ; see gubchi. 
gabduwa, a kind of wax. 
gabji, field mouse; cf. gyauji. 
gabo, a fool. 
gaboba, an eye-tooth, 
gache*, to slip ; see gubchi. 
gachi, brass, copper, 
gachi, geche, shore ; gdba (or 

gechen) kogi the near bank of 




a stream as opposed to keta- 
ren kogi the far side. 

gad&, pi. gadu, oribi antelope ; 
for list of antelopes found in 
Hausaland, cf . under barewa. 

gada, ground nut ; see geda. 

g&da, an exclamation of joy 
used by women whilst danc- 
ing and throwing their arms 

g&da, gade, g&do, to inherit ; 
cf. Gr. p. 138, 1. 39 zam 
gadowal saraki they will be 
the inheritors of kings, gada 
da to have as heir, to be 
succeeded by. 

gadan - kurmi red - flanked 

gadanga, very strong, an epi- 
thet especially applied to a 

gadaunia, interference, te- 

g&de, to inherit ; see gada. 

gadSgi, a grass eaten by horses. 

gado, pi. gdddje, g&da&hi, bed ; 
g&don machiji, lit. snake's 
bed, the name of a herb in 
which snakes are often found. 

gado (pronounced gyado), f. 
gadonia, pi. gadodi, gaduna 
(Kanuri id.), wild boar ; the 
domestic hog is called gur~ 

gado, bird with yellow breast 
about the size of a thrush. 

g&do, inheritance, usually oc- 
curs in the compound magado 
or maigado an heir ; gadowa 

g&do, an official who has charge 
of treasure. 

gaf&ka, gtifaka, small leather 

satchel, case for a book. 

* * * 

gafara (Ar. jjj£), forgiveness, 
kindness; D 34 kuna roko 
ku sa gafara pray and obtain 
pardon; C 46 aMdh ya bisu 
da gafara God follows them 
with kindness ; aikin gafara 
an act of kindness; ka yi 
mini gafcvra excuse me ! cf. 
prov. rashinfada yafi neman 
gafara avoidance of quarrel- 
ling is better than the quest 
for pardon. 

gaferta or yin gafara, to for- 
give, excuse. 

g&fiya, pi. gafiyoyi, a large rat, 
palm rat. 

g&fiya, battle-axe, hatchet. 

gaga (S.), folly, thoughtless- 

gagafa, a large bird, probably 
a species of eagle; it eats 

gagai, a tree from the roots 
of which is made an aphro- 

gagaishe, to salute several in 
turn ; see gaida. 

g&g&ra, to exceed in strength, 




to overpower; ya gagara or 
ya gargaru it is impossible ; 
dawa ta gagara I was not 
able to eat the dawa (lit. the 
dawa was too much for me). 
ya gagareni it is too much 
for me ; cf. prov. lifidi ya Ji 
kafadan dilali gagara bature 
ajia a coat of mail is too 
heavy for a broker's shoulder, 
too big for the Arab as stock- 
in-trade, Gr. p. 98. 

g&g&ra, to saw ; see magagdra 
a file or saw. 

gagara-bado, a bar used to 
close a doorway ; see kagara. 

gagata, followed by da to lose; 
gagata da hainya to lose the 
way; na gagata da shi I 
failed to understand it. 

gagauta, gaugauta, to be in 

gagawa, gaugawa, walking 
fast or excitedly. 

gage, gaga, to be stiff or be- 
numbed, agaga tottering ; 
B 109 dunia agaga tsofua 
the world is old and totter- 
ing ; see kage. 

gago, gagato (a word usually 
employed in a contemptuous 
sense), the most important 
man in a pagan (not Hausa) 

• * 0* 

gahawa, gahwa (Ar. S^j), 
coffee. Coffee is not used 

by the Hausas, but only by 
Arab traders. 

gaia, assembly ; see gaiya. 

gaida, gaishe (with pron. obj.), 
to greet, salute, thank, bid 
farewell; gaisa to salute; 
gagaishe to salute several in 
turn ; gaisua salutation. 

gaigaye*, the gnawing of a 
head of millet. 

gainya, ganya, pi. gainye, 
gainyaye, leaf-blade, herb ; 
cf. prov. ba dukan ruan sama 
ne da chiwo ba ruan gainye 
it is not the beating of the 
rain that hurts but the drip- 
pings from the branches ; cf. 
Gr. p. 99. 

gainye, fresh ; F 95 dan haki 
gainye a little fresh grass. 

gaira (Ar. j*£), less, e.g. metin 
gaira ashirin (lit. 200 less 20) 
= 180; ba gaira complete, e.g. 
metin ba gaira = 200 without 
deduction ; cf. en daia ya yi 
gaira if there was one short. 

gaira, better ; see gara. 

gaira, to make good; ba na 
iya gairashi I can make no- 
thing of him ; cf . gerta. The 
participial form gairawa is 
also used. 

gaisa, to salute ; see gaida, 

gaishe, to salute ; gagaishe to 
salute several in turn; see 




gaisua, salutation, greeting, 
tribute; it was esp. applied to 
tribute paid to Sokoto; see 

gaiwa, the mud fish (proto- 
pterus) found in most of the 
W. African rivers and re- 
garded as a delicacy to eat. 
Its length is about three feet. 
During the dry season the 
gaiwabur'ies itself in the mud, 
and according to the Hausa 
tradition eats its own tail. 
During the wet season it se- 
cretes fat in its tail which 
supplies sufficient nourish- 
ment for five or six months ; 
cf . similar use of fat in camel's 
hump. At the approach of 
dry season, it forms a regular 
chamber in the mud, which 
it lines with a protecting coat 
of hardened mucus. When 
the rainy season returns it 
takes to the water again. Its 
skeleton is notochordal, and 
a single vertical fin surrounds 
the posterior part of the body. 
Its tail being upwards is 
partly exposed to hardening 
of mud and rots away and 
occasionally breaks off so as 
to leave a wound; for de- 
scription of the gaiwa, cf. 
M. H. p. 54. 

gaiya, a tree the root of which 

R. H. D. 

is used for making medi- 

gaiya, n. assembly; a camp; 
yin gaiya to assemble ; suna 
gaiya juna they are gathering 
together ; cf . gaiyata. 

gaiya, scorn, mockery. 

gaiyata, to cause to assemble. 

gSje, to become tired ; see ga- 

gSje, to inherit ; see gdji. 
gajera, a short black and white 

viper (echis carinatus) = ker- 

gSjSre, f. gajera, gajeria, pi. gd- 

jeru (Ar. /&a&), short. 

gSjerta, gajarta, shortness. 

g&jewa, gajiyawa, weariness, 
inability, failure from fatigue; 
cf . gaji, gazatva. 

gSji, gSje, to be tired, fatigued, 

gSji, g9je, to succeed as heir ; 
cf . gddo. 

gSjia, fatigue. 

gajimare, 1. clouds; 2. a spirit 
in the form of an enormous 
snake which lives in wells, 
the male being red, the fe- 
male blue; it comes out at 
night; 3. the spirit of the 
rainbow which is supposed to 
hide in the clouds till it 
emerges in the form of the 

gajje, a pool of water. 





gala, galla, a small black odor- 
ous bee = rakua. 

galadlma, pi. galad/vmai, an 
official, civil and military, 

probably from Ar. £jj}\X*. 

J Ml X 

the plur. of ^UU. a title given 
to head of police etc. in Egypt 
and Arabia ; cf . prov. ido da 
ya ga sariki bai ya tsoro ga- 
ladima, i.e. he who has seen 
the king will not be afraid 
of his minister ; the word has 
probably come through the 
Bornuese, the suffix ma corre- 
sponding to the Hausa prefix 
ma or max ; cf . chiroma. 

galadimanchi, or galadan- 
chi, the office of galadima. 

galala, a find, treasure-trove. 

galan-kumburi, a round blue 

galgade, gargadi, to guide, in- 
struct; M. H. p. 228; see 

galgasa, gargasa, a hairy 

galhanga, a fool. 

gali, a sickness prevalent during 
the wet season. 

galkadi, gargadi, warning ; 
B 136 ji galkadi to listen to 
warning, D 30 muna galkadi 
gareku we warn you. 

gallo, a hard and transparent 
salt, rock-salt. 

galma (S.), garma (K.), q.v., 

pi. galmuna and galemi a 
large hoe bent back like a 
small plough ; cf. kariegalma. 

gam*, a locust which is pound- 
ed in order to make arrow 

g&ma, 1. to finish, complete, 
join ; cf. riddle, dan karamin 
abu gdma dunia a very small 
thing, but the world is not 
complete without it. Ans. 
The moon. 2. to form a plot 
or conspiracy ; with wayo or 
kai to use stratagem; gdma 
kai da, gdma baki da to con- 
spire with ; gdma fuska to 
meet face to face; cf. gamawa, 
gamshe, gamu, gangama. 

g&ma, because, because of. 

gama, to suit, please ; cf. gam- 

gamadidi, a moth with red 
abdomen, white thorax, and 
black and orange wings. 

gamafada, a tree with a yellow 
flower like laburnum. 

gamagari, a species of kola 
nut ; see goro. 

gamata*, D 14 a fainting 

gamatoro, a large, black and 
red, edible caterpillar covered 
with yellow spikes. 

g&mawa, mixing, joining to- 
gether ; gamawan hanu hand 




gamba, pi. gambobi, flour of 
guinea-corn mixed with water. 

gambo, a child born after twins ; 
see gumbo. 

gambu, door of a house made 
of wood. 

gamdare, a bow used in thin- 
ning cotton ; see ganderi. 

garni, garni da or game da, to- 
gether with, concerning; abin 
gamin magani that which is 
needed to mix with medicine, 
the complement. 

g&mi, to curse, abuse; seegUmi. 

g&minbanta, two trees planted 
together so as to grow into 

gaminbauta, two odd shoes. 

gamji, gumji, ganji, genji 
(ficus sp., Urticaceae), one of 
the rubber trees, baure (with 
bauren rafi, bauren-faddam- 
ma etc.), chedia, durumi, 
gamji, kawuri, ma, and 
others, are all names of dif- 
ferent species of ficus, and 
all yield milky juice having 
some of the properties of rub- 
ber, that of gamji being the 
best of those mentioned. The 
figs of baure and durumi have 
sometimes sufficient succu- 
lence to be edible; cf. taba- 
gamki, gwamki, an image; 
see gumki. 

gamo, ganwo, a pad on a 
carrier's head ; see gumo. 

gamon-kstar, gamon-katar- 
ta (S.), good fortune, luck, 
from Katar the name of a 
man who had extraordinary 
good luck according to a 
popular story. 

gamraka, crested crane; see 

gamshe, to meet so as to fit, 
to suit; ya gamsheni or ya 
gamani it pleases me. 

gamsheka, a snake ; see gum- 

g&mu, followed by da, 1. to 
meet with someone or some- 
thing; C 21 en ta garnu fa 
da kai if she meet (or agree) 
with thee ; to join or be joined 
together; A 7 ya gamu da 
wuta he comes to the fire ; 2. 
gamu da mache to cohabit 
with; ranan gamu the day 
fixed for beginning war, or 
the day for meeting, or the 
first time of meeting with one ; 
rangamu id., D 8, 29 ; 3. to 
collect, assemble ; kurdva 
gamu tax paid to native kings 
for the support of mallams; 
intens. form = gangammo to 
fall foul of, run up against. 

gamurji*, to embrace. 

gamzaki, morning star; see 

\ '::<• 7-2 




gamzaro, the headman in a 
city in time of war. 

gamzo, champion, hero. 

g&na; yin gana to talk se- 
crets ; ganawa, understand- 
ing, friendly relations; ba ta 
kara ganawa da shi she broke 
off intimacy with him. 

ganba, to eat too much. 

ganbo, sore, ulcer. 

ganbu (S.), a door. 

gancheruwa, hollow-backed; 
see gantseruwa. 

gandama, gyandama, a ca- 
labash used as a water jug. 

gande, gyande, f. gandua, pi. 
gandaye, a destitute per- 

ganderi, a reed instrument like 
a miniature bow used in thin- 
ning and cleaning cotton ; cf . 
bakan shiba, masabi. 

gandi, a large cowrie-shell. 

gando, a man who works, but 
receives only food, not money, 
as wages. 

gando, a breakwater, used for 
catching fish. 

gandu, gundu, tribute; kurdin 
gandu tribute money, tax. 

gandu, pi. gandai, a large farm, 
esp. applied to an official 
farm attached to an office as 
part of the emolument of its 

gane, to see ;. see yani. 

ganga, pi. ganguna, large drum 
used by soldiers. 

gangama (a reduplicated form 
of gama to join), to put up 
together, to mix ; E 7 agan- 
gama dukiansu let their 
goods be gathered together, 
gangamavxi, F 88, pass, ana 
kuma gangamawa it is also 
joined together, magangami, 
confluence of rivers. 

gangami, a large drum, a pro- 
clamation; yin gangamin a- 
zumi to proclaim end of a 

gangamu, intens. form of ga~ 
mu y q.v. 

gangamu, specially used of a 
yellow powder made from the 
pounded root of a tree used 
for affections of eyes. 

gangan (possibly an abbrevia- 
tion of gani-gani) : da gan- 
gan on purpose. 

ganganchi, purpose, intention. 

gangante, to push into the 
water and drown. 

gangara, gangari, to roll down, 
to jump down, descend ; pass. 
gangaru to be rolled down. 

gangarawa, rolling, F 153, 165. 

gangare, gangara, pi. gangaru, 
a steep incline, declivity, the 
foot of a mountain. 

gangaria, a kind of guinea- 




gangaro, rolling down. 

gangawftri, a herb supposed to 
be an aphrodisiac. 

gam, n. sight; yin gani to 

gani, gane (with pron. obj.), 
to see, behold ; frequently 
contracted to ga or gan. ga- 
shi behold him ! na gan&hi I 
saw him ; used metaph., to 
think, to think advisable, see 
with the mind, comprehend ; 
abinda na gani my advice is, 
or in my opinion, e.g. abinda 
na gani ya fi anfani sai mu 
tafi in my opinion the best 
thing for us is to go ; gani is 
sometimes used as a substan- 
tive, e.g. ina murna da ga- 
ninka I am glad to see (lit. 
at the sight of) you ; gano, 
ganu, to look closely at, get 
a good view of ; ganene, ga- 
nenia, pi. ganenu, seen. 

ganjigaga, a light-coloured 
kola nut; see goro. 

ganna, rampart ; see gantva. 

gano, to see ; see gani. 

gantseruwa, gancheruwa, 
gantsarwa, gantsara, to be 
hollow backed, of a pack 
animal to be overladen ; to 
bend the back inwards in 

ganwa, pit, ditch, rampart or 
wall round a town ; ganwar- 

amina ruined town- walls, so 
called from Amina a mythi- 
cal queen who wandered a- 
bout the world, walled cities 
springing up in a day wher- 
ever she stopped. 

gan wo, a carrier's pad ; see 

ganya, leaf ; see gainya. 

gara (cf. Ar. jU in, to trade), 
the small addition whioh the 
seller is expected to make to 
the value of the article sold 
by him on the completion of 
the purchase. When a man 
buys nuts or anything else in 
a small way, he gets his fifty 
or a hundred cowries worth 
and so many extra thrown 
in for luck ; this addition is 
called the gara) ena gara 
= how much are you going 
to give me into the bargain 1 

gftra, gaira, it is better ; gara 
hdka it is better so, ni gara 
en tsaya it is better for me 
to stop ; cf . gwanda. 

gara, pi. garani, termites (ter- 
mes bellicosus), usually known 
as white ants ; gdra is some- 
times used of ants generally; 
gdra is properly applied only 
to the female white ant, the 
masc. is zdgo. 

gftra (usually pronounced gy- 
ara) f to prepare, to put a 




thing right, to" arrange mat- 
ters ; gara kaya to get ready 
a load, gara hainya to pre- 
pare a way ; gerta, q.v., is 
probably a secondary form of 

g&ra, 1. a wife's or relative's 
marriage presents given to 
a bridegroom; yin gara to 
rejoice at a marriage; 2. a 

garafini or garafonu, a bitter 
plant, its leaves used in 
making sauce, fruit red. 

garaiya, guraiya, karaiya, a 
two stringed musical instru- 
ment with long oval body, 
bigger than a molo, also used 
for a kind of zithern. 

garaje, impatience; cf. garaje 
ba kariji ba hurry is not 

garaji, a grass eaten by horses. 

garama (cf. Ar. Jutj£, debt, 
tax), money paid to a king 
for permission to travel ; also 
used of any kind of tax; 
maikarbar g. tax collector. 

garama* or dan-garama, a 
raised ridge. 

garanya (K.), a reed. 

garara, one who has defective 

garaahe, haste ; see garaje. 

garatse, a point. 

garauwa (IL), a first present 
given as a sign that a larger 
will follow. 

gardama, dispute; see gerda- 

gardawa ; see gardi. 

gardaye, skilful, especially in 

gardi, gerdi, tgardia, savoury, 
e.g. geda tana da gardi the 
ground nut has a fine flavour. 

gardi, gerdi, pi. gardawa, a 
Hausa snake-charmer who 
begs, beggar. 

gare, to, at, unto. Its use with 
pronominal suffixes corre- 
sponds to that of ga with 
nouns. Used with them it 
expresses possession, like the 
modern Arabic ju£, thus 

l£ju£ = gareni I have. The 

forms garasa, garas, garai 
and gare are sometimes used 
instead of gareshi] for this 
use of gare, cf. also French 
c'est a moi. It is often pre- 
ceded by ddga, Msa and kusa y 
dag a gareni from me, kUsa 
gareshi near to him, blsa 
garesa upon it. 

gare, a boy's game. 

gare, a cricket. 

gare, pi. garuruka, a white 

garera, oesophagus. 




garewa, pi. of bagare 9 a chief- 

garg&da, to warn, i.q. galkadi, 

garg&di, n. warning, teach- 

gargami, garkami, strong in 

gargara, to exceed in strength ; 
see gdgdra. 

gargasa, galgasa, a hairy per- 

gargasa, gargaza, pi. gargam, 
a large fish with white scales 
below and red tail. 

garge, pi. garuga (S.), cattle 
shed ; see garike. 

gari, pi. garurtia, garuruka, 
garu, garigaru, 1. country, 
town, frequently used of a 
small town as contrasted with 
birni a large town; 2. sky, 
in the phrase ga/ri ya waye 
the day dawns, lit. the place 
becomes light; dunia ya 
wage is used in the same 
way ; gari ina wolkia it 
lightens, gari yai du/u the 
sky became dark ; 3. place. 
Hence gari{n\ to, in order 
to, e.g. garin shan iska in 
order to drink the air, i.e. to 
enjoy the fresh air, ya tqfi 
garin yawo he has gone for 
a walk ; cf . ku bani gari (in 
asking riddles) = do you give 

it up? Ans. mu baka we 

give it you. 
g&ri, flour. 
gari*, a minute, 
garikaye*, beanstalks used as 

food for camels; cf. M. H. 

p. 63. 
garike, gerke, garge, pi. gari- 

kuna, gerkuna, garuga, 1. a 

place where cattle are kept 

by night, stall, fold ; 2. flock, 

garimaka, garmaka, crested 

crane; see goraka, 
gario, a missile knife, a kind 

of sword with three cutting 

blades used for throwing, 
gariwaji*, strong in war. 
gariwoya, to mix; see gar- 

garje, a scab, sore, 
garkami, strong in war; see 

garki, garikine, cavalry with 

garkua, gerkua, pi. gariki, 

garklni, shield. For different 

kinds of shields cf . kwungura, 

kutufani, kunkeli, etc. 
garma (K.), a large hoe bent 

back like a small plough; see 

garmaka, crested crane; see 

garowa*, a fine male slave, 
garr, quickly, used of running ; 




ya yi ta gudu garr he was 
off like a shot. 

garu, a wall, a building. 

garunfa, garumfa, a straw 
hat; the word frequently 
occurs in the phrase dan- 
garunfa, q.v., i.e. a trader 
who carries his goods upon 
his head. 

garura, a red dye, brought as 
a powder from the East, used 
for staining the hands and 
for dyeing silk. 

garwashi, pi. garwashoshi, 
cinders, burning charcoal ; 
usually followed by umta; 
cf. gaivoi. 

garwaya, gariwoya, to mix, 
mix together, pass, garwayu. 

gasa, an exclamation of dis- 
content or resentment. 

gasa*, to be tired ; used in 
M. H. p. 149 for gaje. 

g&sa, imitation, rivalry, emu- 
lation ; yin gasa, or gashe to 

g&sa, to make' a large fire; 
to bake, roast ; naman gct- 
sawa meat for cooking ; gdsa 
hanu to warm the hands. 

gasaiya, a herb the leaves of 
which are used as a vegetable 
(Gynandropsis pentaphylla, 
Capparideae) ; cf . yar-ungwa. 

g&sara, interj. a cry of astonish- 

gasashe, f. gasashia, pi. gasasu y 
1. caught, of afire; 2. roasted. 

gase, with yi, to refuse to keep a 
promise, also to announce the 
intention of doing something 
without really meaning it. 

g&shi, n. roasting, warming; 
wuiar gdshi to fire to cook by. 

gashi, vomiting ; cf . gesa. 

gashi, 1. hair or wool of men, 
sheep, etc.; 2. feathers of 
birds, 8abon gashi down ; 3. a 
single hair, cf. F 144 karamta 
taswa gashi it was narrow as 
a single hair (cf. Fulah gasa). 

gashi, i.e. ga shi behold it! a 
very common form of excla- 
mation to attract attention to 
anything; gashi wanan look 
at this ! cf. fern, form gata. 

gashi, in the phrase mugun 
ga8hi y quarrelsomeness, bad 

gashiere, short, M. H. p. 173 
for gajere, q.v. 

gashimare, clouds, etc.; see 

gaskami, a food prepared from 
the fruit of the dorowa tree. 

gaskanta, gaskata, to establish 
the truth of a thing, to assure 
a person of the reality of any- 
thing, to speak truly ; cf . mu 
che duba ba gaskanta che we 
say that divination is not to 
be trusted. 




gaske and da gaske, true, truly; 
cf. seq. 

gaskia,- masc. or fern, truth, 
certainty, trust, righteous- 
ness; da gaskia truly, cer- 
tainly ; bada gaskia or yin 
gaskia to believe, ba gaskia 
to speak the truth, used of a 
judge ba or bada gaskia to 
acquit, gaskia ne it is really 
so, marasgaskia false; ban- 
gaskia faith. 

gata, gatanchi, happiness, 
prosperity; dan gata, yar 
gata a boy or girl of good 
position ; ya yi mani gata he 
has brought me luck. 

g&ta, pi. gataye, spy, sentinel, 
especially applied to a man 
on watch up a tree, or on a 

gata or gatan biri, large mon- 
key with red belly. 

gata, the day after the day after 
to-morrow, the third day ; cf . 

g&tana, 1. used in the phrase 
gata gatana (see it, see it 
here) which is used to intro- 
duce a story; 2. a story or 

gatanchi, wealth ; see gata. 

g&tari, pi. gatara, gatura, gd- 
tarua, hatchet ; dan gatari a 
small hatchet; gatarin aradu 
a meteorite. 

gato, 1. buttock ; maigato a fat 
man ; 2. bottom, foundation, 
e.g. gaton darni bottom of a 

g&tsa, to bite off : n. a stump. 

g&tse, to vomit ; cf. gashi, 

g&tse, sarcasm, irony ; yai gatse 
ga shi he laughed at him. 

gatsina (K.), pride. 

g&tuma, old woman ; see giya- 

g&tura, axes ; see gatari. 

gaude, a shrub with white 
fragrant flowers, yellow edible 
fruit (Gardenia thunbergii, 
Rubiaceae), gauden kura is 
another species with coarser 

gauga, gyauga, a game. 

gaugata, gagauta, to hasten ; 
gaugawa hastening; cf. M.H. 
p. 117 tana yin gaugawa she 
was hastening along ; da gau- 
gawa in haste. 

gauji,a large species of monkey, 
an old monkey. 

gauraka, crested crane; see 

gauraya, mixing up. 

gaure, to mix, intermarry. 

gauro, sprouting ; see gyauro. 

gaushi or garwashi, live cin- 

gaushi, gautsi, gausi, brittle- 




gauta, pi. gautaye, a plant 
closely resembling a tomato, 
of a bushy growth, its fruit 
has a bitter taste. 

gautan kaji, a species of wild 
tomato with edible leaves, an 
ointment is made from its 

gautan kura, a prickly bush, 
with coarse leaves and smooth, 
yellow, tomato-like fruit: a 
fatal poison (Solanum sanc- 
tum, Solanaceae). 

gawa, pi. gatvaweki, corpse. 

gawa, coffee ; see gahawa. 

gawasa, gawaza, pi. gawdsai, 

gawdsuna, gawdsoshi, a stone 
fruit, brought from the East, 
not grown in Hausaland. 

gawayi, charcoal ; see gawoi. 

gawo, pi. gawake, a kind of 
acacia planted near houses 
for the purpose of obtaining 
water during the dry season 
by digging under it. Its 
wood is red, its berries white; 
the leaves, which are eaten by 
goats and cattle, fall off during 
the dry season ; cf. kawo. 

gawoi, pi. gawaye, charcoal, 
not burning charcoal, for 
which cf. garwashi. 

gawurta, gawusta, to grow 
big, increase, to be firmly 
established ; yaro ya gawurta 
the boy has grown up ; also 

to talk big, to boast; ga- 
murtache, pi. gawurtatu, full 
grown, developed. • 

gaya, evil ; rama gaya to pay 
off scores. 

gaya, alliance, also reinforce- 
ment, assistance ; ya buga 
gaya he called for support; 
gayache to call on; angaya- 
cheta she was invited to join 
in a feast ; cf. gdyato. 

gaya, dough ; gayan tuo dough 
before it is flavoured with 
meat or gravy. 

gaya, to reveal, to make mani- 
fest or known ; ka gaya mani 
explain to me. 

gaya (K.), boundary. 

gayara, fatigue, trouble; sa 
gayara to cause trouble. 

gayato, to ask help from. 

gayauna, a farm given by a 
master to his slave on which 
he works on Sundays and 
Thursdays, and of which the 
produce belongs to the slave. 

gaye, n. demonstration ; yin 
gaye to make clear ; see gdya. 

gayya, assembly ; see gaiya. 

gaza, to fall short of, to be 
unable to do anything, to 
fail; na gaza (or na kasa) 
tafia I am unable to go; sun 
gaza isa they failed to over- 
come, M. H. p. 224 ; suka yi 
tvojen arba ho sun fi ko sun 




gaza da k&dan oho there were 
about 40(fl), whether more or 
a little leas does not matter ; 
hanu ya gaza masa his hand 
failed him. 

gazaguru, a giant. 

g&zama, gyazama, a kind of 

gazara, a reed from which 
arrows are made. 

gazari, a species of hanumua 
nut, somewhat like a kola 
nut; cf. sandalu. 

gazau*, a hyena. 

g&zawa, weariness; F 15 shi 
ne aziza da bai gazawa He 
is mighty and is not weary ; 
cf. gaje and gajewa; for 
similar interchange of j and 
z cf . jarimi and zarumi. 

gazo, da gazo strong. 

gazunzumi, a bad smelling bug. 

geaeya, giyaiya, a tree which 
grows in damp localities (Mit- 
rogyne Af ricana, Rubiaceae). 

geasa, to belch ; see gesa. 

geauga, play ; see gyauga. 

gebe, a slit in a stick, a fissure 
in a rock, a watercourse, also 
the beak of a bird ; cf . M. H. 
p. 200. 

geche, bank ; see gachi. 

geda, gySda, to wag the head, 
to beckon, especially in phrase 
geda kai to assent ; cf . kauda 
kai to dissent. 

gSda, g&da (arachis hypogaea), 
ground nut, monkey-nut, the 
oil obtained from it {main 
gSda) is used for food and 
for lamps in Hausaland and 
is very largely exported; it 
is obtained by expression 
with heat, and is of a light 
yellowish colour. 

geduwa, a disease which causes 
the fingers and toes to fall 
off; maigeduwa a man who 
has lost a finger or toe from 
this disease; cf. 'Hausaland/ 
p. 152 ; possibly from Ar. 

4 £ J 

*ju&, scrofula. 

gefe, bank of a river, the out- 
side or edge of anything. 

gefbu, girdle, used by women ; 
dan geftu id. 

gege, to pass near, go close to. 

gekau* = timjere. 

gembo, the next child born 
after the birth of twins; see 

gembo, pi. gembuna, ulcer. 

geme (S.), gemu(K.), pi. gema, 
beard ; cf . en ka ga gemu dan 
uwanka ya kamu tuuta shafa 
naka rua if you see your 
brother's beard catch fire 
pour water on your own, i.e. 
if trouble befalls your neigh- 
bour take care for yourself; 
maigeme a bearded man. 




gemro, grain that springs up 
of itself ; see gyauro. 

gendama, calabash ; see gyan- 

gendi, f. gendia, a strong, mus- 
cular, fat person. 

gengeda, sleepiness ; cf . M. H. 
p. 186, kana yi gengeda 
da kwana you nod in your 

gengedi, to feel sleepy, to be 
overcome by sleepiness. 

genji, a rubber tree; see 

gSno, an ant ; see gwano. 

gera, to prepare ; see gdra. 

gera, eyebrow ; see gira. 

geran geran, an imitation of 
the sound of anything break- 
ing = kilin kilin. 

gerdama, gardama, dispute, 
denial, a dispute in which 
something is denied ; ya raba 
gerdama he settled the diffi- 
culty; yin gerdama to dis- 
pute, deny. 

gerdama, v. to dispute, deny. 

gerdawa, snake-charmers ; see 

gerdi, savoury; see gardi. 

gergi (S.), a cotton farm. 

gerke, fold ; see garike. 

gerkua, shield ; see garkua. 

gero, a species of millet (pen- 
nisetum spicatum), very gene- 
rally used as a food by the 

Hausas; geron tsuntsu an- 
other species o^ millet, 
gerta, 1. to mend, repair, im- 
prove ; 2. generally, to make 

ready, prepare, to comb (the 

hair); cf. gdra. 
gertache, f . gertata, pi. gertatu, 

adorned, garnished, cleaned, 

gertawa, particip. form of gerta, 

mending, etc. 
gesa, geasa, to belch, 
gesbi, an animal resembling a 

large mole, 
geti* stingy, 
geto, hollow ; used in the phrase 

geton kune the hollow behind 

the ear. 
getse, a saddle sore on a horse's 

gewaya, to go round; see ke- 

waya and jewayi. 
gewoye, around ; maigewoye 

(lit. one who goes round) a 

spy; see kewoya. 
geza, pi. gezuna, 1. tuft of corn, 

rice or wheat; 2. the name 

of a horse or lion, 
gia, an intoxicating drink ; see 

gianduma, gendama, a gourd 

used as a water-bottle; see 

glbi, tooth-gaping, applied to 

men who have lost two 

teeth; cf. wushiria. 




giche, gXchi, to step over, to 
overthrow ; cf. gigiche. 

gichi, gichia, n. intersection ; 
yin gichia to sit cross-legged ; 
cf. ginchira. 

glda, pi. gldaje, gldashe, gida- 
daji masc, 1. house, dwell- 
ing, premises, glda includes 
the whole compound which 
may consist of more than 
one house (daki); maiglda 
householder ; gldan tsira 
house of escape, refuge, e.g. 
house of king, galadima, etc. ; 
gldan gobe, B 27 hdka fa 
dunia da gldan gobe so, too, 
earth and the next world, lit. 
house of to-morrow; gldan 
toasa theatre; 2. receptacle, 
used of cases, covers, etc., as 
gidan alura needle-case, gl- 
dan kibia quiver, gldan zu~ 
raua beehive; 3. it is some- 
times used for household, e.g. 
ka gaida glda give my salu- 
tations to your household; 
hdka glda how are the inhabi- 
tants of your house? kaka 
gida is also an expression 
applied to the children in a 
home for freed slaves; cf. 
M. H. p. 183, da gishe 
homewards, hankalinsa (or 
kainshi) ba shi agida he is 
not 'all there/ lit. his wits 
are not at home, alherin 

glda biu a blessing in this 
world and the next, bayan 
gida closet, stool, gida biar 
and gida rina parts of the 
embroidery on the front of 
a gown, gldan tururua the 
name of a plant ; gldaunia 
a large bowl or calabash con- 
taining fura. It is used of 
a fish bowl, when empty the 
bowl is called kivaria. 

gidibi (S.), kidibi, pi. gidiba, 
kidiba, kidney. 

gigar, leg-irons. 

gigi, n. lack of understand- 

gigiche, to fail to understand, 
to stumble as in a faint ; see 

gigichi, giddiness, vertigo. 

giginia, giginy a, pi. gigangani> 
giginyoyi, giginai, fan or 
deleb palm (borassus flabelli- 
formis), the fruit (kurdugo) 
is white inside with red skin, 
the leaves are used for mak- 
ing hats, mats, etc. ; the fan 
palm owing to the height of 
its foliage from the ground, 
throws its shadow at a dis- 
tance; cf. prov. enuar giginia 
na nesa kan shaki shadow of 
fan palm ! at a distance men 
enjoy you : addressed to a 
man who lavishes his bounty 
outside his own house. 




giglta, to fail to understand, 

to be wanting in sense. 
gigiwa (K.), insolence ; see 

gije, a bird's nest ; cf. seq. 
giji, house, home; cf. M. H. 

p. 206, mi zai sa aber giji 

what causes anyone to leave 

home; ubangiji master of 

the house; see glda. 
gijirta, to sit with crossed legs; 

cf . ginchira. 
gilgiji, girgiji, cloud, moving 

cloud as opposed to lumshi, 

q.v., a still cloud, 
gilgiza, girgiza, to shake, e.g. 

a tree : also to raise the hand 

in salutation ; gilgizaze, f . giU 

gizazia, pi. gilgizazu, shaken, 
gilma, to cross, to walk across, 
gilma, an axe, M. H. p. 100. 
gilme, pi. gilmomi, gilnomi, 

crossing; gilmen itache two 

pieces of wood crossed, 
gima (S.), oil palm, 
gimba, pi. gimbayi, 1. a large 

white seed used as a bead; 

2. the son of a king; cf. 

gimbia, daughter of a king, 
gimshi, a large, shady tree, 
gimshiki, gumshiki, pillar, 

middle supporting pole of 

gina, to dig, to build ; used of 

roads, to build, construct; 

gina karia to fabricate a 
lie; magini, fern, maginia, 
pi. magina, builder, potter; 
ginane built, fern, ginania. 
ginaria or ginania, rain during 
heavy storm, storm; cf. zir- 
ginchira (S.), to sit with cross- 
ed legs; aginchire with cross- 
ed legs ; cf. gijirta. 
gindi, 1. bottom or foot of a 
tree, hill, etc.; 2. buttocks; 
3. rope tying a horse's leg to 
a post, 
gindo, a poor man. 
gini, name of large fish from 
which oil for eating is ob- 
gino, to dig, grub up; cf. 

ginsa da, to be overdone with ; 
ginsa n. surfeit ; ya yi ginsa 
it causes surfeit, also ginshe 
to cause, surfeit ; cf . mun chi 
shinkafa har ta ginshemu we 
ate rice till we could eat no 
glnshimi, corpulent. 
ginsa, to over-eat. 
gira, gera, giro, pi. girori, gir- 

giray eyebrow, 
giraya, a kind of drumming, 
giraza, beam, fringe; girazal 

rana ray of sun. 
girba, to cut, to reap. 
girbi, n . harvest ; magirbi sickle. 




girgamo, guinea worm. 

girgiza, to shake ; see gilgiza. 

girgf zo, a spider ; see gizo. 

girigiji, cloud ; see gilgiji. 

girike, white tobe. 

girima*, to grow, to become 
large ; cf . girma. 

girima, great, large; see girma. 

girin girin, the sound of fall- 
ing glass, etc. ; see kirin kirin. 

gulp, the sound of a drum. 

girje, scab ; see kurji. 

girke, to place upright, place 
together, e.g. pots on a fire ; 
giggirkaa, frequentative form, 
e.g. angiggirka iukwcme a 
number of pots were put on 
the fire. 

girkeke, f. girkekia, pi. gir- 
keku, closed, fastened; cf. 

girma, girima, masc. greatness, 
importance, size ; yin girima 
to grow ; da girima large ; ta 
yi girima da shi she is older 
(or bigger) than he ; naflto 
ba girima ba arziki I had to 
quit in piteous guise; gir- 
mankai pride, conceit, swollen 
head ; ba (or bada) girma to 
honour ; D 62 rana nan da 
manmaza Jcun samu girma on 
that day you shall speedily 
attain glory ; cf . proverb sai 
da rai asamu girma great- 
ness will not outlast death; 

maigirma great, important, 

girmama, to honour. 

girmama, greatness ; F 22 ha 
ber bidanfa girmamaka leave 
off seeking after thine own 

girmankai, pride E 25; masu- 
girmankai proud F 167; see 

girme, to excel, be greater than, 
be older than. 

giro, eyebrow ; see gira. 

girsa, girshe, before pron. obj. 
to attack, fall upon. 

girtsa, to cut in pieces. 

gisago, an axe for cutting 
grass; see gizago. 

gisaka, kisaka. a hairy cater- 

gishi, a moth. 

gishiri, salt; cf. prov. mutum 
da gishirinsa shi han d&fa 
ka/o a man may boil a horn 
with his own salt, i.e. one 
may waste one's own sub- 
stance if one pleases. For 
other words denoting salt, cf. 
balma, ashau7na y gaIo,aserimi, 
kantUy zakanku. About half 
the salt in Hausaland is im- 
ported by way of the It. Niger, 
the rest is brought from dif- 
ferent parts of the Sahara, 
especially from the Oasis of 
Bilma. Salt is also prepared 




from the ashes of different 
grasses and plants which are 
placed in water and strained. 

glso, spider ; see gizo. 

gita (K.), a war axe. 

gitsawa (S.), a speckled goat. 

giwa, pi. giwaye, elephant ; toron 
giwa male elephant, for fern, 
see tagua; hakorin giwa or 
haurin giwa elephant's teeth, 
ivory; cf. prov. giwa awani 
gari zomo a great man is no- 
body where no one knows 
him ; in war giwa is applied 
to the king's body-guard, i.e. 
the strongest point of the line; 
giwan rua a large fish, ' Nile 
perch'; giwan bdsa a* large 
leather bottle used to hold 

giwakamba, a kind of guinea- 
corn used for rubbing on the 
eyes ; see dawa. 

giwaya, kewaya, jiwaya, to 
go round a thing in order to 
examine it, to gaze at, to look 
on at. 

giya, an intoxicating drink 
made by soaking guinea-corn 
in water for three days till it 
begins to sprout, it is then 
beaten and boiled. 

giyaiya, geaeya, a tree (mi- 
trogyne Af ricana,Rubiaceae), 
grows in damp places. 

giyatuma or jatoma, a woman 

who is beginning to grow old ; 
generally used by the Fulanis 
as equivalent to mother. 

giyauji, mouse ; see gyauji, 

gizago, a small axe used for 
cutting grass, a scoop to scrape 
out gourds, etc. 

glz&ka, a hairy caterpillar, the 
touch of which makes a sore 
on the skin. 

gizgari*, strong warrior. 

gizo, often pronounced gisso, 
spider, used as an emblem of 
envy and jealousy, cf . M. H. 
p. 200, the fern, form is koki* 
bakan gizo the rainbow. 

gizo, fear, used in the phrase 
ya yi gizo = ya ji tsoro. 

gizo, an abundance of long hair 
on the head in the fashion of 
the Asbenawa (Tuaregs) or 
the itinerant snake-charmers 

goama, better ; see gwama. 

goami, a re-kindled fire; see 

goata, to stick out, project, 
excel ; kada woni ya goata 
woni let not one project be- 
yond another ; cf . goche. 

goaza, an edible tuber; see 

gob&ra (Ar. j*&), 1. conflagra- 
tion ; 2. ruins left after a con- 
flagration; 3. pain, torment, 




cf. B 1 2 ko goba/ra bai ta don 
banai even the torment (of 
hell) is not equally harmful. 

gobdodo, bush ; see kobdodo. 

gobdua, yolk of egg ; aeekobdua. 

gobe, 1 . the morrow, to-morrow ; 
sai gobe a parting salutation 
= till we meet again to-mor- 
row ; gobensa on its morrow, 
i.e. the next day; cf. pro v. 
yau da gobe shi ya sa alura 
ginin rijia, i.e. perseverance 
makes a needle dig a well; # 
yau da gobe kayan attah to- 
day and to-morrow are God's 
possession, i.e. continuity is 
the prerogative of God ; gobe 
na nan to-morrow is coming, 
Le. there is another chance; 
2. used to qualify nouns of 
time, as week, month, etc 
= next, proximo, e.g. watan 
gobe next month ; 3. the last 
day, the judgment day; 
B 87 wanda ke shiri domin 
gobe who is making prepara- 
tion for the last day ; ranan 
gobe the last day ; B 11, 140 
ran gobe id.; gldan gobe B 27, 
125 the next world ; cf. mai- 
gobe, B 3. 

gobir, pr. name of a large dis- 
trict in Hausaland. 

gobra, gobre, gobure, gum- 
beri, to knock against, dash 

R. H. D. 

gobro, gwauro, gauro, 

gwamro, fern, gobrua t 1. 
bachelor, widower, spinster, 
widow ; cf . idiom, na yi go- 
bron tashi I have made an 
early (lit. a bachelor's) start ; 
cf. goro; 2*. used of a bad 
kola nut that has gone black. 

gobso, n. poking, e.g. with the 

gobta, an old horse. 

gochema, to make to fall, 
B 147 ; cf. seq. 

gochi, goche, 1. to turn off 
from the way, to pass anyone 
on the path, to lose the way; 
2. to be out of joint ; 3. to 
knock against ; cf . haderi ya 
goche da rua the storm came 
down in torrents; cf. goata. 

gochia, guchia, avoidance, of 
a missile, etc. 

gdda, to weigh, to measure. 

goda, gwoda, to show, to point 
out; cf. C 17 shi kan goda 
tauna takitaki dunia he would 
show to us the course of the 
world j cf. godu. 

goda, pi. gododi, antelope ; see 

godabe, path, road. 

godawa*, joint, section. 

godayi, pL of gode 9 q.v. 

gode, gdda (Kanuri id.), to 
thank, give thanks to, constr. 
with ace. and also with prep. 





ma; na gode maka thank 
you ; the word is frequently 
used of thanksgiving to God, 
as in E 2 mu gode ubangiji 
sarki sarota, F 256 na gode 
ma allah. 

gode, pi. godayi, 1. a thorny 
creeper used in making 
thatched roofs ; 2. the circu- 
lar bands of sticks which 
are tied round the reed rafters 
of a thatch to keep them in 

godia, pi. gwaddiy a mare, 
used as the fern, of doki. 

godly a, thanks ; muna godia zua 
ga allah we give thanks to God ; 
cf. D 101 muna godia don 
muhammad we give thanks 
on account of Mohammed, 
yin godia to give thanks. 

godo, a coarse white cloth. 

godo, the name of a tree the 
leaves of which are used in 
making soup, M. H. p. 74. 

godo, flattery, yin godo • to 

godobe, a broad road. 

godogo, a faked cowry shell 
used by dishonest gamblers, 
made by joining two small 
shells together so that the lips 
or back are always exposed. 

godu, intr. and reflex, form of 
goda, to appear, make oneself 
known to. 

gofa (K.), pi. gofanni, the fork 
of a bifurcating branch or 
stick, itache maigqfa a stick 
with a fork in it. The equi- 
valent for gofa in Sokoto is 

gofa, to excel in size ; ya gqfani 
he is bigger than I; cf. gota. 

gofo, an ass with black mouth. 

gogali, a mixture of nuts, 
beans, etc. 

gogamSsu, small plant with 
white globular flower, a pur- 
gative is made from it. 

gogara*, boastful warrior ; see 

goge, n. a stick for a musical 
instrument resembling a vio- 
lin; also the instrument it- 

goge, a shrub with jasmine- 
like, fragrant blossoms (Cre- 
mospora sp., Rubiaceae). 

gogi, goge, to scrape, polish, 
clean, to rub in, goge zane 
to rub spots, M. H. p. 197. 

gogo*, Fulah id., aunt, father's 

gogo, a black, tailed baboon 
5 ft. high found on banks 
of the It. Benue\ 

goguwari, a small lizard, with 
black head; its bite is said 
to cause leprosy. 

goho, an obscene gesture used 
by children. 




goi, charcoal; see gawoi. 

goino, yin goino to fall in 
price; cf. gonjo. 

goiwa, gwaiwa, testicles. 

goiya, goya, goiye, to tie up 
together ; to bear in the ear, 
as corn, etc. ; goiya hanunka 
fold your arms. 

goiyo, a child carried on the 
back. Infants are always 
carried thus in Hausaland, 
bound to the mother by a 
fold of cloth; B 116 ba shi 
rautu goiya ba does not an 
infant die ? yin goiyo to give 
suck to. goiyo is used of the 
care of children up to age of 
12. ambada yaro goiyo the 
boy was put under guardians. 
maigoiyo guardian, goiyo is 
Also used for a bundle; cf. 
M. H. p. 155 ta yi goiyo 
woni ga bayanta she made 
another bundle (of corn) for 
her back, goiyo, or goiyon 
masara is used of the cob 
or head of corn. 

goji (Z.), pumpkin ; mijin gqji 
a small tree with white flower, 
cuttings of which are often 
planted with the goji, cf. 
kabewa (K.). 
gojia, ground nut; see guchia. 
golgoda, gorgoda, to measure, 
to compare by measuring; 
golgodawa, gorgodawa mea- 

suring; cf. M. H. p. 100 shina 
tafia golgodawa kafansa da 
na uwansa he would walk so 
as to compare his steps with 
those of his mother. 

golgodo, gorgodo, measure; 
cf. D 25 kowa shi sarau gol- 
godosa every man shall receive 
his measure (of reward) ; used 
also adverbially with suffixed 
pronouns, e.g. A3 ka yi gov- 
godonka na kokari make what 
attempt thou canst, lit. do 
thy measure of attempt. 

goli (S.), a leather band worn 
round the neck. 

golma, a walking stick. 

goma, good, applied to women 
only, an old woman. 

goma, card, number, ten; used 
with particle slm and the 
units to form numbers eleven 
to nineteen, goma sha data 
eleven, goma sha biu twelve, 
etc gomia, a plural form of 
goma is sometimes used to 
express the decades above 
ten ; thus gomia biu twenty, 
gomia uku thirty. This was 
probably the original method 
of counting large numbers 
before the Hausas borrowed 
Arabic numerals. With el- 
lipsis of goma, sha daia — 
eleven, sha biu twelve, etc. 

gomache, to prefer ; cf . guma. 





goifiaza, a species of antelope: 
by metathesis for gonzana. 

gomdazaki, gondazaki, gan- 
dazaki, gamzaki, morning 

g6mi, a club or heavy stick. 

gomki, gonki, roan antelope. 

gomraka, crested crane; see 

gona, pi. gonaki, 1. farm, culti- 
vated field; 2. fig. fosterer; 
B 109 dunia gonal chiuta the 
world is the nurturer of sick- 
ness ; maigona farmer. 

gonda, often pronounced gwan- 
da (carica papajra), pawpaw 
tree* or fruit. The leaves 
and fruit are greatly valued 
by the Hausas. A piece of 
tough meat wrapped in a 
pawpaw leaf becomes tender 
in half an hour. The same 
result is produced by placing 
a piece of the fruit in the 
cooking pot. The fruit re- 
sembles a melon and is bright 
red inside. For description of 
the gondar mazar (Egyptian 
pawpaw) cf. M. H. p. 52. 
gwanddr daji, a species of 
custard apple with yellow 
edible fruit and fragrant 
leaves (Anona sp., Anona- 

gohda, a cloth with white 

gondazaki, see gomdazaki. 

gondo, a fish resembling an eel. 

gongola, gwongola, a Nup6 

goni, gwoni, gwani, pi. go- 
na% gonaye, clever, skilful, 
expert ; as adv. cleverly, skil- 
fully, expertly, gwanin rua 
an expert swimmer ; gwanin 
doki a good horseman. 

goni, profession, occupation, 
skill, art; cf. seq. 

goninta, cleverness; cf. M. H. 
p. 219 goninta wuya gar eta 
cleverness is a hazardous 

gonjo, cheap sale, reduction in 
price ; anabuga gonjo a cheap 
sale is being announced on 
the drums ; cf . goino. 

gonki, gomki, a roan antelope; 
see gwenki. 

gonzama, antelope ; cf . gomaza. 

gdra, pi. gororiy fern, reed, bam- 
boo ; gorar jiki straightness 
of body from hips to shoulders ; 
goral hanchi bridge of the nose. 

gora, pi. gorunO) a kind of 

gdr&, pi. goHna, masc. calabash, 
cup, water bottle; cf. prov. 
kowa ya kas kift goransa who- 
ever kills a fish (it is for) his 
own basket, i.e. a man's acts 
come home to himself. 

goraka, gauraka, garmaka, 




gamraka, gonuN&a, pi. gau- 

rqki (balearica pavonina), 
crested crane; a large bird 
with golden crest, the spread 
of it* wings is over sjs feet, 
its breast is white. 

goreba, <Jum palm ; see gorib<n. 

gapgodo, measure; aeegolgodo. 

gaitgungmna, a large black 
beetle with long legs. 

g6ri, mockery; yin gdri to 
mock at. 

goria*, a large goro nut. 

goriba, gpreba, pi. goribai, 
goribobi (crucifera thebaica), 
the dum palm, mats, fans, etc. 
made from its fibre. . 

gorje, gwaije, gurje, 1. large, 
buzzing horse-fly; 2. small 
bell on horses, etc. 

go^o, pi. gwurra (urr pronounc- 
ed as in English currier), the 
kola nut, the fruit of the 
sterculia acuminata, found 
in the greatest perfection, in 
the hinterland of the Gold 
Coast Colony. The nut, which 
is the size of a large chestnut 
and of brick-red colour, has 
a bitter taste somewhat simi- 
lar to quinine, and is chewed 
by the Hausas as a stimulant, 
and enables them to go for 
a long time without food; 
of. 'Rausalani'pp. 95 — 117. 
namijin goro is, a small white 

kind of goro nut used as a 
medicine. Various messages 
are conveyed by the gift of 
different l^incls of kola nqts ; 
cf. M. H. p. 200 «tffa* hwoo 
goro na tambaya they brought 
a kola nut with the object of 
enquiring; gopon saiyan baki 
kolas given by the best W an 
to tl*e bride in order to over- 
come her shyness ; goron yo> 
hi the share of tfye spoil claim- 
ed by a successful war ch.ief. 
"f here are three common kinds 
of tola nuts, 1. atarus; 2. la- 
huje, less bitter and dearer 
than 1 ; 3. garyigaga. An 
early crop of a bright red 
colour and often insect-ridcUed 
which is. sold about November 
is called nata, the later crop 
is called janforago and a 
specially good crop sold early 
in the year gamagari. To 
the salutation olbishirinka 

. (lit. your news?) $he answer 
is goro. The answer implies 
that the messenger will receive 
his reward, e.g. a kola nut* 

gQrp, bachelor ; see gobro. 

goron-rua, a tree with pluni- 
like fruit ; Irvingia Smithii. 

gorori (K.), a white cloth with 
rec] stripes. 

gorua,gobrua, a virgin ; clgqro. 

gorzp, gwarzo, pi. goraje, 1. 




strong, muscular person; 2. 
husband*; C 50. 

goshi, forehead, brow, front; 
B 51 hub sainya lahiralka go- 
ban goshi place the next world 
before your forehead ; goshin 
bauna (buffalo's forehead), 1. 
a sandal with a triangular 
piece of cloth attached to it 
to protect the toes as the 
base of the horns protects the 
buffalo's forehead ; 2. a small 
plant with yellow flower ; cf . 
tsuhu ; goshin hare (the fore- 
head of the male hyena), a 
name given in Sokoto to a 
woman's coiffure. 

goska, a tree ; see gwaska, 

gota, to exceed in size; see go/a. 

gouma, better ; see guma.^ 

goyo, to give suck ; see goiyo. 

goza, sweet potato ; see gwaza. 

gu, always with connective n, 
and pronounced m before 6, 
= umri ; 1. with, at, in ; gun- 
chart there, Bill gun duni- 
ana in this world, B 155 gun 
malamai with the Mallams; 
preceded by har=harga A 25 
ddga kasua har gum buki 
from the market unto a mar- 
riage feast ; 2*. = gurubin 
instead of, for. 

guano, stinking beetle, M. H. 
p. 205 ; see gwano. 

guba, 1 . a poisonous plant, B 1 4 ; 

2. a mixture of dead flesh and 
adua tree eaten as a pre- 
ventive charm against injury 
in battle, etc.; 3. a thing 
which has died of itself. 

gubanta, to poison. 

gubchi, gache, 1. to slip, to 
slip into, to slip off a wheel ; 
2. applied to a well, to fall 
in ; cf . gochi, gabche, hubche* 

gttbo, back teeth. 

gubri, to knock against; see 

guchia, ground nut, see gujia, 

guchia, avoidance of a missile, 
etc. ; see gochia. 

gtlda (S.), 1. an excrescence, 
swelling; 2. the dot above 
or under one of the letters of 
the alphabet, 

guda, prepared meat of the 
ragon laiya, M. H. p. 154. 

gtlda, number, times ; guda 
nawa how many ? Used with 
numerals as guda uhu three 
in number; also with the 
force of our numeral adverbs, 
as guda uhu three times, 
thrice; in phrases, guda ka- 
nena my only brother ; B 25 
shi do gUda guda ta teire let 
him try to take one, the other 
flees away ; guda corresponds 
to English ' unit,' gtlda guda 
one at a time; gtidarm one 
of them ; cf . daiarsu. 




gtlda, gudu, shout, acclamation, 
crying out for joy ; esp. ap- 
plied to sound of joy made 
by a woman by holding the 
nose and trilling the tongue. 

gudaje, cf. gudajen zumua 
young of beesj also used of 
seeds in pods, possibly = gi- 
daje\ see g$da. 

gudftna, to happen. 

gudano, to flee from; cf. Gr. 
p. 138, 1. 35, ya gudano mam- 
chinya he fled from a bare- 
legged people. 

gttdawa, diarrhoea ; cf. gudun- 

glide gtlde, a grass eaten by 
horses (Dactyloctenium Ae- 

gudu, crying out for joy ; see 

gudu, to run away, to make 
one's escape ; see guje, 

guduma, pi. gudumeya, a 
hammer, club, knotted stick, 

gudundaji, diarrhoea or dy- 
. sentery ; cf . gudawa. 

gudungumi, log fastened to 
neck to prevent escape. 

gudunmawa, gudumuwa, 
gudumawa,help, assistance, 
especially in war. 

gudunya, a cooking pot. 

gflfa (S.), to lie with.^ 

gufa, gufata (Ar. a**), large 
grass basket or pannier. 

gufaka, a satchel ; see gdfaka. 

guga, rubbing ; see goge. 

guga, pi. guguna, masc. bucket, 
skin used for drawing water 
from well ; dauren guga a 
square arched roof, seedamre; 
guga also is used to describe 
the way in which a hen ruffles 
its breast when sitting on eggs. 

gugana, formed from preceding, 
to draw water. 

gugara*, gogara* a mighty 
man ; kai gugari thou mighty 
one ! used in exclamations. 

gugi*, pi. gugui, swelling in 
front of a man's body; ele- 

gugi, a large quantity ; see gugu. 

gugu, gugi, large quantity, 
much ; ba shi da gugu he has 
but little; gugin rairai much 
sand ; da gugu much. 

gugua, also pronounced gugwa 
a whirlwind, whirling dust, 
commonly known as 'wind 

gugurta, to lame ; see guragu, 

gugutu*, horse enema. 

guiba, gwiba, guibi, dirt, 
muddy water, dregs ; D 57 
maimakara ba shi sha rua ba 
sai na guiba he who is late 
shall have nothing but muddy 
water to drink; cf. proverb 
jini ya fi rua guibi blood is 
thicker than water, i.e. those 




. akin to one another will cleave 
together, M. H. p. 196 ; used 
of the substance or body of 
fuva or kunu. 

guiwa, gwiwa, pL guiwaye, 
guiwoye, gwium, knee; gui- 
wan hanu elbow. 

goje, a form of gudu to run 
away, to flee; cf. ya guje 
masa he escaped from him; 
ya tafi aguje he went off at 
a run; ruan guje running 
water; cf. maguje. 

gujeje, fugitive, vagabond, run- 
away slave. 

gujia, guchia, pi. gujeye, guji- 

yoyh ground nut (cf. Ar.jj*,, 
Pers. gauz nut); a species 

i of small ground nut which 
is largely used for food; cf. 
prov. maza dengin gujia ne 
men are like a lot of ground 
nuts, cf. Gr. p. 102 ; cf. ami 

' dan gujia, M. H. p. 231. 
gujia is used in Sokoto for 
chacha a gambling game, it 
is also used with da saki in 
describing colour or texture 
of cloth. 

g$lg,, n. pushing with the knee. 

gulbi, pi gulabe, river, any 

v large amount of water in a 

i, deep place; gulHn ido the 
socket of the eye. 

gulc, to dislocate, e.g. a bone. 

gulgudu, measure; see #<>%«*>. 

gulguaa, to move back; cf. 

gijjub^, fruit of a tree. 

gululu, pi. guiulai, 1. the mud 
tell on a kind of spincUe 
used for winding thread; 2. 
gululuwwno 'hare's spindle 
balance,' a plant with a 
mauve compound flower like 
a thistle's, which is thought 
to resemble a gululu ; a, con- 
coction made from this is 
used in boiling water in order 
to treat diseases of the eye. 

guma, gwoma, goma, used 
like gara to express superi- 
ority, as gara haka, guma 
hdka it is better so. guma 
yau da jia better to-day than 
yesterday ; cf . gomache. 

gtLrna, finish ; see g&ma. 

gumagumai, stumps, pi. of 

gungume, q.v. 

gumasakawa*, gumsakawa, 

a place where anything is 

gumaza, a kind of wrestling 

game played by boys. 
gumba, a mixture composed of 

rice, milk and honey, 
gumba, honey-guide, 
gumberi, gobflri, gobro, 

gobre, to knock against, to 

dash together. 
gumbo, gambo, gembo, the 




next child bom after the 
birth of twins tuguaye. 

gumda, a boring insect; see 

gumde, to nil the mouth. 

gfime, beaten out rice. 

gumi (Ar.^fc, to oppress with 
stifling heat, of the day), 1. 
heat of the sun, 2. perspira- 
tion ; yin gumi to perspire. 

gumji, a tree from which a 
kind of rubber is obtained ; 
see gamji. 

gumka-rua, a small calabash 
placed in a water pot to pre- 
vent the water spilling when 

gumki, gamki, gwanki, pi. 

gumakai, gwumaki, 1. idol, 
graven image, worship of 
idols; 2. place of torment 
for unbelievers. 
gumki, a ransom paid for a 
captured slave; cf. Gr. p. 138, 
1. 33, zasu chin tara da gumki 
they will have to pay fines 
and ransoms. 

gumo, ganwo, gamo, the cloth 
worn by carriers on the head. 

gumsakawa*, a store-place; 
see gumasakawa. 

gumshe, to meet, etc. ; see 

gumsheka, gamsheka, 1. a 
large species of snake, some- 
times applied to the cobra 

(naia nigricoUis) ; 2. an epi- 
thet applied to a warrior. 

gujnajufci, pole ; see gim&iki. 

gum^9b roaring, e.g. of a lion. 

gun, with ; see gu. 

gupa, pi. gunainaij gunwe, a 
small species, of pumpkin, the 
seeds of which are put in 
soup; there are two kinds, 
one bitter, one sweet. 

gttnagiini, grumbling, mur- 
muring; yin gunaguni to 
grumble; see guni. 

gunche, to mutilate. 

gunda, 1. edible bark of a tree ; 
2. strip* of leather. 

gunda,, a bud; yin gunda to 
sprout; e.g. kakewa ta yi 

gunda, gumda, a boring in- 
sect, death-watch. 

gundu, tribute ; see gancfu. 

gundu, short; see guntu. 

gundua, a slice, e.g. of a ftsh, 
a^so the act of cutting up a fish. 

gUttduma, club, D 41 ; see gu~ 

gunduma (S.), a division or 
district, masugundumq dis- 
trict headmen. 

grmdura, to over-eat; cf. 

gungama warrior. 

gungu, a mob or rout; ajso 
used as a verb, to gather 




gungu*, pi. gunguna, island; 
the word is probably bor- 
rowed from the Songai lan- 
guage ; commonly pronounced 
by Nupes lungu. 

gungume, pi. gumagumai, the 
stump of a tree after it is 
cut down, also used of a beam 
of timber or a large log. 

gunguni, murmuring ; see 

guni, to growl; see guna- 

guniya, gunya, light-brown 

gunsul*, a Moorish corruption 
of Consul, commonly used by 
the Hausas in N. Africa. 

guntsari, curds of milk which 
have become sour. 

guntu ; guntun taba stump of 
a cigarette. Also used as an 
adj. fern, guntua, pi. guntaye, 
short, truncated; guntun abu 
a small remainder or frag- 
ment of a thing, a small piece 
cut off. 

gunzu, pig. 

gura or gurai, a small bird. 

guragu, gurgu, fern, gurgua, 
pi. guragu, 1. halt, lame; 
E 36 guragunmu our lame 
ones ; 2. with bent legs ; 3. 
without legs ; it is not used 
of animals, e.g. a Hausa would 
say of a horse ba shi da kafa, 

lit. he has not a foot; gugurta 
to lame.- 
guraiya, a musical instrument; 

see garaiya. 

%* * 

gurara (Ar. 3jtj£), a large sack 


for oxen or camels. 

gurasa (Ar. &*^i), bread ; usu- 
ally confined to wheaten 
bread, which is only made 
in the northern parts of 
Hausaland, red pepper being 
one of the principal ingredi- 
ents; kurdin gurasa a phrase 
used in asking alms. 

gurbache, to be destroyed, to 
disappear; B 93 gabas da 
yamma zata ta gurbache the 
east and west will disap- 
pear; gurbache, of water, to 
be fouled, cf. tapki ya gur- 
bache) gurbata to foul, make 
muddy, also intrans. to be- 
come dim ; gurbatachen rua 
muddy water. 

gurfana (S.), to kneel ; see 

gurgu, lame ; see guragu. 

gurgunchi, gurugunta, halt- 

gurgunguma, a large black 
beetle, kula kai gurgunguma 
agudun shqfo beetle (why) 
do you trouble to run away 
from the hawk ? i.e. the hawk 
would not eat so repulsive a. 




thing as you are, also kuru- 
gunguma, q.v. 

gurgura, to gnaw, bite at. 

gurguri, runner ; see guriguri. 

gurgusa, to gush out abundant- 
ly ; see gusa. . 

gurguzu, gurgusu, 1. seeds 
crowded together; 2. a crowd 
or warlike array. 

guri, used as an adv. and prep, 
in the same way as tvuri; 
na tafi gurinn I went there ; 
see gu. 

gflri, 1. pride, lust, evil desire ; 
ya yi magana da guri he talks 
proudly; 2. wish; ba duha 
guri kan ruska thou receivest 
not everything that thou 
wishest for. 

guri, 1. grumbling; yin guri 
to grumble ; see guni ; 2. to 
entertain some bad design, 
to desire, to wish for, to be 
proud, to boast ; cf . prec. 

guria (S.), gurya, the seed of 
the silk-cotton tree. 

guribi, gurbi, nest; gurbin 
ido, socket of eye; cf. prov. 
gurbin ido ba ido ba ne the 
socket of the eye is not the 
eye itself, i.e. things that look 
alike are not necessarily iden- 
tical : also a hole scooped in 
the earth to hold a pot. 
guriguri*, evil ; cf . guri. 
guriguri, gurguri (Fulah gor- 

goro), runner in front of a 
horse, used of foot soldiers 
generally; cf. Gr. p. 137, 1. 17. 
gurimi, a musical instrument ; 
see gurumi. 

gurjago, a file ; cf. gurzago. 

gurje*, small bell ; cf, gorje. 

guije, a scab; see kurji. 

gurje or gurza, to press cotton 
seeds out of pods, also to roll 
raw cotton ; cf . magurji. 

gurjia, a large tree, the bark of 
which is used for staining 
the teeth ; it is like the silk- 
cotton tree but smaller and 
has red tulip-like flowers and 
stout thorns on its branches 
(Bombax buonapozensis, Mal- 

gurmu (S.), lame, pi. guramu. 

gurmunta, halting, limping. 

gurnard, purring or growling- 
of a cat or hyena. 

gttro, used in Sokoto for kabewa y 
a gourd. 

gumma, gurusuna (Fulah 
id.), hogs, also applied to 
domestic pig. 

guru, a mail's leather thong; 
cf . jigida of a woman. 

gurubin, instead of, gurubinsa 
in his place ; cf . gu. 

gurufana, gurfana (S.), to 
kneel down, to bow down, to 
prostrate oneself; yin gum- 
fani id. 




guruguntp, gurmvufita, gur- 

gunphi, talking; yin guru- 

gunta to. halt. 
gun*guaft,gurugWkhe, to.move 

away from ; see gusa. 
guruguso, to move towards; 

see guso. 
gurumffi, hat made of straw; 

i.q. garumfitj q.v. 
gurumi, gurirni, a musical 

instrument made with hair 

from a horse's tail ; of. M. H. 

pp. 94, 137. 
gurunguntsi, gristle, bridge of 

the nose. 

9 JJ 

gurus (cf. Ar. J*j*, pi. J^» 

piastre), small money used in 
N. Africa. 

gurusunu, hogs ; see gursuna. 

gurza, to. scratch. 

gurza, the pressing of the 
cotton; see gurje. 

gurzfcgo, gtuqlgq, a fifo 

gusa, to move a little way bapk, 
to rise up, gush out ; gusawa 
moving a little away; guso, 
gurugu80 to move a little way 
forward, to draw towards a 
person; gusa guso to move 
backwards and forwards ; 
gurgusa gulgusa to gush out 

gusda, to twist, bend. 

gushagushi, a sort of itching 

disease which attacks, the 

roots of the toes or fingers. 
gushe, to take **way, da ftway 

with, e.g. a custqja or h*w. 
gushe gv^she, to gush out 

gftgum, south, 
guj^melu, southwards, 
gutsi, a piece, smaU pprtipn 

gufem, see guzu. 
g^fcmrs, to ta&e a little of; 

see guzura. 

gutsur^, pi. gutmr^ 1. so^all 

piece* crumb or frajflnent ; 2. 
tl^e remaining pieceafter clftth 
has been measured out. 

g\H#uri, to breal* a piece o{F. 

guwa, water, a sip of water; 
ina da guwa there is a little 
water, guwa sai ya r&gi the 
water decreases. 

gqza, a species of monitor about 
one foot in length (vara^ius 

guzu, gutau, 1. bottom; guzun 
itacJie stump of a tree; 2 V 
cause, kada obi guzunsa let 
not its cause be traced ; mean- 
ing t . minene guzunsa ? what 
is its meaning? 3. matrix; 
enna ruan guzu da taba ? i.e. 
they are entirely different; 
a knife worn at the wai§t is 
arataya ga guzu; guzun at 
the foot of. 




guzuina, 1. lean; 2. an old 
lean goat, cow or horse ; also 
applied to women in the same 

guzura, gutsura, to take a 
pinch of. 

guzuri, provisions for a journey ; 
yin guzuri to make provision 
for a journey. 

gwabi, n. fat; da gwabi or mai- 
gwabi, adj. fat. 

gwada, a species of lizard. 

gwada, gwoda, to measure a 
thing to see if it is the right 
size ; cf. prov. ko ba agwada 
ba linzami ya fi bakin Jcaza 
even without measurement a 
bridle is obviously too big 
for a fowl's mouth. 

gwado, a kind of Nupe" cloth. 

gwafsa or namijin gwafea, a 

tree with fragrant blossoms, 
and black plum-like fruit 
(Hannoa uhdulata, Sapin- 
daceae) ; cf . takandar gitoa. 

gwaiwa, gwowa, goiwa, tes- 

gwalo, a grimace; yin gwalo 
to make faces. 

gWallo, gwollo, a small bundle, 
e.g. of grain. 

gwama, to put one thing on 
the top of another. 

gwama, better, rather; see 
gutna, gwamache to prefer, 
to confie near; see seq. 

gwamatsa, gwamatsi, draw 
near, press together, intr. 

gwambaza, water buck = do- 
doka\ for list of antelopes 
found in Hausaland, cf . under 

gwami; cf. gwamin wuta re- 
storation of a fire which has 
nearly gone out. 

gwami, 1. lameness, a bent leg; 
2. bandy-legged, f. gwamia; 
maigwami id. 

gwamro, gwauro, bachelor; 
see gobro. 

gwana, gwano, geno, the 

gwanda=gara : da babu wawa 
gwanda da wawa better have 
a fool than no one. 

gwanda*, pawpaw ; see gonda. 

gwandarakune (pawpaw ears), 
a plant with fleshy edible 
leaves, in colour like a paw- 

gwangama, a kind of banana 

gwanja, name of district ; see 

gwano, the stink-ant; see gwana. 

gwari, name of a large town 
about fifty miles west of 

gwarje, a fly ; see gorje. 

gwarje, gwaJji, a small bell, 
e.g. bell hung on horse's 
breastplate; see gorje. 




gwarmi, to join ; also n. socket, 
joint of scissors ; cf . kwarmi. 

gwarzo, strong ; see gorzo. 

gwarzo (S.), the first hoeing 
after sowing. 

gwaska, an ordeal by water, 
given to slaves only; the 
name of poisonous tree (sass- 
wood) used for trial by ordeal 
on the R. Benue\ 

gwauro, bachelor, widower ; 
see goro. 

gwaza, goza, pi. gwazuna, gwa- 
zoyi, a cultivated plant with 
large arrow-head leaves and 
an edible tuber (Colocasia sp., 
Aroideae). gwazan-giwa is 
the name of an Aroid plant 
with large lurid, purple 
spathe, and a bulky tuber 
with acrid, poisonous juice. 

gwazankwado, the name of a 
poison used for arrows. 

gwenki, gwonki, a roan ante- 
lope, hippotragus equinus. 

gwiba, dirt; seeguiba. 

gwinki* oak, terebinth. 

gwiwa, knee ; see guiwa. 

gwodo, cloth coat 

gwoggwo, aunt. 

gwoma, better ; see guma. 

gwomache, goumache, to 
prefer; see gwamache. 

gwonda, gwanda, gwanja, 
the name of a district in the 
hinterland of the Gold Coast 

whence kola nuts are im- 
gwongwola, a canoe-pole ; see 

gwongwon, basin, bowl (a 

Nupe* word ?). 
gworo, gwamro, a bachelor; 

see gobro. 
gy andama, a water bottle made 

of a calabash, 
gyara, to repair ; see gara. 
gyauji, a species of field mouse; 

cf. gabji. 
gyauro, gyamro, sprouting 

from an old root, e.g. of 

guinea-corn, or sugar-cane, 
gyazama, a broad-leafed grass ; 

see gazama. 

h. In the case of certain words 
taken from Arabic an initial 
h tends to disappear al- 
together; cf. Ar. hasratun 

£>~*», Hausa hamra^ asdra, 
and tasari. The sound h is 
sometimes interchanged with 
that of f\ cf. hvda and fuda, 
hila SbJid Jila, hudu and/Ww, 
hako&ndfako. In some cases 
the sound of the h is very 
uncertain; cf. iska or hiska 
wind, achi or hachi corn, 
haba, hubba, an exclamatory 
particle expressing astonish- 
ment, indignation, incre- 




dulity or denial; it most 
frequently occurs in the ex- 
pression hubba mana good 
gracious ! 

h&ba, pL htibobi, chin; hdbal- 
kdda (crocodile's chin) a cap 
with two flaps to cover the 

habaichi, pi. habaitai, 1 . abuse ; 
yin habaichi to abuse behind 
one's back ; 2. signs between 
two men understood by them 
but not by spectators; a 
covert sneer, or innuendo 
conveyed by use of a proverb; 
3. a fable or riddle, maiha- 
baiehi ma&qfada wanda ya 
tanka ko ya fishi the man 
who is full of trite sayings 
rejoices in a discussion, the 
man who answers may sur- 
pass him. 

habaka, used of a fire, to catch. 

habaki*, pL habaka (cf. Ar. 

i)U»., cloud); B 169 habakal 

kamshi clouds of incense. 
habama*, to expand as boiling 

water, D 65 ; see habuma. 
habdi (S), ashes. 
habe, indigenous tribes (a Fu- 

lani word), it is a plural 

form of kado, q.v. 

haberta (Ar. j**.), 1. to ex- 
plain, declare, publish ; 2. to 
warn, hab&rtawa*, declara- 

tion, warning. The com- 
moner form is laberta, q.v. 

habki, wild onion or leek. 

h&bo, bleeding from the nose. 

habri, harbi, to kick, used of 
a horse. 

habshi, n. bark ; see hafshi. 

habuma, the rise and fall of a 
man's breathing, also used of 
boiling water ; cf . Iwbama. 

hachi, hatsi, corn ; see achi. 

hachin-tumkia, a tree; see 

had, until, i.q. har, q.v. 

h&da, 1. to pile up, bring to- 
gether, complete; A 11 ta 
kan hdda maka riguna it will 
heap up for you tobes, A 51 
ah&dasu chikin vmta they 
shall be brought together in 
the fire; hdda hanu da to 
owe ; hdda tafia to go to- 
gether, hdda da to meet. A 
neuter form hddu is found; 
cf. ba su hddua they will 
not assimilate; cf. idiom ya 
hddu tafariki he entered the 
road ; hadan zare intertwined 
cotton staples. 

had&ka, pi. haddku, stranger, 
a new-comer. 

hadama, greed, coveting; ya 
chika hadama he accomplish- 
ed his desire. 

h&dari, storm ; see h&deri. 

hade, hadie, to swallow; hadu 




to be swallowed ; hadiya 


h&deri, h&dari, pi. hddura, 

storm, flood, rain-cloud. 
h&di (Ar. **».), the limit of the 

law, the law; ya keta hddi 

he broke the law. 

h&dichi* (cf. Ar. iij*. n), to 
explain, declare ; D 5 zamu 
fa hddichi akan majia kalami 
we will speak out if there 
is anyone to listen to our 

hafaru, a trench at the bottom 
of a grave. 

hafshi, hapshi, habshi, hau- 
shi, hamshi*, barking; yin 
hafshi to bark. 

h&ge, to blarney, deceive; ya 
hageni he wheedled me into 
(lending, etc.). 

h&gtt, a small spear or dart for 
catching fish. 

hagu, hagun, hagum, left 
hand; cf. hauni. 

hai*, a form of the particle 
kar; E 47 hai adamatoa as 
far as Adamawa, E 50 hai 
mu vmahe till we pass by.... 

haiba*, beautiful clothing. 

haifa, haiffe (Ar. rt s*6**)> l - 
to bring forth, to bear, of 
human beings, animals, trees 
and plants; mahaifia a mo- 
ther; 2. of the male, to beget; 

haifu, 1. to be delivered; 
2. to be confined. 

haifafe, f. Jtaifafa, pi. haifafu> 
pass, particip. of haife, born. 

haifua, birth ; tun haifua from 
birth ; haifua^ also the be- 
getting of children; allah 
hai bashi haifua ba he was. 

haiinchi, haiyinchi (cf. Ar. 
^jl*. deceived), 1. alloy or 
metal with which alloy haa 
been mixed; 2. fig. deceit, 

haila (Ar.), menses of a woman. 

hainya, hanya, haya* pL 
hainyoyi, used both as masc. 
and fem., 1. road, way, street; 
bata hainya to lose the way; 
2. fig. path of faith, custom, 
etc. ; E 18 mamzatna ga hain- 
yoyin mumlmi those who 
continue in the ways of Mus^ 
sulmans; cf. tqfariki. 

haiya, an expression of regret : 
I am sorry. 

haiya, a hoe ; see hauya. 

haiySta, haiy&ta, to trouble, 
to annoy; see haiya. 

haja, anything exposed for sale* 
goods; ci.fcya. 

hajetu*, the vowels. 


hfiji, pi. hajoji (Ar. rt j~^)y 

1. pilgrim; 2. pilgrimage; 
B 162 guri gareni en tafi 




haji ne I have a strong de- 
sire to go on the pilgrimage ; 
D 22. haji, to go on the 
pilgrimage, i.e. to Mecca. 

hajijia (Ar. u * ft ,*», an intoxi- 

cant), drunkenness, giddi- 

h&ka (Ar. U^), 1. so, thus, 
F 153; hdka nekoba h&ka ba 
is it so or not 1 duk da hdka 
nevertheless; h&kanga in this 
way ; 2. right, truth ; cf . Gr. 
p. 131, 1. 47, zamu hdka babu 
fa&hi we will do that which 
is right without delay. 

haka, to dig ; haka rijia to dig 
a well ; mahakin kurege a 
jerboa catcher. 

h&kanan, thus, in this or that 
manner, also a periphrasis 

- for ' the same.' 

hakarikari, ribs. 

hakauche, mad, M. H. p. 191 ; 
see hauka. 

haki, hakin wuya uvula; see 

haki (S.), gasping, panting. 

haki, pi. hdkukua, a kind of 
grass ; F 95 akawo dan hdki 
gainye aduntse a little new 
grass is brought and pressed 

hakia, hekia, hakanya, dis- 
ease of the eyes, esp. applied 
to leu coma. 

R. H. D. 

haklka (Ar. U^A*.), truly, 

verily, indeed, 
hakikanta, to assert the truth 
or certainty of anything, to 
convince, to certify. 


governor, ruler, landlord. 

hako*, a roof. 

hako, pi. hdkokiy 1 . pit or hole 
for game to fall into, pitfall ; 
2. fig. of what leads into error 
or harm, a snare ; yin hako 
to make a pitfall for animals, 
also to take animals in a pit- 
fall ; ina hako bakin mutum 
I watch the words of anyone 
for a slip of his tongue to be 
used against him ; cf . fako. 

hakora, patience; see hamfouri. 

hakori, pi. hakora, tooth ; hak- 
orin giwa ivory ; hauri, q.v., 
is probably a corruption of 
hakori; hakorin machiji a 
weed with sharp spicules 
directed downward, hence its 
name (Achyranthus aspera, 

hakukua, grass, pi. of hdki, 

hakumche, see hakumta. 

hakumchi, hukumchi, 1. 
order, command; 2. judgment; 
D59, hal allah ski wanya hu- 
kumchi nai ga bayi until God 
hath finished His judgment 





upon His servants, M. H. 
p. 209, allah ya gama wanan 
hakumchi God hath accom- 
plished all this; maifiukumr 
chi or mahakumchi judge, 
hakumi (Ar.), power, influence. 

h&kumta, h&kumche (Ar. 

* * * 
j£*>), to order, to command ; 

sariki shina hakumtasu the 

king directs them, M. H. 

p. 154. 
hakura, hakure, to show 

patience ; see hankuri. 
hakurchi, mahakurchi; see 



hal, as far as ; see liar. 

hal&ka(Ar. <*U* ii), to destroy; 
G 2 ya halakasu he destroyed 
them ; ya halaka it is lost. 

halaka, n. (Ar. ££U), destruc- 
tion, misfortune, disaster, 
halal, halas, or hallata* (Ar. 

J^.), what is lawful, proper, 
becoming, pure, ceremonially 
clean ; opposed to haram. 

halalehi, purity, propriety. 

halalta, halatta, halasta, to 
be lawful ; halalta ga to permit. 

halama, perhaps, it may be; 
cf . seq. 

halama (Ar.^JL*), 1. anything 
put in a book as a marker ; 
2. a mark on the ground. 

halamu, appearance, evidence, 

indication, expectation; cf. 
sama yana halamun yin ma 
the sky looks like rain ; shina 
da halamnnshi it looks like 

h&lara, to appear in court, to 

come to a meeting. 
halas, lawful ; see halal. 
halasa (Zanf.), to destroy ; cf. 

halbi, halbe, harbi, 1. to dis- 
charge a bow, gun, etc.; ya 
halbi kibia or da kibia he dis- 
charged an arrow, ya halbi 
bindiga or da bindiga he fired 
a gun ; 2. to shoot or hit 
with a bow or gun, ya halbeni 
he hit or shot me, akahalbeski 
da kibia he was shot with an 
arrow ; 3. of serpents, insects, 
etc., to sting ; 4. to kick ; cf. 
prov. halbi awutsia yafi Ajim- 
kure to hit in the tail is better 
than to miss, damisa da ivu- 
yan halbewa the leopard is 
hard to shoot; no/man halbi 
game which has been shot; 
halallabi f req. to shoot many 
of-; halbo implies motion to- 
wards ; ya halbo maka ita he 
shot it (Le. an arrow) at you. 

h&li, pi. halaye (cf. Ar. i)l»»), 
1. manner, mode, custom, 
peculiarity, fashion, charac- 
teristic, trait, e.g. sata hdlin 
barao, theft is characteristic 




of the thief; 2. temper, dis- 
position; suna karfi hali they 
have a hard disposition, 
halichi*, to create =hali ta, q.v. 

hallki,halftki* (Ar.), creature. 

s * 
halita* (Ar. J^), creature, 

creation ; F 208 sabon halita 
a new creation (i.e. creature), 
also the state in which one 
was created, one's appearance ; 
maikeaun halita the good- 
looking man; shugaban haUta 
biu the Lord of both worlds. 

halita, halichi, talita*, to cre- 

halshi, halshe, harshi, pi. 
hakhina, 1. the tongue; 2. 
tongue, language, enuncia- 
tion, pronunciation; halshin 
wuta flame. 

halshin rago or halshin tum- 
kia, a shrub with large white 
heads of flowers (Protea sp.). 

halwa* (Ar.), rnaihalwa a 

h&ma, gaping; yin hdma to 

ham&da (cf. 1 Ar. rt jt«*), 
desert, stony plain. 

hamadanchi, n. canter. 

hamakflku, a Hausa cloth. 

hamata, pi. hamatu, arm-hole, 

hambudiga, ainhum, i.e. a 
disease which causes painful 
cracking of the skin in the 

under-joints of the little toe, 
see kudumbia; cf. 'Hausa- 
land,' p. 152. 

hamburki, hanburki, the 
name of a cake (massa) made 
with wheat, also applied to 
large balls of flour used in 
making soup (fura). 

hamfude, hamfudi, to eat 
greedily, to throw into the 
mouth; hamfuden gari roll- 
ing flower into little balls and 
thro wing them into the mouth. 

hamHa, pi. Iiamxlu ( Ar. JU**^), 

sword-sling, usually made of 

silk, also used for the cord 

which carries the dalailu. 

hamiya, rivalry. 
# * * • 
hamsa (Ar. 3 fl -) # card. num. 

five ; often used for five thou- 
sand, the Hausa word biar 
being the ordinary equivalent 
for five, hamsa miya 500. 
hamshi, to bark ; see ha/shi. 

hamsin (Ar. & m p-), card - 
num. fifty. 

hamso*,a small branch or twig. 

hamsoro, a fool. 

hamzari, hanzari, n. purpose, 
also excuse ; gajeren hamzari 
a poor excuse; D 76 muna 
hamzari zua gidanmu we 
hasten to our homes, da ham- 
zari hastily. 





hamzarta (K.), hanzarta, 
hamzanta (S.), to hasten, 

h&na, 1. to hinder, prevent, 
restrain, A 51 en bai hdnam 
ba if he restrain them not; 
2. withhold, deny, refuse, say 
no. In buying and selling 
na hdna = I refuse the offer 
made, or I decline to do busi- 
ness, hdnawa refusing, re- 
fusal ; F 1 6 shi ne ko karimu 
da ba hdnawa He is gracious 
and refuses not; ya hdna 
masa d&ga laifi or ya hdna 
masa kdda shi yi laifii he 
prohibited him from doing 
wrong; hana takama (pre- 
vent boasting) a creeping 
plant with prickly capsules. 

h&n&ni, giddiness. 

hanau, a tree the sap of which 
is used for washing newly 
born children. 

hanbare*, to kick away. 

hanburki, a cake; see ham- 

hanchi, early morning; see 

hanchi, hanshi*, pi. hantuna, 
1. nose, nostrils ; lianun han- 
chi the trunk of an elephant ; 
goran hanchi bridge of the 
nose; 2. the knot made in 
thread to prevent the strands 
from unravelling. 

hanchi, found in the phrase 
hanchin hade hanchi the twig 
or stem which holds the fruit 
of the shea butter tree (kade), 
used in Sokoto for kanun- 
fari cloves, a name based 
on likeness of clove to the 
stem by which the shea nut 
is attached to the twig. 

hanfude, to throw food into 
the mouth ; see hamfude, 

hanga, hangi, hange, to look 
out for, gaze afar in hope of 
seeing ; na hangeshi ddga nesa 
I saw him from afar; hango 
to espy, i.e. to see before 
the speaker, ya hangoni he 
was the first to espy me, ya 
hangoka he caught sight of 
you before you saw him. 

hangara, 1. swelling caused by 
the guinea-worm; 2. a beetle. 

hangarma*, a deep pit. 

hangum, a swelling on the 
throat; cf. hangara. 

hani, n. prohibition; anyi hani 
it was prohibited ; see hdna. 

h&nia, noise ; see hayania. 

hanlnia, neighing ; yin haninia 
to neigh. 

hanji, 1. bowels ; 2. bobbin. 

hankada, to raise up, turn 
over, overthrow. 

hank&ka, pi. hankaki, hankaku 
(corvus scapulatus ?), a crow 
about the size of a raven, its 




body is black, its breast and 
a rim round the neck white. 

hankali, pi. hankuUa> sense, 
prudence, forethought, fore- 
sight, care; da hankali sen- 
sibly, prudently ; hankali ya 
tashi his heart is disturbed, 
tashin hankali despair, shiga 
hankali to be prudent; cf. 
M. H. p. 202, hankalina bai 
kwanta da kowa mi ke I rely 
upon you (f .) alone for advice ; 
hankullansu duka sun tashi 
they lost heart, shiga hanka- < 
linka be reasonable, maida 
hankali take care, yin hankali 
to recover, e.g. from a swoon, 
also to take notice of, to be- 
ware of, maihankali prudent. 

hankalta, to be prudent, to 

hankaltilo (Kanuri id.), a 
small spear for throwing. 

hankarnia, a disease which 
affects the breathing. 

hankufa, a common weed 
(Waltheria Americana, Bu- 

hankula, attention; see han- 

hankttra, to be patient ; see seq. 

hankuri, hakuri, hankura or 
hakurchi, 1. patience, meek- 
ness, resignation, forbear- 
ance; ina hankuri or ina 
yin hankuri I show patience 

or resignation, ku hankuri or 
ku yi hankuri be patient; 
2. comfort, consolation, ya 
bada mam hankuri he com- 
forted them; ya ki ltankura 
he refused to be comforted ; 
cf. prov. mahakurehi mawa- 
dachi the patient man is the 
rich man, enda maiguda ya 
je anhankura maitafia ya je 
the traveller with patience 
will arrive at the place 
whither the man who runs 
is going; hankori maganin 
dunia patience is the remedy 
for everything; cf. hakure, 


hano, a species of acacia tree. 

hansa (Zanf.), see /ansa. 

hans&ri, to snore; cf. minshari. 

hanshi, nostrils ; see hanchi. 

hanta, anta, liver; F 198 wuta 
ta chisu har ta chinyi hanta 
the fire shall consume them 
till it eats up their liver; 
cf . malakan kdre da hantan 
kura the property of a dog a 
hyena's liver, i.e. a thing he 
is not likely to get. 

hantsa, udder. 

hantsaki, hansaki, ansaki, 

, tongs, pincers ; cf . hantsakin 
darma ka kai ba kawo ba O 
pincers of lead you bring iron 
(to the fire) but you do not 
bring it away. 




hantsi, two hours after sunrise, 
about 8 a.m. 

hantukuria (K.), an abscess 
or tumour. 

h&nu, pi. h&nua or h&naye y 
hand, A 17 ka tara h&nu 
you put forth both hands; 
h&nun giwa elephants trunk 
(cf. use of Lat. maims) ; h&- 
nun rua a kind of nut, like 
a kola, brought from Yoruba ; 
umka h&nu lit. sleeve knife, 
a kind of short sword at- 
tached by a leathern ring 
round the sleeve, used by the 
Tuaregs; cf. M. H. p. 216, 
shina da yaki ahdnu he has 
a war in hand ; h&nu or h&- 
nun riga sleeve, M. H. p. 206, 
ya zama h&nun yaki he be- 
came a guide in the war; 
h&nu da h&nu hand and hand, 
i.e. cash down, ready money; 
ban h&nu shaking hands = 
masqfiha; h&nun rafi a tribu- 
tary stream ; h&nun giwa 
(elephant's trunk) also de- 
notes a plant with a thick 
stalk and white flower. 

hanunrua, an edible nut in S. 
Nigeria ; cf. gazari, sandalu. 

hanwawa, chameleon = hawa- 

hanya, way ; see hainya. 

hanzari, hanzarta, to hasten ; 
see hamzari. 

+ <* 

hanzir*, pi. hanzirai (Ar. 
.), wild swine; cf. aU 


hapshi, barking ; see hqfshi. 

har, hal, till, until, as far as ; 
used 1. with nouns, G 1 har 
mangi as far as Mangi ; in a 
list har — until, hence it = as 
well as, including, cf. har 
zubairu and Zubair ; 2. with 
adverbs or prepositions, har 
yanzu till now, up to the 
present time, G 1 har ya zua 
zamanin othmanu until the 
time of Othman ; 3. in intro- 
ducing clauses and sentences, 
D 73 hal allah shi wanya 
hukumchi nai ga bayi until 
God hath finished His judg- 
ment on His servants; liar 
is often followed by the par- 
ticle dai ; har-da, hadda l in 
order that ' ; it is sometimes 
equivalent to * even ' ; cf. Gr. 
p. 138, 1. 34, har saraki sun 
yi kumya even kings felt 
ashamed, har is sometimes 
apparently used for as soon 
as, cf. M. H. p. 222, har 
ubansa ya mutu as soon as 
his father was dead, har is 
sometimes used contemptu- 
ously in expression har gir- 

har&, to depart, set out. 




• •* 

harafi, pi. haruffa (Ar. sV**)» 
a letter of the alphabet, a 
dictionary; see harifi. 

haraji (Ar, *•!>».), a tax, also 

applied to lands attached to 
certain offices of State tax 

haram (Ar. jy+>\ what is un- 
lawful or cannot be done 
lawfully, anything ceremoni- 
ally unclean, unbecoming, 
unjust; used in sense oppo- 
site to haled; abin haram 
= haram. hardmia unlawful 
gain or profit, e.g. from the 
sale of pigs ; chi haramia to 
make unlawful gain, haramu 
anything which is unlawful, 
E 17 8una dubi haramu they 
behold what is unlawful, 
F9 id. 

harama, hazama (Ar.), firm- 
ness, resolution, zeal, yin 
haraman tafia to travel hard. 

har&ra* (Ar. jtj*.), 1 passion- 
ateness, F 8 ha her harara 
duka give up all proud looks; 
2. staring at, frowning, look- 
ing proudly on. 

harasa, reproof. 

harasa*, a white turban. 

har&wa, a name given to leaves 
or stalks of beans and ground 
nuts, e.g. harawan wake, ha- 
rawan gujia. These are used 

as food for horses ; cf . prov. 
allah shi kai dumu ga haratva 
ko ba shi chi shi birgima God 
may bring a lizard to the 
dried leaves, if he does not 
eat he lies on the top of it. 
The dumu is specially fond 
of harawa leaves, even when 
he cannot eat he likes to be 
near them. 

harbi, 1. to kick, of a horse, 
cf. habri; 2. to shoot, cf, 

harbia, a bird ; see hasbia. 

harda, used with samu to learn 
by heart, D 33 yin harda 
to know by heart. 

hardache, to know by heart. 

hardai, until, in order that; 
see liar. 

harerewa*, joyous laughter. 

hargagi*, to address angrily. 

hargi, pi. harugga, a small 
spear tied to the wrist, which 
is thrown and pulled back. 

hargowa, noise made by talk- 
ing loudly or angrily; yin 
hargowa to howl. 

h&ri, a surprise slave-raid by 
horsemen ; mahdri a raider. 

harifi, hurufi, pi. harufai, a 
letter of the alphabet; see 

hario, haryo = har + yo (cf . 
encore = hanc horam), again, 
also; in negative sentence, 




yet, ban samu hario I have 
not found it yet 

harkia, harikia, a grass eaten 
by cattle and horses (Eleu- 
sine Indica?). 

harsa, hirsa, hassa, a turban 
usually made of white muslin 
with pictures worked on it, 
worn by princes only. 

harsa (S.), a cartridge. 

harshi*, talk ; see halshi. 

harya, a small fish. 

harzuka ga, to defy, be angry 
with ; cf . hasala ga. 

h&sa, h&za, &za, to light, hdsa 
wuta to light a fire, or to 
rake together expiring em- 

h&sada (Ar. ju*.^), envy, jeal- 

h&sada, to trouble, torment; 
cf. prec. 

hasafi, esteem, respect. 

has&la ga, to provoke; cf. 
harzuka ga. 

h&sali (S.), kindness, goodness. 

has&ra, as&ra (Ar. JL*.), 1. 

to suffer loss, A 33 sun hamra 
alahira they shall suffer loss 
in the next world ; 2. n. loss, 
waste, ruin ; yin hasdra to 

hasashi, hasashe (cf . Ar. ^^ , 

to listen, perceive), to con- 

, sider carefully, to be in doubt. 

hasbia, hazbia, harbia* 1. 
a bird rather larger than a 
pigeon with red rim round 
the eyes; 2.. a sty in the 

hashia, silk border at the bot- 
tom of a woman's dress. 

hashsha, an exclamation of 
pity or disgust. 

haskaka, 1 . to shine, give light ; 
2. to lighten, illuminate. 

haske, pi. haskoki, haskaikai, 
light ; F 229 fuskokinsu sun 
fi wuta da haske their faces 
shall be brighter than fire; 
maihaske full of light, B 167 
birni madina maihaske tutut 
the town of Medina is ever 
full of light. 

hasuma, quarrelling ; masutsa- 
kanta hasuma peace-makers. 

hasumia (S.), a minaret. 

h&tara, h&tara, be careful ! a 
complimentary salutation es- 
pecially addressed to a man 
on horseback and to a man 
of importance ; ya sha h&tari 
dayawa he ran a great risk. 

natseri (Ar. j-k*.), danger, 
peril; cf. hattara. 

hatsi, corn ; see hachi. 

hatumi (cf. Ar. rt^*.), 1. a 
seal ; 2. a charm written on 
a board (alio) divided by lines 
into squares ; the ink is then 
washed off and the water 




drunk as a medicine, or to 
secure anything desired. 
hau, to ascend, a shortened 
form of hawa, q.v. 

hauda, to lift up. 

hauia, hoe ; see hauya. 

hauia, twenty, a score, used 
esp. in counting cowries with 
sums divisible by twenty, 
thus hauia biu forty, hauia 
bdkoi one hundred and forty. 
Cf . A 39 shi ne ya dauki wuri 
ya ber hauia dari he seizes 
one cowry but loses two 
thousand cowries. 

hauka, 1. a fool ; B 13 jahUi 
shxka yi kama hauka the ig- 
norant man would act like a 
fool, F 32 ; 2. folly, madness; 
3. to be mad; maihauka, 
maihaukache a madman, hau- 
kache to be fierce or mad, to 
rage, to be ecstatic, hau- 
kata, causat. to madden. 

haukat yard, a bush with 
white flowers, i.q. zakami q.v. 

hauni, left, hanu na hauni 
= hagu left hand. 

hauni (K.), an executioner. 

haura, to jump over. 

hauri, tooth, tusk ; probably a 
corruption of hakori ; haurin 
giwa ivory, haura is more 
commonly used in Sokoto, 
hakori in Kano. 

hausa, pi. harata, 1. tongue, 

language, speech ; hajisar a8- 
banchi the Asben language. 
2. prop. n. Hausa, the Hausa 
language. 3. the Hausa coun- 
try (kasan liausawa or kasan 
hausa, id.); bahaushe, pl.Aati- 
sawa, a Hausa, a man of the 
Hausa nation. A remotely 
conceivable explanation of 
the word hausa is that it is 
derived from Housal, a king 
of Egypt who promoted the 
worship of Astarte in Egypt. 
The Bornuese people have a 
tradition that they and the 
Hausas are descended from 
a son of this Housal who 
was of Phoenician origin and 
made a great expedition into 
the country of the blacks. 
A worship resembling that 
of Astarte apparently existed 
in very early times at Kano. 

hausa, to lift up, M. H. p. 230; 
see haushe. 

hausanchi, that which relates 
to the Hausas, jin hausanchi 
to understand the Hausa lan- 

haushi, anger, dislike, vexa- 
tion envy; yana jin haushi 
he feels angry, yana jin Iiau- 
shina he is vexed with me, 
suna jin haushinsa they dis- 
like him. 

haushi, to bark ; see hafshi. 




haushi, haushe or hausa, to 
lift up, e.g. on horseback, 
M. H. pp. 229 sq. ; a causa- 
tive form of hawa. 

hautsina, to mix up together, 
to intermingle. 

hauya, pi. hauyu, hauyuna, 
hauyoyi, hoe. 

hawa, hau, to mount, to ascend ; 
ya hawa doki or ya hawa bisa 
doki the regular expression 
for mounting on horseback ; 
cf. M. H. p. 216, maihawan 
dokinsa ya yi kaman mutane 
dubu goma his cavalry num- 
bered about 10,000 ; of aspirit, 
to be possessed by ; mahayi* 
ladder; F 143 ankafa strati 
atashi ahau the bridge shall 
be set up, men shall ascend 
upon it; hawo to mount and 
ride towards. 

hawa, 1 height, F 145 hawa 
nasa har tsawo nasa babu wa- 
wa its height and its length 
are the same, without doubt ; 
2. the firmament, lit. the 

hawainya (K.), hawoinya, 
hanwawa (S.), chameleon. 

haw&la, trouble, used for ivo- 
h&la by metathesis. 

hawartaki, tongs ; cf . hansaki. 

hawaye, sing, and collective, 
tear, tears; hawayen zaki (lit. 
lion's tears), marks cut on a 

woman's face ; hawayen zaki 
is also used for a species of 
ground nut; yin hawaye to 
shed tears. 

haya*, road, A 20 for hainya, 

haya haya, loud talking, alter- 
cation ; cf. hayania. 

h&yaki, smoke ; jirigin hayaki 
and jirigin wuta are expres- 
sions used on the R. Niger 
for steamboat; yin hayaki to 
pour forth smoke, to smoke ; 
for to smoke used of tobacco, 
cf. sha. 

hayania, h&nia, noise as of 
many men talking, conten- 

haye, to provoke, fall upon, e.g. 
ya haye mam he fell upon 

haye, self-instruction, unau- 
thorised attempt to learn 
anything; ba haye ne gddo 
ne used of a man learning 
his father's trade. 

hayi (S.), the binding of arrow- 
heads to the shaft ; yin hayi 
is also used of laying grass 
on a roof. 

hayi, to ford ; mahaiyi a ford. 

hayinchi, deceit; see haiin- 

hazakumchi*, cf. yaron nan 
da ban liazakumchi yi ke the 
boy is quick-witted. 




hazama (Ar.), zeal; see ha- 

hazbia, a pigeon ; see hasbia. 

hazi, corn ; see hachi. 

h&zo, mist, fog, da hdzo misty; 
duban hdzo a false impres- 

hekia, disease of the eyes ; see 

hijra* (Ar. S^jk), the Hejira 

(a.d. 622), F 255. 
hika, small; abu hika a little 

hikima* (Ar. **£».), wisdom. 

hila, fila ( Ar. 31^.), stratagem. 

* + * 

hilafa* (Ar. oUU», wanting), 
difference, inconsistency : an 
expression used of cowries 
short in number. 

hilata, to be crafty. 

hima, himma (Ar. &«*), zeal, 

diligence; da hima diligent, 
maidahima to show diligence, 
D 26 ku yi berchi hu f aloha 
ha maida hima sleep and 
awake, rise up and show dili- 
gence, i.e. in worship. 

hini (S. ), conceit : cf. homa (K. ). 

hira*, conversation ; seejira. 

hirsa, a white turban; see 

hisabi (S.) (Ar. v^)> J ud g" 

ment, reckoning, arithmetic, 

F 139 akare hua hisabi judg- 
ment is completed. 

hiska, wind ; see iska. 

holoko, dust storm ; see hulu- 

homa, boasting ; seefoma. 

homa (S.), a fishing net; for 
homa, q.v. 

horo*, correction ; seeforo. 

hiiba, an exclamation of aston- 
ishment ; see hdba. 

huda, i.q.fuda q.v., 1. to bore 
a hole in a tree, etc.; 2. to 
hoe the ground with a fata- 
inya, to dig in a farm ; B 86 
tnaikokari na noma ko huda 
he who gives his time to 
farming and tilling; freq. 
form huhuda to make many 
holes in, na huhudashi I will 
make him as full of holes as 
a sieve. 

huda, ridge between furrows ; 
cf . fuda. 

hudu*, four ; see fudu. 

huhu, covering of kola nuts ; 

huja (Ar. 3 m »■), 1. affair, 
reason, excuse ; A 54 ya rika 
taimama kam babu huja he 
performed his ablutions with 
sand, though there was no 
reason for his doing so, B 10, 
140 ; 2. neglect of work, use- 



hujanta, to be in the right in 
a dispute. 

huji, to pierce. 

huji, to shirk or refuse work ; 
yin huji to cease work, kur- 
din huji a soldier's deferred 


hukumchi, order, etc. ; see ha- 

hukumshi, a Sokoto form of 

huluku, holoko, a dust storm, 
or violent wind. 

hume, to prevent a person's 
leaving; na humeshi I pre- 
vented his leaving. 

humushi, the half share of 
slaves or spoils paid to the 
leader of an expedition after 
a raid; cf. M. H. p. 196. 

humusi (Ar. i>~+».), one-fifth. 

huntu or funtu, naked. 

hura, to blow, hura majina to 
blow the nose ; see/ura. 

hurde*, bay horse; seefurde. 

hurtumi, ox; see/urtumi. 

hurua, to put earth on the 
head as a sign of submis- 

huruchi, confession; cf./uru- 

hurufi, a letter of alphabet; 
see harafi. 

hurumi (Ar. j>y+>\ any land 
with a prohibition attached 
to it, e.g. the land round the 

wall of a city where farming 
is forbidden ; also applied to 
official farms which cannot 
be privately transferred. 

husanche*, irritated. 

husk a*, face, for fuska; B171 
en rcurafe ina aza huskata let 
me crawl, let me place my 
face on the ground. 

husuma, fusuma( Ar. duy**.), 
a quarrel. 

hfttara 4 , be careful ! see hd- 

hutawa* rest =/utawa, B 62. 

hutsu, huzu, fazu, quarrel- 
some, unmanageable; cf. do- 
kin nam huzu ne ba shi foro 

hutsuba (Ar. 3 { h,^), the read- 
ing or preaching after prayer. 

huware, a Fulani word de- 
noting the reed shelters used 
by Fulani herdsmen; cf. Gr. 
p. 138, 1. 37, yan huware. 

i (Ar. du\), yes. It denotes 

that the speaker hears, but 
does not necessarily imply 
acquiescence, ii is sometimes 
used in Sokto for * no.' 

i, sometimes used for shi; cf. yi. 

i, to conquer, overcome, su i 
mam they overcame them ; 
cf. ima. 



i, a colloquial abbreviation of 

yi .to do. 
iaka, limit ; see iyaka. 

ib&da (Ar. ol*fc), service of 

God, B 47, D 51 ; kuna koka- 
ri kuna ibdda take pains, 
serve God ; also used of ser- 
vice to men. 

ibi, a variety of the kola nut 
brought from Yoruba. 

ibiro, a small species of millet. 

iblis, eblis (Ar.), the evil 

iblu, ibru, a small grain used, 
when ground up, for gruel, 
soup, cakes, etc. 

iche, a tree ; see itache. 

Ida, to finish, complete; only 
used with special words, e.g. 
ba ya ida wariketm ba he is 
not quite recovered, ba ya ida 
mutua he is not quite dead : 
when used with labdri to com- 
plete the telling of news ; of 
a woman, to complete the 
necessary time before marry- 
ing again. 

idan (Ar. )Sj), 1. if. In Kano 

en is employed in conversa- 
tion rather than idan, though 
idan is equally used in writ- 
ing; 2. when. 
idania*, eye ; see ido. 

ldl (Ar. a**), 1. religious feast; 

2. the procession outside a 
town towards Mecca, once a 
year, ending with the killing 
of a goat. 

ido, pi. idanu, idanduna, idan- 
danu, 1. eye; idon magi squint, 
idon kishimi blind ; it is em- 
ployed, like the Ar., in yarious 
figurative and tropical uses, 
e.g. 2. sight, view; idon dunia 
in the sight of men; 3. chief ; 
B 76 duba ga bello idon malki 
nai behold Bello, the ruler 
over his kingdom; 4. joint; 
idon sau (pi. ijian sau) ankle, 
idon kqfa id., idon hanu wrist- 
bone, knuckle ; 5. idon rua 
spring of water ; 6. idon 
zaura, (a) a variegated cloth 
of native manufacture, (b) a 
white stone, pearl ; tsaurin 
ido saucy ; idon-yaki a strata- 
gem in war ; zan wanka ma- 
ski ido I am going to strike 
him (lit. wash his eye) ; mai- 
ido fruitful, an epithet ap- 
plied to corn ; cf . M. H. p. 

Idubar, a reddish-brown ass. 

igia, igiya, pi. igiyoyi, 1. rope, 
cable, string; 2. fig. igian rua 
current of a stream ; igian 
kasa a snake ; masuigia, i.e. 
the wearers of stripes, ap- 
plied to non-commissioned 
officers in English employ; 




maiigia guda a lance-corpo- 
ral, maiigia bin a corporal. 

ihu, uhu, ufu, ho! a cry or 
shout to attract attention. 

ij&ra, rent, wage ; dan ijdra a 

ijarchi, n. hiring. 

ijarta, to hire. 

ije, to push away, drive away. 

ijia, 1. pupil; ijian ido pupil 
of the eye, maijiat yaki one 
who is eager for a fight (lit. 
one-eyed), maiijiat Jcaratu a 
man who is always reading, 
maiijia na guda a one-eyed 
man, M.H. p. 224 ; ijian sau 
pi. ankles, cf. idon saw, 2. one 
cowry, for the plural kurdi, 
q.v., is employed ; cf. vmri. 

ika*, to be able. 

iko, pi. ikoki, power, authority, 
right, used frequently in the 
expression ikon allah the 
power of God, visitation of 
God ; F 110 ba ka ikon jir- 
kitawa thou wilt have no 
power to turn, maiiko power- 
ful, E 12 maiiko da kowa 
almighty ; ikontdka power, 
authority; ma-ikochi posses- 
sor of power, M. H. p. 228. 

ima, to conquer, drive away, to 
finish off, do for, difi ya kusa 
imata the poison nearly killed 
her; cf. i. 

imai, yin imai to be able. 

imanchi, an act of faith ; see 

imam, creed, belief. 

ina, pron. 1st pers. sing. com. 
gender ; ina (also kana shina, 
etc.) is used with secondary, 
nominal or participial forms 
of verbs, to express the pre- 
sent tense, thus, ina tafia I 
am going; ina fitowa, etc. 
Where these nominal or par- 
ticipial forms are not in use 
ina is used with the primary 
form of the verb, e.g. ina so 
I wish. 

ina for yina or yana, cf. the 
expression ina da shi there 
is, or there are, lit. he has it. 

ina, to stammer ; see inina. 

ina, n. paralysis ; see inna. 

ina, inna, for enna, where? 
M. H. p. 204, etc. 

ina (S.), inna, mother (a bor- 
rowed Fulah word). 

inda, enda, where? 

indainda, refusal, delay, e.g. 
to do work. 

indororo (S.), waterspout. 

inganchi, right, perfection, re- 

inganta, ingata, to be right, 
just, exact. 

ingarma, f. ingarmia, angar- 
mia, q.v., pi. ingaramu, a war 

ingata* v. to trust in, rely on. 




ingatachi, adj. sound, perfect, 
solid, trustworthy ; G 7 wa- 
nan labari ingatachi this ac- 
count is trustworthy. 

ingirichi, ingirochi, hay, dried 
grass chopped up for feeding 
horses ; see ungwaiya, 

ingweya* a salutation ad- 
dressed to an important per- 

inina, ina, to stammer, stutter; 
ininan halshi impediment or 
hesitation in speech. 

inji, equivalent to, it is said to 
be; possibly this is for anji 
one hears say. 

injihau, a deadly yellow viper 
with flat ke&d= tsada raki. 

injla (Ar.), Gospel, commonly 
used by the Hausas for the 

whole Bible. 

inna, paralysis, palsy. 

intaya, a species of grass. 

iri, pi. irare, iri iri, seed of 
plants, of men and creatures, 
offspring, kind, stock, tribe. 
When iri means kind the 
pronoun used with it agrees 
in number and gender with 
the substantive which follows 
iri, e.g. wane irin mutum 
what kind of man? wache irin 
mache what kind of woman? 
wadane irin mutane what 
kind of men? 

Isa (Ar. j.-!**), Jesus, F127. 

This is the Mohammedan 
form of the name, cf. Koran 
iii. 40, while yasuu and ya- 
shuu are those which were 
employed by the Christian 
Arabs at the time of and 
prior to Mohammed. 

isa, 1. to reach, arrive at; 2. to 
be equal to, to be sufficient; 
da ya isa enough, ba su chi ya 
isa they did not eat enough; 
M. H. p. 224, sun gaza isa 
they failed to overcome; ya 
isam ma it reaches to, affects; 
isaslie strong, see ishe ; iso to 
arrive at the place at which 
the speaker is. 

isga, izga, esga, a cow's or 
horse's tail used as a switch 
for driving away flies. 

isgili*, n. mockery; see iz~ 

ishe, impersonal, they arrived 
at, for a'ishe, see seq. 

ishe, 1. to reach, meet, over- 
take; F76 mutua ta ishe ma 
death is coming upon thee; 
2. to. suffice, be sufficient for; 
F 42 ta is/temu it is sufficient 
for us. isashe, isheshe, fern. 
isashia, ishashia, pi. ishasu, 
1 . strong, powerful ; 2. suf- 
ficient; impers. a'ishe, i.e. they 
arrived at. 

ishi, a kind of fish. 

ishia, a cowry shell; see ijia. 



ishirin, asherin (Ar. o-ijr**)* 

card, numeral, twenty, 
iska, hiska, pi. iskoki, hiskoki, 
wind ; F 154; shan hiska (lit. 
to drink the wind), used with 
tafi, to go for a walk, iska 
or hiska is also used to de- 
note an evil spirit. 

iske, to meet. 

iso, 1. to arrive at, 2. come to- 
wards ; cf. isa. 

ita, pers. pron. 3rd pers. fern, 
sing, nominative, she, it ; ob- 
jective, her, it. 

itache or iche, pL itatua, when 
niasc. = tree, when fern. = a 
stick cut from a tree, though 
this distinction is not always 
observed; itachen vmta fire- 
wood, dan itache a little piece 
of wood, F 94 ; a fern, form 
itachia denotes parent tree. 

iwa, a shrub, from the twigs of 
which is made the arsaberi, 
the mat used to cover a door- 
way ; cf . (I) diwa. 

iwo, to swim, M. H. p. 209 ; see 

iwo, to make ; see yiwa. 

iya, mother, the plural iya- 
ye is used in the sense of 
* parents' ; cf. the like use of 

uwaye, and Ar. „^t^l. 

iya, to be able, to be equal to, 
can ; ha ya iya shi gani ba 


or ba shi iya gani ba he could 
not see; it appears to be used 
as though it were a transitive 
verb, meaning to be equal to, 
attain to, compass, and can 
directly precede a substantive 
or a verbal substantive in 
sentences where the infinitive 
is used in English, e.g. ka iya 
rubutu or ka iya yin rubutu 
are you able to write? cf. 
M. H. p. 205, ba su iye wa- 
rinsa ba they could not en- 
dure the stench, iyan gari 
a state official (Z.) ; a passive 
form aia is occasionally used, 
cf. iyavoa. 

iyaka, iyakachi, 1. limit, 
boundary, end, of a country, 
a room, etc. ; kain iyaka a 
frontier town; the utmost 
possible; cf. bard iyakan aU 
hakina give me all that is 
due to me; 2. as the con- 
cluding word of a letter = 

iyali (Ar. Jl^ft), family, mem- 

bers of a family. 

iyanta, to set free ; see diyan- 

iyas, iyasda, iyarda, forms, 
related to iya, to succeed in 
a thing, to accomplish some- 
thing, deliver a message. 

iyata, yata, elder sister; cf. ya. 




iyawa, ability, power, common- 
ly found in comp. rnaiiyawa 
almighty; cf. iya. 

iyaye, pi. of iya mother, q.v. ; 
parents; iyaye or iyayi is 
sometimes used of fruit as 
a plural of da; cf. yaya. 

iye, to be equal to ; see iya. 

iyo, swimming; yin iyo to 


iyo*, verily; cf. yau. 

iza, to push, drive away; iza 
gdba to drive ahead • to poke, 
e.g. a fire; cf. ka iza mani 
wuta kdda ta mutu poke the 
fire lest it go out : to push a 
stick into the fire to burn. 
izawa driving away. 

izan, if, when ; see idan. 

izga, cow's tail ; see isga. 

izgili, isgili (cf. Ar. J^&j, 
nimble), 1. mockery, inter- 
ference with another's busi- 
ness; 2. a game played by 
boys, pulling at each other's 
arms, etc., to find something 
hjdden in the hand of one of 

• ♦ 

izni (Ar. £jl), permission, con- 

• ♦ 

izufl (Ar. *r>j^), one of the 

sixty equal paragraphs into 
which the Koran is divided : 
a paragraph, section. For a 
similar phonetic change cf. 

R. H. D. 

6 • -» 

Ar, v*^' Hausa zunufi 

The letter «*. is used by the 

Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English j. In several 
words it is interchanged with 
that of sh, z, y or 8, e.g. ja- 
rili = yarUiy jarimi = zarumi, 
juni = shuni, jurare = saurara. 

ja, to draw, drag, pull; D 14 
aja8hi anadaka he shall be 
dragged and beaten, jan jiki 
crawling, F 155; it is used 
intransitively, cf. ka ja da 
baya get thee behind ! ya ja 
bakinsa he kept silence, ja 
chiki, cf . D 9 secret thieving, 
lit. to drag the belly, an ex- 
pression suggested by the 
Crawling of a snake, applied 
to the secret approach of a 
thief; jawa drawing; jayi to 
draw off or draw back, ja- 
yaiya dragging about, dis- 
pute, jayawa a little distance, 
dajayawa a little further on. 
majayin hainya a guide ; cf . 
jawo, jajaya, ja-daga, 

ja, pi. jajaye, jujaye (cf. Ar. 

rt oW*)> re dj J a wur very 
red ; jan karifi brass, copper, 
jaja k&dan a little red, red- 
dish, jan miji* or jan no- 





miji* with reckless courage ; 
ja-ja reddish, haukaja stark 
madness, jan itache or jan 
yaro a tree (Hymenocardia 
acid a) ; jan sayi a tree (Tri- 
chilia emetica). 

j&ba, 1. rat, stinking-rat; 2. 
black ass ; 3. jaba dutei the 
wild dove. 

j&ba j&ba, humped cattle. 

jabaya, crupper of a saddle, 
generally made of strips of 
white or blue cloth; ctjaku- 


% Si * 

jabbaru* (Ar. jU*.), mighty, 
an epithet applied to God. 

jache, reddish. 

ja-daga, to draw up in line of 
battle ; cf . ddga. 

jafache, to wink. 

jafi (S.), n. shaking the spear 
or hand in salutation. 

j&g&ba, the leader or headman 
who goes in front of a caravan, 
whilst the madugu, q.v., goes 
behind ; cf . shugdba id. 

j agora, stick, e.g. one used by 
blind men to find the way, 
also a boy who leads about 
a blind man. 

jah&di, jih&di (Ar. >l^), war, 
especially a holy war. 

jahalichi, jahilchi(Ar. J^), 
ignorance, da jahalichi in 

ignorance, ignorantly ; cf . 

jahanama (Ar. ^y»-), hell ; 

cf . jahima. 
jahili (Ar. JaU.), ignorant, 

i.e. with respect to religion, 
B 12, C 3 ; cf. jahalichi. 

jahima 4 ( Ar. ^ m* » ), burning 

hell, D 23, the' highest and 
best division in hell ; cf . ja- 

jaijaito, condolence on any mis- 
fortune other than a death ; 
ya yi mana jaijaito he con- 
doled with us, e.g. on a theft; 
cf. jaje. 

jainye*, to twist, e.g. a piece 
of cloth, draw, drag, probably 
formed from ja. 

jaiya, quarrel, fight, yin jaiya 
to quarrel, to fight ; seejayaya. 

ja-ja, reddish; seeja. 

jajamaza*, a species of creep- 
ing grass. 

jajaya, to drag; seeja. 

j§je, compassion; cf. jaijaito. 

jaje, staining red, used of clcJth, 
thread, etc. 

jajebera, preparation, ranan 
jajebera the day before any 

jaji (Kanuri id.), title of the 
chief leader of a caravan. 

jajirma*, warrior ; see jarimi. 

jaka, to draw after one, to pull; 




jdka ta kuda a nickname for 

a donkey, i.e. one who attracts 

jak&da, a messenger; see je- 

kdda. % 

jakara, the name of a large 

pool at the side of the Kano 

j&ki, fern, jakainya, pi. jdkai, 

jakuna, donkey ; for various 

kinds of donkeys see under 

bingi, jimrau, aura, idubar, 
' araki, jaba, mugo. 
jaki, in phr. jaki bisa tudu 

plaiting of hair in two lines, 

one in the middle of the head 

and one behind, 
jakuturi, crupper of a saddle; 

cf. jabaya ; see kiUuri. 

jalala* (Ar. JUUL), great, 
mighty, used of God, F 135 ; 
cf . jalla. 

jftli, jalli, property, power; 
abin jali something with 
which to trade ; karamin jali 

- a small capital. 

jalili, a small water duck, with 

. slight red tint on neck, black 
velvety head and brown 
body : the whistling teal. 

jalla* (Ar. J^.), great, glorious, 
used of God ; cf . jalala, 

jama' a (Ar. £pCj*.), collecting 

together; cf. sdbero su kan 

. jama'a akain daki the mos- 

quitoes collect in the roof of 
a house. 

jami (Ar. *+*»), a grammatical 

term denoting the plural; cf. 

mufuradi singular. 

9 J J 
jan&ba (Ar. s .^), pollution; 

cf . jaraba. 

janai (S.), gullet, oesophagus; 
cf. janyaro. 

janbade, an abscess; cf. han- 

janbaki, a small bird with red 

janbarde, the ruddy-throated 

jangali, a tax on cows. 

jangwada, the male of the 
common lizard kadangare, q.v. 

janjanchi, interference, inso- 

janjare (a Fulani word), the red 
or grey guinea-corn with close 
growing head which ripens in 
Sokoto next after the gero, 
i.e. about the middle of Sep- 

jankarago (red beggar), a late 
crop of kola nuts, see under 

jan-sayi, a common tree (Tri- 
chilia emetica, Meliaceae). 

j anyftro (K. ), 1 . gullet, cf . janai ; 
2. also called jan-itache (Hy- 
menocardia acida) a large tree, 
with reddish bark, its wood 
used in supporting sheds, etc. 





janye, jaye, to drag away; 

cf. ja. 
janziri, janzari, an evil spirit, 

said to be the patron of the 

mambori, to make men mad, 

and to eat dung. 

j&ra (cf. (?) Ar. jj*.I), discount, 
etc.; i.q. Idda, q.v. 

j&r&ba, jayra (Ar. vj^)> fiMu- 

ness, uncleanness; cf. janaba. 

jar aba, jarabi (Ar. J>*.), 
trial, test, misfortune, doom, 
penalty ; yinjaraba to make 
trial of, A 65 aUah ya kan 
gama arzikinka da jaraba 
God may give thee prosperity 
to try thee. 

jare*, a cricket (?). 

jarili, seejariri. 

jarimi, warrior ; ct zarumi. 

jariri, jarili, yarili, tjariria, 
pi. jariraiy a baby up to one 
year old ; cf. jinjiri. 

jaru, jarum, guard-room (a 
corruption of Eng. word). 

jato, a vegetable poison used 
for smearing arrows. 

jatoma or giyatuma, gene- 
rally used by the Fulanis for 

jauje, a drum shaped like an 
hour-glass, held under the 
armpit, larger than kalango. 

jaura*, to listen, M. H. p. 190 ; 
cf . saurara. 

jaura, a widow, 
jaura, trade. 

jauri, a widower, a man of im- 
portance or respect, 
jauwi*, fipice. 
jawa, drawing; seeja 

jawabi (Ar. v!**-)> speech, 

answer, message. 
jawagi, 1. to walk backwards 

and forwards ; 2. to fly like 

a bird, 
jawal, a species of myrrh, 
jawayi, jiwoyi, to visit, to go 

to salute. 
jawo, to draw out, to bring to- 
gether, to draw towards one- 

self, e.g. straying sheep ; a 

form oija, q.v. 
ja-wur, very red. 
jayaki, the fishing vulture, 
jayawa, cf. ja. 
jay ay a, disagreement ; suna 

jayaya they are wrangling; 

cf . ja. 
jaye, to drag; seeja. 
jayi or jauye, to draw back ; 


je (Ar. *U»), to go, to depart; 
mu je da ni or mu je tare 
let us go together ; maje one 
who goes. 

jebba* (Ar. £*•.), a red tobe. 
jebda* jefda, a form of jefa 

to throw, 
jefa, jefi, jefo, jefe (bef. pron. 




obj.), to throw, to cast ; jefa 
da duatsu to pelt with stones; 
when jefa is used with a 
missile as its direct object 
it usually means to hit, not 
to throw at ; ya jefa masa 
mashi, ya jefi masa da ma- 
shi y or ya jefeshi he speared 
him; jejefi da to pelt; jefo 
implies motion towards or 
towards the ground; jifa, 
verbal n. throwing; sarikin 
jifa a champion thrower; jifa 
or jefa the throwing of the 
shuttle in weaving. Derived 
forms arejefas to throw out, 
jefosda (K.), jefada (S.), je- 
Jashe (Zanf.), to throw out, 
overthrow ; jefsa* saidjefshe* 
to cast out. 

jegawa, sandy hill ; seejigowa. 

jego, accouchement, giving 
birth ; yin jego to give birth. 

jehurma (S.), an eagle. 

jeijeito, condolence; see jai- 

jeje, thinly wooded or unin- 
habited country ; cf . daji. 

jeka, fem. jeki, get out ! only 
in sing., pi. = hu je. 

jSka, sack; aeejika. 

jek&da, jak&da, fem. jekddia, 
1. a messenger, sent by any- 
one ; cf . manzo a king's mes- 
senger ; 2. a tax-collector. 

jSala (Ar. J^U), the cloth 

placed on a saddle. 

jello (K.), gourd for holding 

jema, a scented grass which 
grows to a height of four feet. 

jem&ge, pi. jemagu, a large 
sized bat. 

jemi, jlma, 1. to rub the hair 
off a skin ; 2. to tan; ma jemi 
or maijima a leather dresser. 

jemo, a small dish. 

jenfi*, back; badajenfi to put 
to flight. 

jeni (cf. Ar. rt ^»» vm), 1. 
together, ku tafi jeni keep 
together ! 2. corn placed in 
bundles, yin jeni to place in 

jera, jere, jire*, to arrange in 
line or procession ; ajere in a 
line, or abreast, mnajeruwa 
they are forming line; ya 
jeru it is arranged in line. 

jeraya, a running camel. 

jerfa, tribal marks on the skin. 

jeri, pi. jerori, line, rank. 

jeri, jiri (cf. Ar. j\^ v), head- 
ache, sunstroke, giddiness. 

jetaka*, a measure of distance, 
as far as can be seen with 
the eye. 

jSto, to agree with, i.q. jUo, q.v. 

jewa, used of the circling of a 
bird over its prey. 




jewayi (before n.), jewaye 
(before pron.), verb, n.jewaya 
to spy, spy out, cf. sun jewayi 
gari, sun jewayesu, sun yi 
jewaya : majewayi, pi. maje- 
waya spy, scout, cf. gewaya, 

ji, 1. to hear, perceive, feel, e.g. 
jin tsoro to feel fear, to fear; 
jin wuta to become warm, or 
to warm oneself; 2. to under- 
stand, na ji magananka I 
understand thy speech, ban 
ji ba I don't understand ; 3. 
to obey ; cf . ya che da ni ka 
ji ka ji he said to me ' listen 
to my gossip.' kuna jin chi 
do you feel hungry ? for use 
of jiwo cf . ya jiwo kishi 
he had a thirst which he 
had brought from a distance. 
jiyeya understanding, good 
understanding, friendly rela- 
tions, majiakira an orderly. 
sun jia they heard, M. H. 
p. 223. 

jia, yesterday; shekaranjia the 
day before yesterday; watan 
jia last month, jia da dere 
last night. 

jiba, a small ant-hill ; cf. suri. 

jibche, to collect; seejibta. 

jibda (cf. (?) Ar. Ij^j, butter), 

ointment, scent ; jibdan kass 
a kind of creeper. 

jibda, civet cat. 

jibe, 1. to put anything out 

to dry after washing; 2. to 

place a load down on the 

jibga, to store up goods; cf. seq. 
jibgi, a large quantity of any- 
. thing, esp. of food. 
jlbi, sweat, perspiration; yin 

jtbi to sweat, perspire, 
jlbi, 1. a food made of flour 

and mia mixed; 2. used as a 

general word for food. 
jlbi, the day after to-morrow ; 

watan jibi the month after 

next; cf. gata, chita. 
jibji, dung-hill ; cf. jujai. 
jibta, jibche, to collect, bring 

jiche (S.) = K/a (K.), to cover 

up, conceal, entangle. 
jiche, jichi, to turn upside 

down, to tilt anything up ; 

fadi jiche to fall on the 

face ; see jUa. 
jlda, to descend, dismount, 

lodge at ; jldo come down ; 

jlde to put down (a load). 

jiddda to take away, bring 

down. • 

Jidda* (Ar. id.), really. 
jlde, to pick up. 
jifa, n. throwing; seejefa. 
jiflif, B 56 twilight, i.q. jijifi y 

jigeribti, to canter, used of 




a horse; an onomatopoeic 
jigida, a woman's girdle, often 
made from the nuts of the 
kwakwa palm strung to- 
jlgo, pi. jiguna, 1. a tree on 
which meat is hung up to 
dry; 2. a post for supporting 
roof ; 3. a beam for drawing 
water from a well. 
jigowa, jegawa, jigawa, sand, 

hill covered with sand, 
jihirma, eagle ; seejehurma. 
jih&di, holy war ; see jahddi. 
jiji, a plant, from the root 
of which a sweet scent is 
jijia, pi. jiwoji, jijioyi, vein, 
sinew, gut; C 19 dunia tso- 
fua sai jitvoji the world is 
old and has nothing but veins 
left. It is sometimes used of 
the . roots of a tree, also of 
the gut from which bow- 
strings are made, or which is 
used to fix the arrow-head to 
the shaft. 
jijifi, ji$if, jibjib, the first 
glimmer of light just before 
the dawn; see Or. p. 86; 
rauyi jijifi let us start before 
dawn; cf. alfijir. 
jijiga, to shake violently, to 
feel a load in order to test 
its weight ; cf. jinjini. 

jlka, jSka, zlka* pi. jikuna 

(Ar. JJj), a bag, esp. one 

made of skin, used for cow- 
ries, not for holding water. 

jlka, fern, jikanya, pi. j%koki y 

jikanu, grand-child. 
jlka, cf. colloquial idiom, ha yi 
da jika hurry up ! be limp ! 
* look slippery ' ; cf. seq. 

jlka, jlke, to moisten; to be- 
come wet; particip. iormjike- 
wa\ F 78 akawo magani ajika 
medicine is brought and is 
put in water, da rua ajika 
while it is raining. 

jlkai, to have pity; allah shi 
jikansa God have mercy on 
his soul; seejinkai. 

jlki, pi. jikuna, body; angai- 
sheka da jlki your health was 
enquired after ; jika used of 
the trunk of a tree; cf. M. H. 
p. 49, jikin itache shina yin 
mutane talatin the trunk was 
as thick as 30 men. maso 
jlki the man who loves bodily 
ease, i.e. the lazy man. ajikin 
is used as a prep. = on; teokan 
nama ajikin makodi a scrap 
of meat on a round stone. 

jiko, a medicine to cure bori 

jiljilmako, a parrot. 

jlma, to wait a little while ; 
pass, in phr. sai anjima after 




a little while, or good-bye 
for the present. jXma kddan 
or jimkadan, wait a little, or 
a little while ; cf . jinjima. 

jlma, to tan; seejemi. 

jlmawa, for a time. 

jimero, a species of dark 
coloured rice. 

jimila, the parts which make 
up a whole, the divisions 
which make up a district. , 

jimila, v. to add. 

jimlna, pi. jimuna y ostrich. 

jimka, jimke, to grasp with 
the hand, to take a hand- 

jim-k&dan, a little while ; see 

jimki, a handful. 

jimolo, wild cat. 

jimrache, to bear with anyone; 
kajimrache be patient. 

jimrau, an ass with reddish 

jimri, jimre, to be patient, to 
bear, to endure, B 36 ku jimri 
jihadi endure strife; mala- 
fanga ta fi jimrin rua this 
hat keeps the rain off better; 
da jimri patiently. 

jimri, n. patience; yana da 
jimri he is doing his best. 

jimua for aljimua, Friday. 

jinako, zinako, a black sting- 
ing wasp ; see zurnako. 

jinbiri (S.), unripe fruit. 

jinfi, a grass used for making 

jinga, wages or taxes, yin jinga 
to pay wages, etc. ; maijinga 
a man who pays wages ; dan 
jinga a man who receives 
wages, a workman. 

jinganta, to hire. 

jingina, jinjina, 1. n. a pledge 
or security for money owing; 
2. v. to leave anything as a 
pledge; cf. M. H. p. 197, wo- 
dansu m kan jmgine kansu 
8u karbi kurdi some would 
pawn themselves (as slaves) 
in order to obtain money. 
The form jinjina is probably 
a local corruption. 

jingina, jingine, to recline, to 
lean against something. 

jini, blood. 

jini, found in comp. jinin kafiri 
red beads worn by heathen 
women round the neck. 

jini a, the circular band of grass 
rope which encloses the tu- 
kurua rafters in thatching. 

jinia, jinya, sickness, attend- 
ance in sickness ; yin jinia 
to attend upon a sick person ; 
jinia is also used for blood- 
letting, cupping. 

jinini*, to recall a wrong re- 
ceived, to bear a grudge. 

jinjima, apparently a strength- 
ened form of jima, q.v., to 




wait a short time; partic. 
form F62 ka san dunia ka- 
dan muka jinjimawa thou 
knowest that in the world 
we stay but a short time. 

jinjimaka, a bird, with black 
and white plumage. 

jinjimi, pelican, bastard mara- 

jinjina, n. the salutation of 
mounted men, made by the 
raised and shaken arm, and 
usually accompanied by a 

jinjina, jinjini, to hold up the 
right hand as a salute. 

jinjini, to feel a thing in order 
to ascertain its weight. 

jinjiri, fern, jinjinia, pi. jira- 
jirai, child, infant, esp. ap- 
plied to a child between the 
ages of one month and one 
year ; cf . jinjiri ba ya san 
babu ba a little child will 
not take No for an answer; 
jinjirin wata (S.) the new 
moon ; cf . jariri. 

jinjiri a, a prickly tree with 
scarlet blossoms (Erythrina 
senegalensis, Leguminosae). 

jinka, thatched roof; yinjinka 
to thatch (= baibaiya) ; for 
details of its construction 
cf. tanka. 

jinkai, shinkai* 1. mercy, 
grace; ya ke jinkaina he is 

showing compassion on me; 
2. used of good or bad action, 
jinkai alheri or jinkai mu- 
gunta; cf.jikai. 

jinkiri, n. waiting ; ka yi mana 
jmkiri you have made us 
wait ; B 166 ku yi mani jin- 
kiri wait a little while for me. 

jinkiri, destiny, fate, death. 

jinkirta, to postpone, await, 

come late. 
jinnu (Ar. v>^.), demons, genii, 

evil spirits ; D59 da malaiku 
da aljinnu su tare and the 
angels and genii shall be 
gathered together; cf. al- 

jinsi (S.), colour. 

jinya, sickness; seejinia. 

jir, naked, e.g. ya sa riga tasa, 
don jir shi ke he put on his 
garments, because he was 
naked ; cf . (?) tsirara. 

jira, to wait for one; F 237 ana 
fa jiran fitowa nasa atashi 
after waiting for his coming 
out, they rise up ; maijiran 
gari the official left in charge 
of a town in the absence of 
a king; maijiran gawa the 
person left to watch a corpse; 
man jira water which wells 
up slowly and has to be 
waited for; cf. jirache, jirata. 

jira, the yellow weaver bird. 




jirache, 1. to wait for one; 
2. to bear with one ; cf . jira. 

jirai, gum. 

jirata, jiraya (&)> to wait 
for ; cf . jira. 

jiraya, a running canal ; cf. 

jire, rank; seejera x 

jire*, probably a form of tsire, 
cf . ya jire (of the hair of a 
skin) it comes off; cf. M. H. 
p. 57. 

jirfa, letting of blood ; yin jirfa 
to let blood. 

jirga, to bend, move to one 
side to give room to; cf. jirgo 
to come close to. 

jirge, to bend, intr. hainya 
tana jirgewa the road bends. 

jirgo, to come close to; see 

jiri, jeri, dizziness. 

jiri, a tree with pink flowers 
and smooth bark (Stereo- 
spermum kunthianum, Big- 
noniaceae), also called san- 
sami and hachin-tumkia. 

jirigi, jirgi, pi. jirage, 1. canoe, 
boat ; jirigin tvuta or jirigin 
hayaki is used for steamboat, 
jirigin kasa a locomotive or 
train, maijirgi boatman ; 2. 
trough, water-trough for cows, 
etc. ; 3. manger ; 4. a blue 

jirke*, to cease; e.g. of a dance; 

suna jirkewa they are finish- 

jirkiche, to upset, turn upside 
down, overthrow ; cf. seq. 

jirkita, to overthrow, upset, it 
is used of bringing a baby 
round from the neck to the 
breast ; used with fuska to 
frown, to show signs ol dis- 
pleasure; participial form jir~ 
kitatva, cf. F 108 ka zamna 
nan tutur ba jirkitawa thou 
wilt remain there for ever 
without turning over. 

jirkita, n. change ; ha lura da 
zamanu dajirkitansa consider 
the times and their changes. 

jirwaye, splashing over. 

jisasa (K.), an eagle. 

jishe*, to cause to feel ; cf. ji. 

jlshe, to take away, take off. 

jlta, to tilt anything up against 
something; cf. jlche. 

jitau, a rain cloud. 

jlto or jSto, to agree with, e.g. 
with an enemy. 

jitsa, pain. 

jiwaya, to spy; seejewaye and 

jiwoji, veins ; see jijia. 

jiwoyi, to visit ; see jawayi. 

jiwuya, to turn round; cf. 

jiyeya, mutual understanding; 
see ji. 

jiza, a distant noise, muttering. 



jiziya (S.), tribute. 

juba, ant-hill; seejiba. 

judu*, always. 

juga, to give lavishly, anjuga 
mini aiki I have been given 
too big a job ; cf. seq. 

juga, jubga, n. an unfair divi- 

jujai, 1. dung-hill, ci.jibji; 2. 
a woman of bad character. 

jujaye, a pi. form of ja red ; 
cf. M. H. p. 227. 

juje, a small drum ; cf. jauje. 

jujuyawa, turning over, trad- 
ing, M. H. p. 202 ; cf . juya. 

jula jula, of cloth, thread-bare. 

juna, recipr. pronoun, common- 
ly prefixed to the plurals of 
the pers. pronouns, tYixxzjun- 
anm one another ; juna and 
da juna are also used abso- 
lutely, E 37 muna murna 
da juna we rejoice one with 
another; the expression juna 
biu is used in polite circles 
for enceinte ; cf . ta yi juna 
biu she was three or four 
months gone with child. 

juna, a friend. 

juni*, blue colour, indigo, 
= shuni. 

jurara, n. listening ; cf. M. H. 
p. 230, ku yi jurara listen. 

jurare*, to listen; see aaurara. 

jure, to kick ; see shure. jure- 
jure, an intensified form of 

jure or shure to kick, used of 
fowls, etc. 

juri, to be patient ; cf. jimri. 

jurum, silent, oppressed; cf. 

juya, used of an animal that 
is sterile ; cf . juya che ba ta 

juya, juye, to turn over, to 
turn back, to turn or whirl 
round in a dance, y ana juye 
it is inside out ; juya da ma- 
gana or juya magana to in- 
terpret, juya da to overturn, 
juya ma to turn away from ; 
juyatva turning, returning. 

juyi, n. whirling. Also a trad- 
ing term, selling an article 
and with the proceeds and 
added money buying some- 
thing else. 

k w£ and k <i) are used by 
the Hausas to represent 
the sound of the English k. 
There is adistinction of sound 
between the two, though in 
writing they are frequently 
interchanged, o (which in 
this dictionary is written k) 
is a sub-palatal guttural. The 
. Hausa name for it is kam 
mairuay i.e. the watery k; 
it is so called because the 
person pronouncing it puts 
his mouth into such a position 




that he appears to be shooting 
out water from the throat. 
The other k is called kam 
lasan the licking k. The dis- 
tinction between the two k 
sounds is specially marked 
where k is an initial letter. 
The sound k is sometimes 
interchanged with that of s, 
f, and gr, e.g. kunche, mnche; 
kufu,fufu; kurji, gurje. 

ka, second personal pronoun 
masc. sing., 1. as subject it 
is prefixed to the verb in 
the perfect tense and in the 
imperative mood; it is also 
suffixed to the auxiliary verb 
za which denotes the future 
tense, also to the passive, e.g. 
zaka fito you will come out, 
afita&daka you are brought 
forth ; 2. as object it follows 
verbs and preps., e.g. sun ka~ 
maka they have seized you, 
maka or gareka to you ; 3. 
-nka is used as an inseparable 
possessive pronoun when the 
object possessed is masculine 
and -rka or -Ika when the 
object possessed is feminine ; 
see Gr. p. 24, e.g. ubanka thy 
father, uwarka thy mother. 

ka, a concessive particle ; B 28 
kowache ka ka zaba which 
thou mayest choose =kan, q.v. 

k&, a shortened form of kaa the 

future prefix for the 2nd 
personal pronoun masc. sing. ; 
cf. Gr. p. 40. 

ka, head, a shortened form of 
kai, q.v. 

kaba, pi. kabobi, 1. a large 
species of palm with edible 
fruit ; it is specially used of 
the young dum palm before 
the stem has grown up; 2. 
its leaves and fibre from 
which baskets, ropes, hats, 
etc. are made. 

kaba, to swell, used of swelling 
caused by sickness. 

kaba, kabuwa, a swelling, 
syphilis ; kaba na kashi rheu- 
matism; cf. dumar-kada. 

kabaki, pi. kaboka, 1. a large 
quantity of food in a calabash, 

abundance, B 30 ; 2. a large 

kabama,kambama, kabuma, 

a brood mare, 
kaban kura,a vegetable poison 

used for smearing arrows, 
k&bare, a bird, the appearance 

of which is a sign of bad luck. 

6 0' 

k&bari (Ar. j*$), grave; B 169, 
F 101 kana kabarinka kai 
dai thou art in thy grave 

'mt * 

kabbar* (Ar. j^&>) f A 72 to 
say 'allah akbar,' i.e. 'God 
is great.' 




kabe, to brush ; kakabe to brush 
thoroughly, also used as intr. 
v. 8ai rdba ta kakabe wait 
till the dew has risen (i.e. is 
brushed away) 

kabeke*, one possessed of food; 
cf. kabaki. 


kabewa (K.), kubewa (S.) 
(cucurbita pepo), a kind of 
pumpkin or gourd, which 
grows in gardens and on 
houses; cf. goji (Z.). 

kabia, 1. conduct, habit; 2. a 
thing abhorred. 

kabido, kabudo, a cape made 
of palm fibre with hole for 
head, used as a protection 
against rain. 

kablla* (Ar. J*J), kindred, 

all the people belonging to 
one house ; maikabila one 
who has a large following. 

k&bra, to knock against. 

kabrara, to be large or corpu- 

kabri, thick ; see kauri. 

kabtu, first hoeing of land be- 
fore sowing ; cf . kufurtu. 

kabua, syphilis ; see kaba. 

kabuma, see kabama. 

kabura, a whistle made of an 
antelope's horn. 

kablis, kabushi, pi. kabussai, 
an edible gourd. 

kabushi, softness, ya yi ka- 
bushi it is soft to eat. 

kacha kacha, scattering, dis- 
persal of property or people. 

kachala, a chief slave of a 
y. king (a Bornuese word). 
pkache, to scratch up with theCT'-^" 

k&chia, circumcision; yin or 
yenke kachia to circumcise. 

kachibiss (S.), an unexpected 

kachichia, a wood-boring in- 

kachokacho, a pod like a pea 
with small seeds inside, used 
as a plaything for children 
to shake. 

k&da, karka*, conjunction, 1. 
that not, lest ; D 56 ku do 
ania k&da yan uwanku su 
berku hainya take care lest 
your relations leave you out- 
side (heaven); 2. preceded 
by domin = in order that not ; 
3. in imperative sentences 
it denotes prohibition, B 41 
kada ka lura da aiki nai 
look not closely at his work ; 
B 141 k&da ka bita follow it 

k&da, to shake, specially used 
in the phrase k&da kai to 
beckon with the head, assent, 
say yes ; see geda kai 9 cf . 
kauda kai to dissent. 
k&da, to strike, e.g. a drum, 
k&da, k&she, to conquer, over- 




throw (not connected with 
kashe to kill) ; kada itatua to 
clear the bush ; kada or ky- 
arda is used before a n., kdshe 
before a pron. 

kada, cotton, for the cleaning 
of cotton before spinning see 
under abduga. 

kada, to stir into, mix in (e.g. 
of soup). 

k&da [Ar. i*-ii, the Ar. ^a is 
here pronounced d 9 but in 

alkali ^xii\ , judge, it is pro- 

nounced as l\ to judge, con- 
demn, chastise ; kada mag ana 
to contemn. 

kada kada, a shrub with pink 
flowers which appear from 
the ground bei ore the leaves 
(Cienfuegosia heteroclada, 

k&da, k&do, pi. k&dddi, ka- 
dUna, kadundilna y crocodile. 

kadabkara, also kadafkara, 
a bird which is said to carry 
its eggs in its mouth; the 
lesser bustard. 

k&dada, 1. a cross ridge in a 
tilled field joining the longi- 
tudinal ridges; 2. a well- 
tilled field ; cf . kwiya. 

kadai, exceedingly, used in 
salutations after sanu, barka, 

kadai, only, alone, ni kadai I 

only, I alone, ka kadai, ahi 
kadai, etc. 

kadaichi, the state of being 
one or alone, found in the 
phr. ahi kadaichi he by him- 
self ; cf. makadaichi unique. 

kadaita, 1. desolation ; yin ka- 
daita, to lay waste ; 2. v. to 
be alone ; shina kadaita daki 
he is alone in the room. 

kadami, used in the expression 
kadamin abduga a spindle 
with cotton on it used in 

kadamiski or karamuski, 
q.v., an imported velvet or 
plush cloth esp. used by wo- 

k&dan, if, when. 

kadan, little, few; kddankddan 
very little, very few. 

kadan-dunia, kadandonia, a 
harmless centipede, = daideya ; 
cf . shanshani a poisonous cen- 

kadangari, kadangare, f. ka- 

dangcurua, pi. kadangaru, the 
common house lizard. When 
the male puts on its mating 
colours it is called kutu (in 
Kano), kiski (in Sokoto) and 
jangwada (in Zaria). 

kadango, tattoo marks behind 
the eyes. 

kadanya (Bassia Parkii), shea- 
butter tree ; the oil obtained 




from its seeds (main kadanya) 
is of the consistency of butter; 
it is largely used as an article 
of food and is exported to 
England for use in the manu- 
facture of soap, candles, etc.; 
ci.kade. kadanya rafi a poison 
used for smearing arrows. 

k&dara, kudira (Ar. Jji), 1. to 
will or decree; 2. to liken, 
hold equal to. 

kadarko, bridge : see kaderko. 

kadaura, a large tree with 
fragrant resin, the copaiba 
tree (Daniellia thurifera, Le- 

k&de, the fruit of the shea- 
butter (kadanya) tree ; nami- 
jin kade a tree with white 
blossoms: its foliage resembles 
that of the kadanya tree (Lo- 
phira alata). 

kade, to cut down, e.g. a tree, 

. to overturn. 

kaderi, the cotton obtained 
from the silk-cotton tree. 

kaderko, kadarko, bridge, 

kaderta, Ar. jjj, to appoint, 
to order (used of God), to 

kadi, n. spinning, yin kadi to 
spin ; cf . kada cotton. 

k&di, a blow. 

kado pi. habe (Fulani words), 

indigenous tribes, used gener- 
ally by the Fulanis for 

k&do (K.), a crocodile ; see 

kadondunia, centipede ; see 


k&fa, a leak in roof, pot or 
canoe; a little hole; ya yi 
kafa it leaks ; cf . prov. abin 
banza hancM babu kafa a 
worthless thing is a nose with- 
out nostrils; kdfal alura a 
needle's eye. 

k&fa, 1. to build, esp. to put 
wooden beams on a house ; 

2. to nail, fasten with nails ; 

3. to set up, to place, pitch, 
kdfa lema to pitch a tent; 
A 13 mu ga ankafa ragaya 
we see ropes set up (for weav- 
ing) ; 4. ya kafa goshinsa he 
prostrated himself; 5. to 
ground ; cf . M. H. jirigi ya 
kdfa chikin duchi the boat 
grounded on the rocks; kafa- 
fe, fern, kdfqfia, kdfqfa, pi. 
kdfafu, finished, established, 
founded; kdfawa founding; 
akdfe stuck in. 

k&fa, kaflfa, pi. kafafu f kafofi, 

kafdfe (cf. Ar. s*£>, 1. palm 
of hand, sole of foot), foot, 
leg ; tafin kdfa the sole of the 
foot ; akafa on foot, F 95 
kafafe duk aduntse ma kushe- 



kafon batsi 

wa by the feet of all is (thy) 
grave pressed down; k&fat 
yaki a portion of an army 
separated from main body; 
k&fat fatake a collection of 
caravans; cf. prov. ztimunta 
ak&fa ta ke relationship is a 
matter of the feet, i.e. if a 
person does not take the 
trouble to walk to see his 
relation the relationship be- 
comes of no account; cf. 
kamun k&fa; 2. spur of a 
cock, fin of a fish. 

kafada, shoulder. 

kafan* (Ar.), shroud ; cf. lika- 

kafarji, a small tortoise. 

k&fau, mud ; see k&fo. 

kafche, to plough or prepare 
ground for sowing, makqfche 
one who ploughs ; cf. kaftu. 

k&fe (cf . Ar. rt U^ , to recede), 
to subside, sink and so, of a 
well, to dry up, rijia ta k&fe \ 
also tr. to dry, e.g. meat. 

k&fi, kaffl, 1. gate, stockade, 
barrier ; 2. establishment, cf . 

kftfi, k&fin, prep, before (used 
of time) ; cf. kami. 

kafia, to slip, e.g. as in soft 
mud, B 142 ka kafia damai 
maiafkawa thou slippest con- 
fusedly and art about to fall. 

kafiboka, a convolvulus with 

white flowers and silvery 
hairy leaves from which scent 
is made, ^farin-gamu, q.v. 

k&firchi, heathenism; see ka- 

kafirfita, sand-fly. 

k&firi, pi. kqfirai, kqfir&wa ( Ar. 

j-3\j$3>), unbeliever, infidel, 


kafirta, to become an unbeliever. 

kaflto (come out), a bird or 
animal snare made with cane 
and slip-knots. 

k&fo, k&ho, pi. kafoni, kafuna> 
1. horn, da k&fo horned; 
2.- horn-trumpet ; A 78 rana 
da maibusa ya busa kafo on 
the day when the sounder 
of the trumpet shall sound ; 
maikafo trumpeter ; k&fon 
mariri the horn of the oryx. 

k&fo, mire, a swamp with soft 

kafo, pi. kafi, blind, blind man; 
cf. makctfo, id., makopchi, 
makamta, and makamchi, 

k&fo, ya k&fo baki he stuck out 
his lips to drink ; see kafa. 

kafofun-guga (S.), an arch 
used in building, in Gando 
masharua is used. 

kafon batsi, a wild plant some- 
times eaten in times of scar- 
city at beginning of rains. 




kafora (S.), the iron blade of 

a hoe. 
kafra, tr. to knock against. 
kafbu, hoeing, esp. the first 

hoeing of the ground before 

sowing; yin kaftu to hoe; 

cf . kafche. 
kafu, a cloth put on a horse 

under the saddle. 

k&fur ( Ar. jy li»), camphor. 

k&furchi, heathenism ; see ka- 

k&furi, heathen^ see kafiri. 

kaga, to find out, discover, in- 

kagada, when ; used in Sokoto 
for saanda. 

kag&ra, eager desire for; yin 
kagdra da to desire eagerly. 

k&gara, kSgarua, pi. kagaru, 
fortification, barricade made 
of trees, entrenchment; also 
used for a stretcher of boughs 
on which a man whom it is 
desired to honour, is borne 
by his friends. 

kage (S.), invention, false accu- 

k&ge, to stiffen, used of a limb 
stiffened by cold or disease; 
kagewa stiffening ; see gage. 

kago, used of a house of which 
the roof has fallen in. 

k&gua, pi. kagunai, an edible 
crab which lives in the water. 

kai, pron. 2nd pers. sing, em- 
it. H. D. 

phatic, thou, thou thyself; 
used with ka to form emphatic 
aor. 2nd pers. kai ka nema 
thou didst seek; also with 
da, tare da kai with thee thy- 
self. Frequently used as an 
exclamation to call anyone 
or attract his attention ; kai 
yaro ho boy ! it is sometimes 
used as an exclamation ad- 
dressed to more than one 
person kai ku tafi! 

kai, sometimes used in Sokoto 
, for keau f good ; cf . wanda ke 
da kai the popular course. 

kai, pi. kanua,kawana, kawuna, 
1. head of animated beings; 
chiwon-kai headache; 2. tig. 
top or summit of anything; 
kain tudu the summit of the 
hill, kandaki an upper storey 
in a house ; 3. sum, substance 
or chief point of a statement, 
chapter of a book, kai in 
conjunction with the personal 
pron. is used as a periphrasis 
for the reflexive and emphatic 
pron. (a) with da, e.g. ni da- 
kaina I myself, shi dakansa 
he himself, etc., ita dakanta 
or ita takanta she herself; 
(b) without da as ni kaina I 
myself, C 4, kai nasa himself, 
C 5. The final i is dropped 
except in the first person, 
kanka, kansa, kansu. Xhe 





forms kaina etc. are also used 
as reflexive pronouns in the 
objective case, e.g. ya bata 
kansa he destroyed himself : 
ya aha kansa it was too much 
for him, ta samu kanta she 
was punished ; cf . abin ya zo 
kanmu the thing has recoiled 
on us, gama kai da to in- 
trigue with, dakir ya sami kai 
he saved himself with diffi- 
culty, kan litafi the beginning 
of a book; ta kai ta kai 
every one for himself; cf. 
akan above, a contraction of 
a kai na on the head of. 

kai, 1 . to carry, to carry a load ; 
2. to take, take away, con- 
duct, guide ; 3. attain to, ar- 
rive at ; cf . kai da kawowa 
na karia false dealings; kai 
da kawowa is also used for 
to go to and fro ; cf . labarin- 
sa ya kai koenna the report 
concerning him went every- 
where ; kdda ta kai don't let 
it escape. To this verb is 
probably to be referred the 
kai in the phrase ba shi kai 
hakanan ba it is too much, 
or it is not so ; cf. kawa to 
take away, kaiyo to bring, 

• kaya a load, kaiwa a present. 

kaia, burden ; see kaya. 

kaia, a thorn ; see kaya. 

kaicho, alas! i.q. kaito, q.v. 

kaida, rule, law, boundary, rate 

of tax assessment. 
kaifafa, to sharpen, to be 

sharp. . 

kaifi (cf. Ar. *f^), edge, e.g. 
of a knife, of the bridge al- 
sirat, F 144 ; da kaifi edged, 

kaikai, kaikaiyi, itching pain; 
the itch, crowcrow, a disease 
very common on the W. coast 
of Africa. 

kaikai, the chaff obtained when 
any grain is beaten out. 

kaikainya, side-plaits. 

kaik&ra, lit. bringing of accu- 
sation, 1. accusation; 2. to 
accuse; cf. kara. 

kaikaya, a leguminous shrub. 

kailula (Ar. Al^i), to doze. 

kaimi, pL kayami, spur, also 
used of the spurs of a cock ; 
kaimin kadangare (lizard's 
spur) a plant with prickly 
seed capsules about 1 in. 

kainijia (compound of kai and 
ijia), eyelashes. 

kainnain or kai nai, plenti- 
fully, in great numbers. 

kainua, water lettuce (Pistia 
stratiotes, Pistiaceae). 

kainya, kanwa, the 'ebony 
tree' (Diospyros mespilifor- 
mis, Ebenaceae). 




kainya, kanwa (kwoi), to lay 

kaitara, plural kaitarori, the 
leather thong attached to. the 
saddle and passed through 
the ring of the girth (bauji or 
majayi) to fasten the latter. 

kaitaro, see seq. 

kaito (S.), kaicho (E.) or kai- 
taro, alas ! found in con- 
struction with suff. pron. C 13 
kaitunka wawa alas for thee, 
O fool ; kaichoni woe is me. 

kaiwa, a present, especially one 
given to a king ; cf . kai. 

kaiwa, a large leather sack. 

kaiya, an exclamation of nega- 
tion, Why! What an idea! 

kaje, reed buck, cervicapra re- 

kajerini, the name of a bird. 

kajiji, kazizi, a tuber from 
which a cough-medicine, also 
frankincense for use at bu- 
rials, is made. 

kaka, how; used interroga- 
tively; cf. kaka mnanka what 
is your name? kaka ne ka 
sani how dost thou know? 
kaka zaka yi how are you 
going to manage? In Sokoto 
yaya is often used for kaka ; 
kokaka however. 

k&k&, the harvest season, which 
lasts about one month and 
comes at the end of the wet 

season (damana) before the 
rain has quite ceased. In the 
greater part of Hausaland 
kdka would approximately 
correspond to November. 

k&ka, pi. kakaniy 1. grandfather ; 
2. ancestor; D 58 akantarshi- 
mu dukamu Jial kakanmu a- 
damu we shall all be gathered 
together even to our ancestor 

k&kabe, intens. form of kabe, 
q.v., to brush off, to be 
brushed off, to let fall, of 
a tree, to shed leaves. 

k&k&bi, to marvel as at a thing 
never before seen. 

kakabra, fat ; see kabri. 

kak&fe, to stick to ; see M/a. 

kaka-glda*, a nickname ap- 
plied to the children in a 
home for freed slaves. 

kakakat or kakat, a word im- 
plying likeness, only used in 
proverbs : kakakat kunnen 
doki, like a horse's car. 

kakaki, trumpet, trombone. 

k&kanya, grandmother ; cf. ka- 

k&kara, a small piece of ivory, 
a tooth. 

kakarai, without cause. 

kakar&ko, crowing ; see kaka- 

kakari, 1. vanity, vain, untrue; 
2. swelling on hand or foot. 





kakartsa, to bow ; cf . karkata. 

kakaruko, kakarako, kuka- 
ruku, n. crowing (probably 
onomatopoeic); cf. agwagwa 
and talatcdu. 

kakarya, guinea-corn which 
has sprung up in an unsown 

kakat, see kakakat. 

kakau* = maikauda, one who 
drives away in war. 

kakezua hausa, a plant re- 
sembling ginger, which grows 
in damp woods (Costus afer, 

kaki, to spit. 

kaki, found in compound JcaJcin 
zumua bees'-wax. 

ka-ki-ganin allah (thou re- 
fusest to look at God), the 
name of a species of horn- 
bill which appears to be 
always gazing down. 

kala, used in Gando for palm 
rib. % 

k&la (cf. (1) Ar. '*$&, herbage), 
gleaning of harvest, remainder 
of nuts, food, etc. ; yin kola 
to glean. 

kalabi, handkerchief on a wo- 
man's head. 

kalabta*, to sit down, used of 
camels, donkeys, etc. 

kalachi (cf. (?) Ar. Jli, to 
drink at midday), breakfast, 
. midday meal, any meal. 


kalai* (Ar. .Jii), washing of 

clothes, for reduplicated form 
cf. B 136 banza kalai kalai 
ba addini the washing of 
clothes is worthless apart from 
religion ; generally used with 
wanke to wash well and 

kal&mi* (Ar. y^£s), words; 
cf. M. H. p. 220, kalaminsa 
he nan this is what he said. 

kalango, a drum, made with 
wood or out of a calabash; 
it is shaped like an hour- 
glass, and held under the 
arm ; pressure on the strings 
alters the sound of the drum. 
One such would be used by 
theking'sfool; cf. jauje which 
is a drum similar in shape to 
the kalango but of larger size. 

kalankua, 1. a string worn 
across the forehead as a cure 
for headache or as a charm; 
2. yin kalankua to look at 
anyone in order to encourage 
him ; 3. the top layers of 
brick on a wall, coping stones. 

k&l&ta, to glean ; see kala. 

kale, to regard lightly, disre- 
gard; see kiale. 

k&lemu, kallemu (K.), 1. 
wing of an insect; 2. the 
barbs on an arrow-head be- 
hind the actual point. 




kalgame (S.), to intertwine, 
hook on to. 

kalgo, kargo (Bauhinia reti- 
culata, Leguminosae), a small 
tree with slightly fragrant 
leaves, used for wrapping up 
food in ; its bark is used by 
women for darkening their 
lips; from the bark of the 
kalgo tree are made the cords 
used to tie up the reeds in 
housebuilding; cf. Gr. p. 138, 
1. 38, masuyin daki da kalgo, 

kali*, keli*, to shine as metal, 
a star, etc. 

kalia* falsehood, for karia, q.v. 

" M. H. p. 227. 

kalikashin, below; see kal- 

kaUlan* (Ar. JJlS), a little. 

kaliye, 1. to command; 2. a 
command, proclamation (Ar. 

kalkada, kalkade, kankade, 
karkade, to shake, shake off; 
kalkada kura to shake off the 
dust ; D 5 ba wanan da kan 
jishi ba shi kalkade ba that 
which he hears let him cast 
not away. 

kalk&fi, towel, napkin, small 
piece of cloth. 

kalkashi, n. the bottom or base 
of anything, probably formed 
from kasa ground. 

kalkashi, karkashi (Cerato- 
theca sesamoides, Pedalia- 
ceae), a prostrate herb, with 
flowers similar to those of 
lidi, q.v. The name is also 
applied to Sesamum radiatum 
an erect and larger plant with 
similar flowers. 

kalkashin (S.), kalikashin, 
karkashin(K.),under, under- 
neath, below. A shortened 
form kalkas is commonly used 
as a prep, or adv., underneath. 

kalkashin zomo (Indigofera 
sp., Leguminosae), a bush 
with small leaves and pink 

kalkeche, wild dog or jackal. 

kalle (K.), to break. 

kallemu, the barbs on an arrow 
head, see kalemu. 

kallo, n. gaze, stare ; yin kallo 
to look carefully at, gaze, 
stare; ka faye kallona you 
continue staring at me, ma- 
kalachi one who stares, in a 
bad sense. 

kalma* ( Ar. ), word ; see kaldmi. 

kalm&sa, kalmashe, 1. to 

bend, roll up, make a collar, 
hem ; 2. to avoid ; in pass. 
B 37 akalmasheta let it be 
avoided; 3. kalmashe with 
zuchia = to fail to get one's 
desire, to be disappointed ; 4. 
kalmashen zuchia illiberality. 




kalme, an iron-pointed pick. 

kalmlsa, n. used of rough des- 
habille coiffure of a woman 
pending the proper kitsu. 

k&lo, used in expression kdlo 
kdlo very fine ; cf . kali. . 

kalu, broth (a Kanuri word). 

kalu*, found in compound ka- 
lun itache a dried-up tree. 

kalua, seeds of the dorowa tree ; 
they are contained in a pod 
like that of a bean and are 
eaten in soup., 1. a gland ; 2. a swell- 
ing of a gland. 

kam*, as to, e.g. ni kam for 
my part, in my opinion; 
usually implying a negative 
statement, ni kam=I did not, 
it is not I. 

k&ma, to seize, to catch, lay 
hold on, to continue, go on 
with; then in various se- 
condary applications, e.g. ya 
kama hainya he took his 
road, pursued his journey; ya 
kama it succeeds (= ya yi) ; ba 
ni kama I would not believe; 
suka kama tafia they pro- 
ceeded to march; kowa ya 
kama g&bansa every one took 
his own road ; wuta ta kama 
the fire blazed up; suka kama 
haka they continued thus; 
kama aiki to begin work ; 
• kama gvda to take to flight ; 

kamakqfa to supplicate; karae 
bakinka keep quiet ; y a kama 
rob it fits exactly; kamuwa 
capable of being caught ; cf . 
prov. zomo ba shi kamuwa 
daga zamne a hare is not 
caught by sitting still ; ka- 
mame a prisoner; kankama 
in tens, to catch all of ; kan- 
kamo to seize and bring ; ka- 
rau is used in sense of to be 
catchable ; takamu it is likely 
to be caught ; makdma, q.v., 
that which lays hold or is 
laid hold of, handle ; makdmi 
k&ma (Ar. id.), as, like, like as; 
kama wanan like this ; kama, 
used with a word denoting 
measure = about ; with da 
affixed kamada and kamanda 
= like as, according as (cf. 
tamkarda), yin kdmada to be 
like to ; most commonly kdma 
assumes the constr. forms ka- 
man, kamal, kamar y kaman 
wanan like this, kdmandd or 
kdma nadd or kdma tadd as. 
before, kamar yada even as, 
kaman kurege like a jerboa; 
maikama kaza such and such 
a description, cf. idiom dokin 
nan da keau kamar abani 
this horse is good, you had 
better give it me, farin wata* 
ya yi dadin tafia kamar aje 




the new moon is good for 
travelling, we had better go; 
mi ne kamarki what is your 
colour? i.e. what sort are you? 
shina da halarnom kamanshi 
it looks like him ; akabayana- 
shi da wata kama he appeared 
in another form. In A 33 
zasu tashi kaman hare they 
shall rise in the form of dogs, 
is seen its transition to a 
noun; hence several following 
forms, nominal and verbal. 
kdma, jA.kdmdnu, 1. likeness, 
image, picture, appearance, 
yin kama to resemble ; 2. one's 
like, companion, associate, 
fellow, partner, friend (cf. 
Fulah kama friend); maikd- 
ma like to. ya yi kdma da 
wanan ya fi wanchan it is 
more like this than that. 
kama* to befit (= kamata), 
found in D4 abinda ba shi 
kama ba that which is un- 
fitting. kdmachS to befit, to 
become, to behove. M. H. 
p. 206, abin da shi bai 
kamacheka ba that which is 
not becoming to you. kdmd- 
ta to be becoming and so, to 
be necessary; ya kamata it 
is becoming, we ought, etc. 

kamache, to befit ; see kdma. 

k&mal, kamar, like; see kdma. 

kam&me, prisoner ; see kdma. 

kamare, reeds, pi. of kemru, q. v. 

k&mata, to befit ; see kdma. 

kamazoro, the strap, held in 
hand, tied to the bit lizami. 

kambama, brood mare; see 

kam-barao (thief's head), a 
shrub about 7 ft. high with 
soft leaves from which a con- 
coction is made in which the 
face is steamed. 

kamberi, a man of Hausa pa- 
rentage born and brought up 
in an alien state. He retains 
the religion, etc. of a Hausa; 
cf. abakwariga. The Kam- 
beri country lies N.W. of 

kambi* (cf . (?) Ar. rt ^^>, to 
become rich), 1. fine expen- 
sive clothes, stored up trea- 
sures, esp. those of a king; 
2. strength ; shina da kambi 
he is strong. 

kambi (S.), a skin disease, esp. 
of horses, yaws. 

kambdri, kambari, 1. finger- 
nail, also used collectively for 
all the finger-nails; 2. egg- 
shell ; 3. fish scales. 

kambori* (Ar. ^), fine white 
calico or brocade, such as 
is imported from England; 
cf . alkamura from the same 
Arabic root. 

kambu, a leather arm guard 




worn from wrist to elbow, 
worn by hunters. 

kamfa, the hole in which grain 
is planted; kashe kamfa to 
go over the ground sowing in 
the places where the grain 
has not sprouted as a result 
of the first sowing. 

kami, till, until, when, by the 
time that, before ; cf. sai ha 
shiria kamin na zo you must 
get ready by the time I come; 
cf. kafi. D 21 kami mareche 
until evening ; A 12 kami ka 
zona when thou sittest down; 
cf. M. H. p. 206, kamin yi 
wonka until I have washed. 

kamk&ma, to utterly capture, 
intens. form ; see kdma. 

kamna (Ar. v>**)> 1- lo y e> de- 
sire, e.g. kamna ta tsaya love 
is aroused ; C 9 ya maida 
kamna tai ga banza dunia he 
directs his desires towards 
this vain world, abin kamna 
a thing beloved, ina kamna- 
ka I love thee ; B 165 muna 
kamna we desire, or with y\ 
e.g. na yi kamnansa (=ina 
8on8a) I love him ; yenke 
kamna to lose heart; 2. v. 
kamna fuska to look pleased 
at seeing a friend; cf. kan- 
kamna f kauna. 

kamro, a reed-grass ; beran 
kamro a water mouse. 

kamshi/kansi, kamsa, 1. an 
agreeable smell, abin kamshi 
scent of any kind ; 2. incense, 
B 169. 

kamsir, applied to the metal 
cartridge case used with the 
flint-lock gun ; cf . maikamsir. 

kamu, to catch ; see kdma. 

k&mu, a measure of length 
from the elbow to the tip of 
the middle finger, cubit; a 
common measure used in sell- 
ing cloth. 

kamua*, a pledge held for 
money owing. 

kamunk&fa, the two pieces of 
cloth sewn on at the bottom 
of native trousers ; they are 
about six inches wide and 
brightly coloured ; cf. toando 
maikamu trousers embroid- 
ered up to the top. 

kamzo, kanzo, food burnt on 
the fire, a dried crust; cf. 
M. H. pp. 169 sqq., refuse 

kan*, kana or kanda* con- 
junctive particle, before that, 
until, then ; kan su gama 
before they have done, kare 
wanan kana ka yi tvonehan 
finish this before you do that, 
B 57 kanda ta rabika before 
it part you. 

kan, if, when ; cf . M. H. p. 228, 
allah kan ya so if God will ; 




it is probably an abbreviation 
of kadan, q.v. 
kan (ham before b) or ka, a 
defective auxiliary, used in 
order to give to verbs (1) a 
frequentative or habitual 
sense ; cf. A 54 wanan da 
kan rika taimama the man 
who always performed his 
ablutions with sand; (2) a 
subjunctive or concessive 
sense, B 137 almajiri shi kam 
bida dengi nai the pupil 
would seek after his rela- 
tions ; (3) the sense of neces- 
sity or certainty, «.g. sai ya 
gamu da wata ya kan che 
kaitaro when he meets the 
fire he will say, Alas ! 

kan, on the basis of; see akan. 

kana, before ; see kan*. 

kana, personal pronoun, 2nd 
person masc. singular of the 
continuous present tense ; cf. 
Gr. p. 28. 

kanana, little, small, few; used 
as pi. of karami, q.v. 

kanda, how, the way in which, 
according to. na kasa ji 
kanda I am at a loss to 
understand; cf. kan. 

kanda, koda, a dried-up nut. 

kandaki, pi. kandakuna, com- 
posed of kai and daki, lit. 
head of the house ; second 
storey, a room above, apex of 

roof; sabero m kan jamaa 
a kaindaki mosquitoes collect 
in the roof of a house. 

kandama, yin kandama to 
tie down thatch on to a 

kandami, pond ; see kun- 

kandare (K.), kangare (S.), to 
be stiff, used of skins. 

kande, a name given to a girl 
born after the birth of two 
or more boys. 

kandilu, dung of cows or 

kandiri, a long straight walk- 
ing-stick from Adamawa. 

kandu or kandun ido, 1. de- 
claring what is on the inside 
of anything by simply looking 
at it; 2. a stone used as a 
charm tied to a woman's 
neck; 3. evil eye. 

k&ne, pi. kdnena, kdnai, kanoni, 
younger brother; for fern, 
form cf. kanua. 


k&ne, kanne, 1. winking; 2. to 
wink with one eye, yin kanne, 
id.; kanniawa winking, see 

kanenchi, brotherhood. 

kanfa* remainder, used in 
Sokoto for saura; cf. Gr. 
p. 137, 1. 11. 

kanf&le* (S.), shoulder. 

kanga, a knife ; see kangar. 




kanga, konga, plain, flat place 
without trees, ravine; cf. 
M. H. p. 197, dila malami 
na konga the jackal is the 
mallani of desolate places; 
cf. kango, 

kangalai, a long piece of wood 
tied beside the ear, projecting 
for some distance before and 
behind, used as. a punishment 
for thieving. 

kangar, kanga, 1. a rough 
knife, used esp. by pagans, 
with circular handle to fit 
on wrist and blade project- 
ing backwards; 2*. cavalry 
assembled for war. 

kangara, rebellion, kangarad 
da to excite to mutiny ; cf. 
adv. phr. da kangara vigor- 
ously, B36; fiercely, strong- 

kangarua, a single one of a 
pair, of which one has been 

kangi, a leather thong, e.g. the 
rope by which slaves are 
fastened neck to neck, 

kango, pi. kangaye, kangogi, 
1. desolation; 2. a desolate 
and ruined house; 3. a house, 
built without a door, used 
as a prison; cf. kanga. 

kani, before ; see kan. 

kania, anus. 

kaniawa, winking with the 

eye; cf. kdne. 
kankada, to drum, intens. 

form of kdda. 
kankale, to scale a fish, 
kankama, evil spirit. 
kankama, new sprouts growing 

up after trees or grass have 

been cut down. 
kankama, an intensive form 

of kdma to seize. 
kankamna, to dislike, ill-treat ; 

cf. kamna, 
kankamo, to seize and bring ; 

see kdma. 
kankana, little, fern, form of 

kankane, q.v. 
kankana, a species of cucum- 
ber or pumpkin. 
kankanchi (possibly this may 

be the French cancan Ara- 

bicised into jj.££>, idle gos- 
sip), dishonour, humiliation, 
anger, quarrelling ; B 83 mu 
8a kankanchi let us put aside 
quarrelling, yin kankanchi 
da to quarrel with ; cf. prov. 
talauchi kankanchi poverty 
is degradation, i.e. there is 
nothing like poverty to hu- 
miliate a man; cf. M. H. 
p. 200, ni ma yi kankanche 
I too will do (him) a bad 
turn, kundumi ga mache 
kankanchi ne baldness is a 
disgrace to a woman. 




kankanda kai, to bend the 
head ; see kdda. 

kankandi, kenkendi, a sack. 

kankani, to quarrel; cf. kan- 

kankani, a strengthened form 
of kane, found in expr. yin 
kankanin ido to look with 
the eyes nearly shut. 

kankane, fern, kankanwa, pi. 
kankana, kanana, small, little, 
few, A 22. 

kankanta, littleness, cf. halin 
kankanta childishness. 

kankanta, to humiliate, make 
small ; cf. Gr. 138, 1. 34, yun- 
fa ya kankanta dunia Yunfa 
would humiliate the world. 
kankantawar kai bringing 
disgrace on oneself. 

kankara, 1. hail ; 2. flint of a 

kankara, kankari, 1. to peel, 
scrape, rub out; cf. makan- 
kara A 38 one to rub out ; 
2*. to hoe grass, A 24 mata 
kar ka sata akankari you may 
not put a wife to hoe grass. 

kankashe, to hatch : see ken- 

kankashi*, haunch, used of 
the cow. 

kankaso, pi. kankesai, cock- 
roach ; see kenkeso. 

kanki, hartebeeste (bubalis 
major) : for list of antelopes 

found in Hausaland, cf . under 

kankungaba, kunkungaba, 

part of the embroidery on 

the front of a tobe. 
kanne, winking ; see kdne. 
kano, pronounced kanno, Kano, 

the commercial metropolis 

of the W. Sudan, G 5 ; cf. 

'Hausaland/ pp. 100-123. 
kansa, himself ; see kai. 
kans&kali, a sword, 
kanshi, a sweet smell; see 


kansua, keasua, a grass which 
makes horse-fodder. 

kanta, da kanta callous. 

kantalma, a large basket. 

kantara, to bend, tr., kantare 
to be bent: of a tree to 
grow crooked. 

kantara* (Ar.), a bridge. 

kantu, pyramidal load of salt 
such as could be carried on a 
man's head; sugar is also 
made into the shape of a 
kantu about 2J ft. high for 
transport across the desert. 

kantukulo, a small mallet for 
beating leather. 

kantururua, black seeds worn 
by women as beads round the 
neck, probably from kain 
turwrua head of the tururua 




kanua, kanwa, sister, fern, of 
kane, q.v. 

kanumfari or kanunfari (Ar. 

^J^ji), cloves, the Sokoto 
equivalent is hanchin hade, 

kanwa, desire for food, greed. 

kanwa, natron, saltpetre; 1. 
farin kanwa used in making 
tuo ; 2. jan kanwa used as a 
medicine ; 3. kanwa gwangwa- 
rasa = maganin haifua ; 4. 
kanwa Ungurnu used for 
making armlets with. The 
natron imported into Hausa- 
land by native caravans is 
chiefly obtained from natron 
lakes in Bornu near L. Chad. 

kanwa, kyanwa, cat; see 

kanwuri, open space, glade in 

a wood. 
kanzo, burnt food ; see kamzo. 
kap, entirely; ya chainye dawa 

kap he has eaten up all the 

kapara, perjury, chiefly used 

in the phrase yin kapara to 

swear falsely ; cf. (?) kafiri. 
kar, a form of the prohibitive 

particle kdda> q.v. ; A 24 kar 

ka sata akankari you may not 

put her to hoe grass. 
k&ra, k&ro, to come together 

violently as two rams, or as 

in the shock of battle ; kdro 

da duchi to stumble against 
a stone, kdro is also used as 
a noun ; wanan ya yi kdro da 
wonclian this meets that, or 
conflicts with that. 

k&ra, bleating: the noise of 
any animal; karar bindiga 
report of a gun. 

k&ra, 1. cause of complaint; 
kai kara to bring an accusa- 
tion; maikawon kara com- 
plainant ; ta kaishi kara she 
made a complaint against him ; 
with ga = to accuse; 2. to 
call upon, refer dispute to a 
judge, accuse. 

k&ra, to add to, to increase, to 
repeat an action; when fol- 
lowed by another verbal form 
it qualifies it in the sense of 
the adverbs 'more,' 'further,' 
'again/ or with a negative, 
'no more/ 'not again/ etc., 
e.g. ya kdra kuka he con- 
tinued crying, ban kara tashi 
I did not rise again ; cf . kari 

k&ra, pi. kdrare, m. reed, stalk 
or stem of plants* ; e.g. karan 
hachi, karan shinkafa stalk 
of corn or rice, karan masal- 
achi the name of a water reed 
often planted near mosques ; 
karan jiki a straight well-knit 
body; dan kara a piece of 
corn stalk. 




kara, a secret; cf. fatauchi 
kara caravan work is not a 
thing to be talked about; ya 
yi masa kara he kept the 
matter quiet for him, i.e. he 
did not give him away ; ka- 
rata to keep quiet. 

k&ra, da kdra generous. 

kara*, a netting needle; cf. 

karabgari* a forced entry into 
a town. 

karabka, karauka (S.), high 

karafa, ring of metal placed 
round hands or legs of women. 

karafafa, a plural form, strong 
men ; cf . karfi. 

karafafa, karifafa, karfafa, to 
make strong; ya karafafa 
magana he emphasized what 
he said ; see karfi. 

karaga, couch of king or judge, 
judgment-seat, seat on which 
a king is carried about. 

karago, a beggar, a destitute 
person; cf. jankarago. 

karaia, a two-stringed musical 
instrument ; see garaiya. 

karakashi, the name of a plant. 

karaki, a tree. 

kar&ma, pi. karamomi (Ar. 

CSjfr, wonder, prodigy, 
karam&mi or karmftmi,sprout 

or stalk of guinea-corn, etc. 
karam&ta, a species of hawk. 

karamb&ni, meddlesomeness 
(= kazalaha) ; cf . prov. karam- 
banin akwia ta gaida kura it 
is no business of the goat to 
salute the hyena, i.e. if a man 
meddles with that which does 
not concern him he has him- 
self to thank for his mis- 

karambo, a form of smallpox. 

karami, fern, karama, karamia, 
pi. karamu, kanana, kankana, 
little, small. 

karamia, a species of gourd. 

karamta, smallness; see ka- 

karamuski, karamiski, ka- 
damiski, 1. a European cloth 
of soft texture ; 2. a small, 
red, velvety spider. 

karamuskin-giwa, a shrub 
with a red flower, the leaves 
turn from bright red to green. 

karan hanchi, bridge of the 
nose ; cf . hanchi, 

karana, kyarana, the giant 
cactus, the fruit of which is 
ground up and used as an 

karanchi, abstr. n. from ka- 
ramij a small quantity ; ka- 
ranchi ddga mutane few men. 

karandSfi (S.), corn stalks used 
by tanners. 

karangama, ladder, steps ; see 




karangaza, lung sickness of 

karangia, karengia, karingia 
(pennisetum distichum), a 
grass, the prickles of which 
stick to the clothes; the seeds 
are used for food, especially 
in the northern part of Hausa- 
land on the borders of the 

karangoda, a small male ante- 
lope ; cf . goda. 

karanna, giant cactus; see 
kar ana. 

karanta (Ar. \£), to read. 

karantasda, karantasa, ka- 
rantashe, to teach ; ya ka~ 
ranta8da8hi he taught him to 

karantseyi, the tearing of a 

karapata (S.), shoulder. 

karapta (cf. (?) Ar. ^i, to 
draw near), with da, to meet 
a person comingf rom opposite 

k&r&r&, a tall leafy twiner 
covered with prickly tuberous 
hairs which cause severe itch- 
ing on the skin (Mucuna pru- 
riensis, Leguminosae). 

karara, a woman without child, 

karareyo, a brittle grass. 

karari, cleanness, pureness ; 
rua da karari pure water. 

k&rasa, to complete, succeed in 
doing something. 

karata, to keep a thing quiet ; 
see kara. 

kar&tu (Ar. S*£i), reading, 

then story, language, words, 
education, A 9 wanan karatu 
hamza ne this is the story of 
Hamza ; yin karatu with ac- 
cusative, to read ; makaranta 

k&rau, armlet ; see kdro. 

karauka, high road; see ka- 

k&raurawa, bells attached to 
sheep and goats, etc. 

kar&ya, trembling, excitement, 
breaking. karayar zuchia 
trembling of the heart; M. H. 
p. 64. yin kar ay a to break; 
cf. proverb laudi ba kar&ya 
ba bending is not breaking ; 
cf. karya, id. 

kar&ya, a long fish like a dog- 
fish with large head. 

karba, karbi, 1. to take, to 
snatch ; 2. to accept, receive ; 
cf. ban karba ba I do not 
believe it; M. H. p. 221, 
ya karba he consented; 3. to 
suit, agree with, riga nan ba 
ta karbeni this dress does not 
suit me ; 4. to relieve a man 
of his load, en karbeka let me 
give you a lift, karban rai 




the receiving of a man's spirit 
at death, karba magana to 
answer. Jcarbo to take to 


oneself; hence the imperative 
karbo receive ! cf . karba take ! 

karbainya, a thorny shrub. 

karbawa, answer. 

karche (S.), to wipe ; see karta. 

kardaji, a thorny shrub over- 
hanging river banks (Mimosa 
pigra, Leguminosae). 

kardua, a goat in milk. 

k&re, fern, kdria, pi. karnuka 
(Kanuri keri), dog; k&ren 
g$da house-dog ; cf . prov. aje 
karenkadonkaren gidan woni 
keep a dog for yourself be- 
cause of the dog in another's 
house, i.e. be prepared with 
the same weapons as those 
with which you will be at- 
tacked, kdrem buki a nick- 
name for the jackal. 


Mre (cf. (?) Ar. j*, to stop, be 
done with), 1. end, e.g. D 85 
gidan kare an abode which 
comes to an end, lit. house of 
end ; 2. v. tr. to end, finish ; 
as v. intr. to come to an end, 
e.g. B 74 da kai da dunia ku 
kare duk thou and the world 


ye shall both come to an end. 
abinchi ya kare may either 
mean the cooking (dd/a) is 
ended or the food is at an 
end. karen kumolo breakfast. 

maikarar kwana one who is 
at the point of death, karshe 
end. makaren defi a healer 
of arrow wounds. Also used 
impersonally to qualify ad- 
verbially other verbs, ya yi 
magana ya kare he finished 
speaking; ya ka/re is fre- 
quently used impersonally = 
it is enough, the matter is at 
an end. karewa ending, end, 
an intensive form karkare to 
come utterly to an end, is 
found, cf. B 141 dunia zata 
ta karkare this world shall 

come utterly to an end ; ma- 

kdra or makdre end. 
kSlre, to ward off, interpose 

obstacle between oneself and 

another; sun kare da shi 

they shrank from him. ya 

kare gari ddga he defended 

the city against. 
kare-dengi, the helmet shrike 

(prionops plumata), so called 

because its blood is used in 

certain poisons, 
karembiki, a woman about to 

give birth to a child. 
karengia, a thorny grass ; see 

karentsaye, to tear. 
karera, the large intestine = 

karereya, an intensive form 

of karya to break. 




karewa, end ; see hart. 

karfafa, to wax strong, strength- 
en ; see karfi. 

karfashi, karf&sa (K.), a 
species of fish somewhat re- 
sembling a perch, with a 
spiny back fin. 

karfata, karifata, theshoulder, 
only used of animals. 

karfi, karifi, pi. karafa, kar- 
faifai, karfuna, 1. iron; jan 
karfi brass ; 2. strength, 
power; da karfi powerful; 
maikarifi strong. F 84 m- 
na karfe Kali they have a 
strong disposition, karfafa 
to strengthen, wax strong; 
karfafa magana to enjoin 
strictly; M. H. p. 197, azo 
su karifafa let them come 
and use their strength; kar- 
karifa very strong, karfi or 
karipi is sometimes used for 
an iron cooking-pot; it is 
also applied to the striking 
of a clock, cf. karifi nawa 
what o'clock is it? 

karfu*, pi. karfuna* , a whip ; 
cf. kurafu. 

kargo, the name of a tree ; see 

kargo, a red and white ram. 

k&ri, meaning; karin magana 
a proverb ; see kere. 

k&ri, longing, desire for ; dokin 

« kdri the coveted horse; an- 

kawo mani shi akan kdri there 
was brought me just what I 
was longing for. 

k&ri, young deleb palm before 
the main trunk has grown 

k&ri, abundance, increase; see 
k&ra to increase; ya ke ne- 
man kari, he is asking for 

k&ria, bitch, fern, of kdre. 

karia, masc. or fern., 1. tale, 
story; 2. what is merely a 
story, falsehood, lie; B 107, 
D 7. Hence the expression 
gidan karia this present 
world, lit. house of falsehood, 
opposed to gidan gaskia the 
place to which all go when 
they die until ranan gobe. 
karia and gaskia are often 
used as masculine words, cf. 
karia ne it is false, yenke 
karia to lie, kariata to give 
the lie to; cf. ankariatashi 
he was contradicted, kari- 
achi falsehood, makariachi a 

karia, a cactus-like shrub with 
red flowers (Pachy podium 
lealii, Apocynaceae). 

k&ria, defence, protection, a 

karia, karie, kariewa, to 

break ; see karya, karye, ka- 




kariachi, see karia. 

kariba, to take ; see karba. 

kariegalma (hoe-breaker), a 
plant with hard woody stalk 
and small yellow flower from 
which an ointment for bruises 
is made. 

karifata, thigh ; see karfata. 

karikache, to bend; see kar- 

karikara or karkara, pi. kar- 
karori, karkaroni (cf. Ar. 


j&j&), the cultivated land 
round a town or village ; cf . 
prov. komi neaan jeje da kar- 
kara agdba however long the 
journey through the forest 
there are homesteads ahead ; 
cf. M. H. p. 204, tajiri da 
shi ke karkara nan the mer- 
chant who is in this district, 
karikari, karkari, to draw, 

karlmu* (At.^jj^), gracious. 

karingia, a thorny grass ; see 

kaririye, to break up, an in- 
tensive form of karya, q.v. 

kariya, kariye, see karya, 

karka, an abbreviation of kdda 
ka do not thou. 

karkache, karikache, to be 
bent, to totter, also to leave 
(a road); ya karkacheta he 

R. H. D. 

turned off from it (the road), 
of a canoe to swerve aside; 
cf. karkdta. mutum akar- 
kache a man of bad dispo- 
sition, kai karkacJie you have 
done wrong. 

karkachi, 1. a game played 
by children ; 2. a jest. 

karkachi, (eat not) a poisonous 
plant with narrow leaves and 
mauve bilabial flower, like a 

karkade, to shake off; see 

karkanda, rhinoceros. 

karkara, cultivated land; see 

karkara, kwarkwara, a tree 
with back-turned thorns, the 
bark of which is used as 
a medicine for sore throats, 
a gum is obtained from it. 

karkare, to come utterly to an 
end, intensive form of kare, 

karkari, to draw, scrape, 
scratch; see karikari. 

karkarifa, very strong, an in- 
tensive form karifi, q.v. 

karkaro, wrist bangles; see 

karkas, underneath ; see seq. 

karkashi, a synonym for tsalia 

karkashin, underneath ; see 





kark&ta, and by metathesis 
kakartea, 1. to bend, decline; 
cf. rana ta ka/rkata it is past 
midday; 2. to bow with head 
to one side so as to listen 
intently; with kunua ear, 
D 32 ku karkata kunua en 
gaia maku gaskiana give at- 
tention, that I may explain 
to you the truth which I have, 
F 7 abokina ka kakartsa ku- 
nua naka ; 3. to make a mis- 
take; cf. karkache. 

kark&ta, n. crookedness. 

karki, to finish. 

karkia, yoke, Y-shaped, put on 
necks of slaves, also a stick 
tied to a dog's neck to prevent 
it from biting the holder. 

karko, n. end, ending; cf. B 71, 
karkomu dunia duk karewa 
as for our continuance in 
this world it shall completely 
come to an end ; cf . karshe. 

karma, idleness, profligacy, mis- 
chief, used with dan or yan 
as prefix to denote idlers, 
loafers, profligate, also applied 
to women with whom such 
men consort. 

karm&mi, stalk of corn; see 

karmatako, white clay. 

karni, kasni, kauri, smell of 
burning, a putrefying smell. 

k&TO, karau, pi. karauraiva, 

an armlet made of natron 
(kanwa), especially worn by 
Nupe" women. 

karo, 1. partnership, clubbing 
goods together ; 2. a deposit. 

k&ro, to meet ; see kdra. 

k&ro, 1. a kind of gum put in 
ink ; 2. karon maje, a sort of 
gum drawn from a tree and 
used for perfumes. 

karo, the butting of rams and 
metaph. the ram itself : push- 
ing with the head. 

karofi (K.), dye-pits; kurdin 
karofi tax on dye-pits or on 
irrigated plantations. 

k&roka, road, highway. 

karoki, boards, paddles. 

karoro, a bag of cowries; cf. 

karpashe, a fish. 

karri, meaning; see k&ri. 

karsana, a heifer. 

karsani, vigorous, active. 

karshe, end, the last ; used ad- 
verbially B 94 domin abinda 
zashi gani karshe for that 
which he will see at the end ; 
makarshe the last; cf. kare 9 

karta (K.), karche (S.), to 
wipe, wipe off ; karta da gudu 
to run very hard : to clean 
the land of grass. 

kartaje, a scraper used by 




k&ru, to abound, to increase, 
used of the sun, to rise high, 
e.g. rana ta karu the sun rose 
high in the sky, opposed to 
rana ta ragu. yana karua 
it is being increased ; see 

karu, twigs of wood put at top 
of net (taru) and used as cork 

karua, bad woman, prostitute ; 
cf . prov. da auren karua gara 
kiwon zakara better keep a 
cock to lay eggs than marry 
a bad woman. 

karuanchi, profligacy. 

karufa, pi. karu/ai 9 high riding- 

karuki, paddles ; see karoki. 

karusa, a word used by the 
Hausas in N. Africa for a 

karya, a plant from which a 
poison is obtained, also a 
lotion for the itch ; cf . karia. 

karya, karaiay a, n. a fracture. 

karya, karyi, karye, to break, 
to spend money ; karya azumi 
to breakfast ; ka karya mani 
zuchia you break my heart, 
you discourage or dishearten 
. me ; karyewa breaking ; ka- 
rarre broken; karaya, q.v., 
id. ; na karye I have broken 
something, I have sustained 
a fracture; reshe ya karye the 

branch broke; kakarya to 
break open, break to pieces; 
kaririye, karereya to break 
up, to scatter. 

kas, an abbreviation of kdshe 
to kiU. 

kas, underneath, an abbrevia- 
tion of kalkashin, or akass. 

k&sa, an exclamation of surprise. 

kasa, to win at dara ; cf . kdshe ; 
kasa kune to pay attention. 

k&sa, pi. kdsashe, kdsaisai; 1. 
earth, soil; 2. the ground; 
akasa on the ground, usually 
shortened to akass; hence 
used to express, down below 
(cf. abisa above); na kasa m., 
ta kasa fern., used as adj., the 
one beneath, the lower; abin 
kasa = worms, etc. ; used as 
an adv. tafo kasa, shido kasa 
come down! 3. land, country; 
in a geographical sense kasan 
hausa = Hausaland. 

kasa, to put down, to lower to 
the ground; shortened to 
kass, used fig.; A 29 anso ta 
kass muria chikin magana 
nata let her be willing to 
lower her voice in speaking. 

k&sa, to fall short of, to lack, 
hence to fail one, disappoint 
one, e.g. ba ya kasa mani 
komi ba he failed me in no- 
thing; cf. M. H. p. 219, sun 
kasa zama they have been 





restless ; also to fail, to give 
in ; ya kasa sukansa bis heart 
failed him when about to 
make a thrust; kasashe a man 
of no account, something 
which fails or falls short of 
a standard ; kasasda to de- 
cline; ina kasasda karifi I am 
growing weak ; kasashe to 
lower, make less. 

kasa, to divide up into small 
* lots' for the market; cf. 
kashi portion. 

kSsa, python. 

k&sa, kfea, to kill ; see kdshe. 

kasada, 1 . to believe in, to rely 
on God ; 2. to enquire God's 
will from a mallam. 

kasaita, to be great, to be 
fully developed ; cf. zakaran 
nan ya kasaita that cock is 
magnificently developed. 

kasala (Ar. J*l£»), found in 

compound maikasala, a beggar 

who refuses to work. 
kasanchi, to continue, remain; 

used like tabeta. 
kasanki, old thread-bare cloth, 
kasanta, 1. v. to defile; 2. n. 

uncleanness ; see kazamta. 
kasantada, to build. 
kasarantam, meddlesome. 
k&sari, a mixture of bran and 

water ; see kaseri. 
kasasake* plates; cf. M. H. 

p. 72. 

kasasda, to grow less ; cf. 

kasashe, a man of no account; 
see kasa. 

k&sashi, a fog or haze. 

k&sau, nakedness; na iskeshi 
kdsau I found him stark 

k&sau*, k&so, killing, murder- 
ous ; cf . kasa. 

kasausawa, a kind of long 
spear, not used for throw- 

kasba or chasbi, beads (Ar.). 

kasegi, forked iron stick on 
neck of a horse. 

kaseri or kasari (used in Sokoto 
for tsari which is used in 
Kano), the water in which 
corn etc. has been washed, 
which is given to horses to 

kash, an exclamation of an- 

kashe, a portion ; see kashi. 

kashe (K.), to exist; see ka- 

k&she, to overpower, bring to 
the ground, condemn, over- 
throw ; alkali ya kasheni the 
judge condemned me; to beat 
in a gambling game, cf. M. 
H. p. 172, daia ya kashe daia 
the one beat the other. 

k&she, k&sa, kfea, to kill; 
kdsau murderous ; of money, 




to spend, e.g. ya kashe kurdi ; 
na kashe kurdi banza I wast- 


ed my money ; kfoa magana 
to end conversation; kasso go 
and kill (someone) and come 
back ; intens. forms karkashe, 
k&kkashe, to slaughter. 

kashe kamfa, to sow land a 
second time ; see kamfa. 

kashedi, kasheji (S.), pro- 
hibition, warning. 

kashSgari (Kats.), next day = 
wanshekare (S.). 

kasheri, a kind of stork. 

k&shi, a violent beating ; bada 
kashi to flog; ban kashi a 

k&shi, n. rout; ambasu kashi 
they were routed. 

k&shi, dung : idiom rike or 
kwashe kashi ahanu to get 
into trouble, kashin awaki 
(goats' dung) a small shrub 
with a rough lanceolate leaf ; 
kdshin-tdma the scum from 
molten iron. 

kashi, kashe, portion; na raba 
kashi kashi I divided it into 
heaps; kashi fudu anraba 
dunia the world is divided 
into four parts; cf. kasa to 
divide into portions. 

kashi, kashe, 1. to be, to exist, 
D 39 ; 2. to continue ; B 54 
en ka shiru kashe if thou con- 
tinuest silent, kashi is fre- 

quently found in written but 
seldom occurs in colloquial 

k&shi, klsa, n. killing, e.g. su 
ka yita kashi, muna kisa; 
makdsa a vital part. 

kashi, pi. kasusua, bone, F 1 75 ; 
kashin ido = long ridge over 
eyes, kashin kai skull, kashin 
tsotso backbone. 

k&shinkai, klsankai, murder; 
cf. kdshe. 

kaska, vermin infesting horses, 
goats, etc., a tick. 

kaskaifi (edge-destroyer), a 
plant with a long narrow and 
hairy raceme of small purple 
flowers : sometimes called 
wuchiar-bera (mouse's tail) 
(Uraria picta, Leguminosae). 

kaskasta, keskesta, to tattoo. 

kaskasta, kuskunta, to drive 
away in disgust, to despise, 
dishonour ; makaskachi, mai- 
kaskasta oppressed. 

kaskastache, pi. kaskastu (from 
kasa earth), lowly, mean. 

kaskastu, keskestu, n. tribal 
marks on face. 

kaskawani, a small herb with 
white flowers, rubbed on the 
skin in order to cure crow- 
crow ; cf . kiskauami (?). 

kasko, pi. kasake, a vessel made 
of clay, round, without top, 
of medium size; i.e. larger 



than butdy smaller than tulu; 
dainyen-kasko an unbaked 
pot, hence an unreliable per- 

kasni, karni, kauri, a smell 
of burning, smell of putre- 
fying flesh; cf. kamshi, 

kass, a shortened form of the 
verb kdshe to kill. 

kasso, kill ! see kdshe. 

kastu, kestu, ketu, 1. a flint 
or match to strike fire with ; 
2. kestu wuta to strike fire 
with a flint. 

kasua, kyasuwa, a species of 

kasuwa, kasua, kausua 
(Zanf.), a market in which 
some special article is sold, 
e.g. meat, bread, grass for 
animals, any market or mar- 
ket-place, trade; cf. M. H. 
p. 203, suka chi kasua they 
carried on trade ; dan kasua 
a man brought up about mar- 
kets, or a small trader; attah 
shi bada kasua a salutation 
to a traveller. 

kaswa, kazua, 1. slight swell- 
ing anywhere on the body; 
2. itch. 

kata, a bowl in which (Fulani) 
women sell butter. 

katagi*, gida katagi a well- 
built house (% M. H. p. 70. 

katakara, lesser bustard. 

katalla, an emetic used as an 

antidote for poisons, 
katamba*, thin laths of wood 

such as are used in building 

a wall. 
katambiri, marks painted on 

faces of women ; the dye used 

is made of the fruit of the 

kiriya tree, 
katami, kwotami, ahole where 

dirty water is thrown, 
katanga, 1. wall of a hut ; 2. 

sherds of pots, etc. 
katantanwa, 1. untimely birth; 

2. snail shells, 
katar, good luck. . 
katara* to wish. 
k&tara, katarra, pi. kataterri, 

katarsa*, to gratify a wish, 

kateri, katteri, success, good 


katerta* (cf. (?) Ar. J£4, dig- 
nity), prosperity ; maikaterta 
prosperous, D 83. 

katifa, pi. katifu, mattress. 

kato, fern, katuwa, pi. kata, 
strong male or female (slave) ; 
katon itache a strong tree, 
M. H. p. 228; katon kano 
(strong man of Kano) the 
name of a tree often planted 
in lines. 

kato*, pi. katochi, katuna, a 




katsa, n. wiping, e.g. of a 

katsa, katse, to tear, to come 
to an end ; katsewa tearing. 

katsari, a tree from which a 
charm is made. 

katse, to wipe. 

katsi, to untie, unloose, break 

katsu* (Ar.), ever ; B 23 bam 
gamu katsu they have never 

katumi, a charm ; cf . hatumi, 

katuwa, fern, form of koto, 

kau, 1. give place, go away; 
C 20 en ka ga tsofa nan ka 
che kau nana when thou per- 
ceivest her age thou wouldest 
say to her, Depart from here; 
2. to spread out ; cf . kauche. 

kau, kawa, used in Sokoto 
etc. for kua also. 

kau or kawo (a Fulani word), 

kauchara, alkauchara, the 
river of paradise, F 214 ; cf. 
Koran cvm. 

kauche, cf. D 13, ta kan wanyi 
duka babu kauche it shall in- 
clude everything, there shall 
be no getting away from it ; 
kdda ku kauche kainku do 
not duck your heads; cf. 
kawa, kau. 

kauchi, a parasite which grows 
on various trees (Lovanthus 
globifera, Lovanthaceae). 

kauda, kaushe (before pron.), 
to take or put away, remove, 
withdraw ; see kawa. 

kauda, koda, a dried-up nut. 

kaule, a blue stone. 

kauna, liking, respect ; cf . bani 
kaunarka be friends, yenkan 
kauna destroying good will. 
ka yenke mani kauna you 
have forfeited my regard, rnair 
kaunarka your real friend. 
kaunato cupboard love, na 
kaunato sarki I want the 
king to do me a good turn. 

kaura*, to remove, e.g. a tent, 
to wander. 

kaura, a species of red guinea- 
corn given to horses. 

kaura, a title of respect usually 
given to a king's son; in 
Katsena = a general. 

kaura, n. removal, migration, 
makaurachi the place mi- 
grated to. 

kaura, an evil spirit which 
makes men fight. 

kaure, the covering of a door ; 
see kiaure. 


kauri, kabri (cf. Ar. j-J^), 
corpulence, fat; ba ta da 
kauri she is not gross. 

kauri, kasni, karni, the smell 




of burning, a putrefying 

kaushe, to take away; see 

kaushi, roughness, unevenness 

of surface, 
kausua (Zanf.), market ; see 

kauwa, to remove ; see kawa. 
kauwe, kauwai, quiet, silent, 

it is also used in the sense of 

simply, only, alone; cf. kawoi. 
kauwera*, a flat place near a 

kauwi, tribe, people belonging 
" to a particular town. 

kauye, pi. kauyuka (Ar. *bji), 
a small village ; kauye, dan 
kauye a yokel ; kauyenchi a 
rustic dialect; gidan kauye 
(scattered houses), an expres- 
sion used to describe appear- 
ance of a blighted maize cob 
where the grains are few and 
far between; the word is 
probably derived from the 

kauye, kowi, kowie, side of a 
body or edge of anything ; 
B 171 ha ni ragi kauye ba I 
will not decrease even the 
edge, kourien rua edge of a 
stream, outskirts of a town, 
akauye on one side ; cf . prec. 

kawa, 1. to take, bring for- 
ward ; D 46 su kan kawa da~ 

lili they would give a reason; 
2. intr. to change colour. The 
following are allied forms : 
kauwa to remove, kawas, 
kawasda, kawarda to take a- 
way, put away, disperse, over- 
throw, kauda to put away, 
remove, withdraw ; used with 
kai, to turn the head away 
so as not to look at anything, 
hence to move the head so as 
to express dissent, kauche 
kai to duck the head, kawo 
to bring, bring near, to bring 
to the place where the speaker 
is ; intr. to arrive at, reach, 
mun kawo (= isso) gari ; ya 
kawo ga sariki he reached 
the king, akawoshi let it be 
brought here, kawawa, ka~ 
wowa, particip. forms; D7 
ku her kai da kawawa na 
karia leave off false dealing, 
lit. give up taking away and 
bringing back falsely; pass. 
kawu to be brought, kai to 
carry (q.v.) apparently be- 
longs to the same root. 

kawa, used in Sokoto for kua 
or kau also. 

k5wa, longing, desire for, friend- 
ship, only used of women. 

kawa, a female friend, the 
friend of a bride who remains 
with the bride till the latter 
is married. 




kawaichi, to conceal ; see kawoi. 
kawainia, kowainia, bangle 

or finger ring, 
kawaita, to be still; see kawoi. 
kawalia, a procuress, 
kawalwalnia, vapour rising 

in hot sun, mirage. 
kawama, to distribute. 

kawamata* (Ar.J^i), to esti- 
mate, to fix a price for ; aka- 
wamata E7. 

kawana, heads, pi. of kai, q.v. ; 

kawanya (K.), a round piece 
of anything, circle. 

k&wara, a palisade. 

kawara, alkawara, cowries; 
kawara, specially used of the 
throw of the shells in gamb- 
ling (chacha) ; see kurdi. 

kawas, kawasda, to take a- 
way, disperse; see kawa. 

kawashe, to purge. 

kawazuchi, grasping, covet- 

kawechi*, edge, end, D 13; see 

kawia, a red earthen powder 
used to stain women's eye- 
brows and for making ink. 

kawo, to bring near, to bring; 
see kawa. 

kawo, a large shady tree, with 
thick woody pods (Afzelia 
wanzensis, Leguminosae); cf. 

kawo, a maternal uncle. 

k&woi, k&wai, 1. silence; yin 
kawoi to be silent, keep si- 
lence; 2. alone, only; ba komi 
achiki sai abinchi kawoi there 
is nothing inside but food 
only; iskan kawoi it is just 
wind, kauwe, kauwi quiet, 
silent, only, kawaita to be 
still ; pass, akawaita be still ! 
kawaichi silence, conceal- 
ment, e.g. of a crime. 

k&wora, kawara, a species of 
fish with red tail. 

kawowa, participial form of 
kawo, bringing ; cf . kawa. 

kawu (cf. Ar. rt f>£*), to ab- 
dicate ; sariki ya kawu. 

kawu, uncle ; see kawo. 

kawuri, a species of ficus yield- 
ing a milky juice like rubber; 
see gamji. 

kawwa, a stone in the path. 

kaya,kaia, pi. kayayaki, masc., 
1. load, burden, goods; Oil 
ya kunchi kaya nai he unties 
his goods ; 2. instruments, 
tools, apparatus; cf. kayan 
tuo dishes, eatables, ya yi ka- 
yan bawa he dressed himself 
as a slave, M. H. p. 223. ka- 
yan daga battle-arms, shield, 
etc., kayan yaki id., kayan ado 
ornaments, trinkets, etc., ka- 
yan ddka a Urge pestle such 
as is used for beating up 




guinea-corn; 3. gift; C48wa 
shiria kayana I made ready 
my gift. 

kaya, pi. kayayua y kayoyi, fern 
thorn; kayar Jdji the small 
bones in a fish (the spine is 
kashi). kaya kaya rustling 
of wind in trees, kayeta a 
quantity of thorns, impossible 
to walk over; tara kaya a 
gum-bearing tree. 

kayar kusu (mouse's thorn), a 
prickly twining plant with 
tuberous root used in making 
medicine (Similax sp., Lilia- 
ceae) = marin kusu. 

kayar rakumi, a thorny shrub 
= zazari giwa. 

kayar-da, to throw down ; see 

kayataswa, excellence. 

kayaya (K.), pi. good. 

k&ye, pi. kdyoyi, n. overthrow, 

kayes, kayer; kayesda, ka- 
yerda, to throw, knock down, 

kayo, to bring to the place 
where the speaker is ; see kai. 

k&za, k&sa*, pi. kaji, hen, fowl; 
kaza maiyaya or kaza da ya- 
ya the constellation 'Hen 
and Chickens' which appears 
when the rainy season is com- 
ing; kazan duchi a species of 
quail (microperdix) ; kazan 

yariba, lit. fowl of Yoruba, 
common duck, sa kaza drake. 

k&z& (Ar. \jJ&>\ 1. so, thus; 
2. used to point out a certain 
person or thing which is to 
be nameless, so and so, such 
and such (cf. use of wane) ; 
na bashi abu kaza I gave him 
such and such a thing; ya 
fadi kdza da k&za he said so 
and so, abu kdza such and 
such a thing. 

kaza£ kazap (Ar.), abuse, false 

kazalaha, interference in the 
affairs of another = karamba* 

kazall&tua, a nickname for 
one who interrupts a conver- 

kaft&mi, fern. kazama 9 pi. ka- 

zdtnai (Ar. >ji), 1. dirt ; 2. 

dirty, unclean, vile, 
kazamta, kazanta, unclean- 

ness, refuse. 
kazan, k&dan(S.), if. 
kaza-rua, a black water bird, 

kazata* (S.), to run away (?) ; 

cf. Gr. p. 137, 1. 7. 

kazaza (cf. (?) Ar. j£»), hump- 

kazgainya, a female animal 
(e. g. a sheep or goat) which 
has not yet had young. 




kazgama, scratched, grizzled, 
used of a warrior, a mascu- 
line woman. 

kazinzemi, kazunzumi, bug. 

kazizi, a tuber ; see kajiji. 

kazua, kazwa, itch ; cf . kas- 

kazum, deserter or lingerer at 
home in time of war. 

ke, 2nd pers. fern. sing, of the 
disjunctive personal pronoun, 
i.e. it would be used in an- 
swer to the question who, cf. 
Gr. p. 10. It is used with 
the preposition da, e.g. dake 
with you (f.), but maki to 
you (f.). 

ke, the emphatic form of the 
2nd pers. pron. fern, ke ki 
kawoshi it is you (f.) who 
brought it ; cf. kai. 

ke, defective subst. verb, is, are, 
e.g. ski ke nan so it is. The 
subject is of common gender, 
while that of ne is masc. and 
of che fern. The verbal forms 
ending in ke are most com- 
monly used in asking ques- 
tions or in the answer to a 
question in which this form 
has been used. Ex. mi ku 
ke yi what are you doing? 
Ans. aiki mu ke yi we are 
working. Followed by da 
= to have, to possess ; mu ke 
da su we have them. 

keasua, grass fodder ; see kan- 

keau, usually pronounced kiyo, 

1. beauty (physical), da keau 
handsome, beautiful; 2. also 
used of moral beauty, good, 
kind. Hence the phrase da 
keau well, it is well; this is 
used to express assent; B 135 
en ta yi keau if she act well; 
maikeau beautiful, kekeawa, 
a redupl. form of keau, 
kekeawcm Kali a good dis- 
position, 1. great beauty; 

2. very good, very fine. A 
pi. form keawawa is found, 
cf. mata biu keawawa two 
beautiful women ; cf . keke- 

keaun-kira (S.), of a horse, 
well built. 

keaure, door cover ; see haure. 

keauro, kyamro, see kemru. 

keauta, 1. an act of kindness, 
benevolence; yin keauta to 
show favour, do a kindness, 
e.g. ka yi masa keauta thou 
didst a favour to him ; 2. a 
gift, a present. 

keautata, to make a thing 

keautaye, to bless; attah shi 
keautayenka God give you 

kebanche, kebanta, to sepa- 
rate, distinguish. 




kSbe, to separate, mark off, 
except, akebe separate, apart; 
cf . klba. 

kebe, iron stirrup. 

kSche, kiche, to rend; see 



kedaya (cf. (?) Ar. Ji, measure), 

account, reckoning; see ki- 

keffi, a town with a fence or 

stockade round it. 
kefifi a, tortoise ; see kififia. 
kegarua, fortification ; see 

kegua (M. H. p. 128), echo; 

see kogua. 
keje, a reed buck. 
kSkarai, a swelling in the 

kek&sa, n. dryness. 
kekashe, kekassa, to air, to 

expose to the air, to dry, 

e.g. a tobe. kekasashe, fern. 

kekasashia, pi. kekasasu, dried, 

aired, dry. 
kekata, trouble brought on by 

one's own acts. 
keke, cloth, made of blue and 

white alternate strips. 
keke, kyekye (used on the 

coast, etc.), a cart or wheel, 

a wheel-barrow, carriage. The 

word is not Hausa. 
kekeawa,kakyawa, see under 

keau; cf. M. H. p. 202, ke- 

keawa kama kekeawa arziki 

good appearance is good for- 
tune; kekeawa kama out- 
ward show of prosperity ; cf . 
also kikiyawa. 

kekewa, the cry of the jackal. 

kekua, hard, open, flat ground. 

kele, a small length of cloth. 

kelkeche, kirkeshi, a wolf 
(Lycaon pictus). 

kembi, a disease of horses, 

kememe, refusal to share food 
with another ; cf . kunUla. 

kSmi, kiauren k8mi a door 
made of palm planks. 

kemru, kyemru (S.), kyauro 
(K.), pi. kamare, arrow-shaft. 

kenda, kendu, a spot. 

kenge, a plank made of giginia 

kenke, to worry, to cause 

kenkendi, a sack ; see kan- 

kenkeshe, kankashe, ken- 

kesa, to hatch; cf. kenkesa 
or kenkasa to sit on eggs. 
ta kenkeshe ? aa tana kenkesa 
has she hatched her brood? 
No, she is still sitting. 

kenkeso, cockroach. 

kenki, an antelope ; see kariki. 

kente, a hoe = kurugga. 

kenwa, kyanwa, f. keanwa, 
pi. kenwuna and kenwai, cat, 
wild or tame cat ; it is used 




as the feminine of muzuru ; 
cf. mu8a. 
kepta, kyapta, v. in phr. 

kepta ido to wink ; keptawa, 
kiptawa winking ; keptawan 
ido a moment of time ; kepta- 
wa da gani the twinkling of 
an eye. 

ker, na gudu ker I ran hard ; 
cf . dakir. 

kera, to forge; makera an 
anvil ; see kira. 

keranna, a cactus-like eu- 

kerbubua, a short black and 
white viper (echis carinatus). 

kSre* (S.), a hammer-shaped 
stick used by hunters for 
throwing at birds. 

kere, to hang up, e.g. meat, to 
erect the ears. 

kSre, kari, understanding; ya 
yi keren magana he under- 
stands, he has his wits about 
him; an expression applied 
to a man who understands 
the drift of what another is 
saying from his opening 
words ; keren magana is also 
used to denote a proverb, 
an innuendo, or any hidden 
meaning ; anawaka kari kari 
they are singing songs of 
various meanings. 

ke"ri, falsehood; yin keri to lie. 

kSrin, kirin, kirim, very; used 

with bakiy baki kerin very 
black; cf. A 67, rana ka 
shafa dufu kirim huska tasa 
when thou anointest his face 
with utter darkness; cf. ki- 

fcerkara, kerkera, kirkira, 

q.v. (Ar.), n., used of a hen, 

cackling. yin kirkira to 

kerkia, yoke ; see karkia. 
kerku, iron pole. 
keskestu, kaskastu, tribal 

marks cut on the face. 
ke"so, 1. old mat made of grass; 

2. old rags, old clothes, or 

old rug. 
kestu, ketu, a flint with which 

to strike fire ; see kaslu. 
k6su, 20,000 cowries; cf. ko- 

keta, wrong, injury, evil ; see 


#» • x 

kSta (Ar. *Ja£), to cut, rip, 

tear, split ; cf . keche ; alfijir 
ya keto the first glimmer of 
light appeared ; ya keta hadi 
he broke the law; keta da 
daria to laugh heartily; ke- 
tua splitting. 

ketara, pi. ketare- ketare, n. 
crossing ; yin ketara to cross. 

ketare, sometimes pronounced 

etare (cf. (?) Ar. ^i£, to tra- 
verse a country), to cross, 




pass over, pass by, trans- 
gress a law, skip in reading. 
ketaruwa capable of being 
crossed, ba shi ketaruwa it 
cannot be crossed, ketare da 
(S.)or ketarasda (K.), ketarshe 
(before pron.), to make t» 
cross, to ferry over, ya ke- 
tarsasa he ferried him over. 
maketari a ferryman, keta- 
rewa crossing, ketaras, with- 
out object, to cross. 

ketare, used adverbially ; keta- 
ren gulbi on the other side of 
the river ; ketaren nan on 
this side. 

keto, to become visible, of a 
star to rise ; cf . keta. 

ketu, a flint ; see kastu. 

kStua, a splitting ; see keta. 
• * 

kewa, kiwa (cf. (?) Ar. |l^, a 

desert), forlornness ; sanuda 
kewa a salutation addressed 
to one who is lonely, his 
friend being dead; F 104 
loneliness, debe kewa to take 
away mourning. 

kewanya, a square of men; 
see kewaya. 

kewaya, kewaye, kewayi, 
kewayo, sometimes pro- 
nounced yewoye, 1. to go 
round, to make a circuit, 
to spin round; e.g. ya ke- 
waye ya tafi gida he slipped 

off home ; shekara ya kewayo 
a year passed, the season 
came round again; 2. to go 
round something, to make 
the circuit of a place ; 3. to 
surround, F 77 yan uwaka 
mi kewoiyeka thy brothers 
surround thee; 4*. to turn 
over, F 105 m kewoyeka chi- 
kin kvshewa they turn thee 
over in the grave ; 5. to act 
deviously, to go behind one's 

kewaya, kewayo, n. encircling, 
the act of surrounding. 

keya, the back part of the head ; 
maikeya a man whose head 
protrudes at the back. 

keyaya, kiyaya, lice. 

ki, second pers. pron. fern, sing., 

1. for its use as subject of a 
verb, cf . Gr. p. 34. For use of 
kin, kia, kina and kike, cf. Gr. 
p. 27 sq. ; 2. as object it fol- 
lows verbs and preps, as zasu 
kasheki they will kill you (f.); 
gareki to you (f.); 3. for use 
of -nki f -rki, -Iki see Gr. p. 24. 

ki, kia, 1. to hate, to dislike; 

2. to reject, to refuse, to say 
no; 22, 7 har shi ya kia 
till indeed he would refuse 
altogether; cf. reduplicated 
form kinkinta to refuse ; kije* 
to hate ; allied forms are ki- 
y&ya* refusing ; E 24 ku tuba 




ku ber kiyaya repent, give up 
refusing; kitvuya, kiuya dis- 
obedience, refusal, objection; 
yin kvumya to refuse exertion, 
to object to labour; maiki- 
touya or makiyachi one who 
dislikes labour ; makiyi, ma- 
kiy a adversary . Possibly kita 
cruelty, envy, may be formed 
from ki ; cf . kinji. 

kia, a future prefix for the 2nd 
pers. fern, sing., cf. Gr. p. 33; 
cf. M. H. p. 226 tafi kia samu 
go, you (f.) will find. 

kiafa, to dry meat ; see kyafa. 

kiale, kiyale (Ar. Ji), to neg- 
lect, despise, let alone, refuse 
to listen to, to leave a man 
in peace. 

ki&ma, kiyama (Ar. iilli), 

resurrection, also used of grave 
and death; the expression 
maikiamal dunia is used of 
a recluse or of one who has 
renounced this world. 

kiashi, small red ants; see 

kiaswa, a grass with a soft 
flower head which turns pink. 

kiauri, kaure, the mat used as 
the covering of a doorway. 

kiauta, goodness ; see keauta. 

klba, pi. kibobi, fat ; yin Mba to 
grow fat. 

kiba, to mark off, to except; 
cf. kebe. 

kibanta*, connections^ rela- 

kibata, to be fat, to fatten; 
cf . kiba, 

kibe, to kill. 

kibia, pi. kibo, arrow ; akahal- 
beshi da kibia he was shot 
with an arrow ; makibia por- 

kibrit* (Ar. c-oj-A), sulphur, 

brimstone; the native Hausa 

is far a wuta. 
kibta, to wink ; see kepta, 
klbu (S.), reason. 
kiche, to rip up, tear; see keche. 
kichichia, death watch. 
klda, kada, v. to drum. 
kida, to reckon ; see kidaya. 
kida, kididiga, kidaya (cf. 

Ar. jki, measure), reckoning, 
account, sum; m Ji kidaya 
innumerable ; cf. didiga ; H- 
dawa counting. 

kida, kidi, 1. a drum or any 
musical instrument; E 16 ku 
ber kida molo leave off drum- 
ming ; 2. playing, drumming ; 
yin kidi to play, to drum; 
kidin dambe a peculiar kind 
of drum-beating for dancing; 
makidi, makadi a drum stick ; 
in tens, form kankada to drum. 

kidaya, kedaya, v. to count, 
reckon ; ktdawa counting. 

kide, to push aside. 

kidi, pi. kide-kide, drum-beating. 




kidibi, liver ; see gidibi. 

kididiga, reckoning ; see kida. 

kldio, ktidio, quickly. 

klfa, klfe, to turn over, to tilt; 
kikkiffa to lay out upside 
down ; kikkiffar to upset. 

kifakondo, one who has been 
sold into slavery on account 
of some fault committed by 
self or relatives. 

klfi, pLkifaye, kifofi, fish; kania 
kifi to fish ; kifin rijia (lit. a 
fish of the well) a stay-at-home. 

kififia, a large water tortoise 
with flat shell ; cf. kunkuru 
land tortoise with convex 

kifil kifil, blinking of the eyes. 

Jpje*, to hate ; see ki. 

kijigi, a kind of knife. 

kijinjiri, a species of palm from 
the leaves of which hats and 
mats are made. 

kikinia, stammering. 

kikiyawan hali, good dispo- 
sition; cf. Gr. p. 165, 1. 1; 
see keau. 

kila, perhaps, for ivotakila, q.v. 

kilabtu, name of a bird. 

kilago, kilabo, pi. kilagai, 1. 
cow-hide, skin, carpet or cover 
made of skin; D 15 azdba 
anadandakasa kamal kilago 
his pain is as though he were 
a skin that is beaten; 2. a 
tent made of skin. 

kileri, arrow-shaft. 

kilga, kirga, to count, to num- 

kili, fern, kilia, a white horse. 

kili, rust, mould. 

kilikamya (S.), a black and 
white horse. 

kilikili, kellikelli or kilkili, 

a butterfly, lit. glitter; other 
names for butterflies are dokin 
allah God's horse, malam bude 
litafinka Mallam, open your 
book (the flapping of his 
wings on a tree suggests open- 
ing and shutting of a book). 

kilili, 1. pollen used in fertilis- 
ing palms ; 2. a young palm 

kililu or kilulu, prison. 

kllin kllin, klri kfai, an imita- 
tion of the sound of falling 
glass ; cf. girin girin, etc. 

killsa, 1. to take exercise on 
horseback ; 2. of a horse, to 

killshi, a kind of rug or mat 
made of wool, etc., for sleep- 
. ing on. 

killshi, kills, thin strips of 
meat cooked with oil and 
pepper or dried in the sun. 

kiliya, hedge. 

kilkal, the cry of the guinea- 
fowl ; cf. M. H. p. 106. 

klma (Ar. i^i) 1. little, or few 

in number, anything small; 




kima kima very little ; tuku- 
nial kima a small pot; 2. 

kimanta, to assess, divide. 

kimba, fruit of a large tree 
(Xylopia Aethiopica), ground 
and used as a purgative medi- 
cine, hot like pepper, brought 
from Nup6, etc., M.H. p. 123. 

kimbar mahalba, a shrub 
with fragrant white blos- 
soms (Brysocar pus coccineus). 

kimpsa, kintsa; ku kimpsa 
manikaya get ready the loads. 

kimsa, to load a gun. 

kimshe, to press down into a 

kimshi, n. ; yin kimshi to load 
a gun ; cf . kimsa. 

kin, 2nd pers. pronoun fern, 
sing, used with perfect tense; 
cf. Gr. p. 27. 

klna, a bull. 

kinami, the leather cords to 
which the stirrups hang. 
(A Fulani word.) 

kin&ra, a tree from which an 
arrow poison is obtained. 

kinchia, a bulbous plant. 

kindi, pi. kindodi, a basket 
woven of fibre from the young 
dura palm, used as a strainer 
in making soup. 

kindigaye, gathering of many 
people before a king for dis- 

R. H. D. 

kingi, rest, remainder, what is 

klni, small sticks placed in roof 
to prevent the grass from 
sUpping down. 

kinji, refusal to hear, a com- 
pound of ki and ji, hence, 
obstinacy ; maikinji enemy. 

kinke, trouble. 

Mnkinta, to refuse ; see ki. 

kintata, to conjecture, to sup- 

kintsa, to gather together ; see 

kiptawa, winking ; see kepta. 

klra, to forge metal, to mend ; 
makeri, maikira a blacksmith ; 
makera anvil. 

klra, kfraya, klraye, 1. v. to 
call, to summon ; klra suna 
to name ; makiran salla one 
who calls to prayer; 2. n. 
calling out, F 142 su dora 
Jrtra they keep on crying ; 
klrawo to summon to where 
the speaker is, to call; cf. 

kir&na, a species of cactus. 

kirari, 1. praise, laudation, 
F 240 suna kuma yin kirari 
they praise; 2. self -laudation; 
3. flattery; 4. a call passed 
from village to village; cf. 
(?) kurari. 

kirari, kirare, firewood, small 





klrawo, to call ; see Mra. 

klraya, to call ; see fcira. 

kirbi, mashing or pounding of 
yams or fura. kirba to pound, 
to beat anything mixed with 
water, kirbe is used without 
obj., e.g. ta kirbe ta kawo masa. 

kirchi, a scab ; see kurji. 

irire, to be mutilated, to muti- 

Mrewa, n. mutilating. 

kirfa, to falsify. 

kirfawa, cutting folds of cloth. 

Mrga, to count ; see kUga. 

Mri, pi. kirra, a twisted cow- 
hide rope, a noose. 

kiri kiri, the sound of falling 
glass ; see kilin kilin. 

kiria, name of a tree; see 

kiribi, a girdle or apron of 
cowries worn by pagans. 

kirigi, skin, hide after it has 
been tanned, the skin before 
it is tanned is called fata ; 
kirigin kada the scales of the 
(dead) alligator ; cf. kilago. 

kiriki, of great worth; ya yi 
kiriki he acts well ; mutum 
kiriki a reliable man; abin 
kiriki something good; ma- 
ganan kiriki correct language. 

Mrikmju, a kind of wolf ; cf . 

kirikiri, open, unabashed, di- 
rect; idonsa kirifyiri ne he 

looks one straight in the face ; 
kirikiri na aikeshi ya ki I 
told him plainly to go and he 

kirikiri, manis (genus Pholi- 

kirikiri, a short green grass, 
also called karie-galma. 

kirin, very ; see k&rin. 

kirinia, 1. the plaited mat- 
work which acts as the key- 
stone of a conical thatch, 
binding the reed rafters to- 
gether at the apex of the roof ; 
2. 'playful gambling, light- 
hearted demeanour; 3. a 
noisy or restless person. 

kirinjijia, the green teal. 

kirinkore, a small mouse. 

kiriya, a small tree which often x 
grows on roofs from which 
blacksmiths obtain charcoal, 
i.e. garwashin kiriya, from it 
is also obtained a vegetable 
poison used for smearing 
arrows ; cf . katambiri. 

kirji, pi. kiraza, kirijai, breast, 

Mrkeshi, kelkeji, wolf; see 

kirki, worthy ; see kiriki. 

kirkira, kerkara, probably an 
intens. form of kvra (cf. Ar. 

9 * * * 

Sj£n>j.{h i the cackling of a 
hen), to cackle, found in A 29 
kadadai ajita yi sagara mai- 




kirkira let her not be heard 
calling fowls, with wide-open 
mouth ; cf. kurkurkur. 

kirma, soldiers on foot; sarikin 
kirma a leader of infantry. 

kirme (K.), to knock down. 

kirmiche (S.), confusion, e.g. 
of a confused crowd or illegible 

kirni, a tree which provides an 
antidote to arrow poison (Bri- 
edelia ferruginea, Euphor- 

kirsa, a bribe given to a judge; 
chiwon kirsa a pretended ill- 

kirta O^b, U^, 1. to dig up 

land = noma; 2. to draw a 

line or furrow, 
kirtani, strong white string 

made of flax, 
kisa, to kill ; cf. kdshe. 

kisa, kissa (Ar. Lai), news. 

kisaka, a hairy caterpillar ; see 

kisakisa for kusakusa, near, 
M. H. p. 225. 

klsankai, murder ; see kdshin- 

kisanta, to be jealous. 

kishi, thirst ; see kishirua. 

kishi, klshia, pi. kishiyoyi f 1. 
emulation, jealousy; yinkishi 
to refuse ; 2. jealousy, hence 
3. the name given to either 

of the two wives of the poly- 
gamist; if he takes a third 
wife he has kishiyoyi; 4. used 
metaphorically for the corol- 
lary or complement ; cf . rana 
kishiar dere. 

kishimi, an old solitary male 
antelope of any species which 
has left the herd; maikishi- 
min ido a man with one eye. 

kishingida, to recline or sit on 
the ground with legs crossed 
and elbows on knees, the 
attitude for eating or con- 

kishirua, kishirwa, kishi, 
thirst; jin kishirua to feel 

kisi, fat ; see kitse. 

kisim-bijimi, a grass; see 

kiskansa (S.), suicide. 

kiskauami, kaskauami, a 
shrub with red berries, and 
dotted leaves (Psorospermum 
Senegalense, Hypericineae) ; 
cf. kaskawani (?). 

kiski, the mate of the common 
lizard ; see kadangare. 

kiso, 1. to twist; 2. twisted; 
3. hair worn by women in 
curls down their cheeks ; mai- 
kiso hair-dresser. 

kita, cf. ya/adi kita he fell flat, 

kita or keta, q.v., mischief, 





cruelty, evil of any kind, 
envy ; cf . prov. kowa yi keta 
kansa the evil that a man 
does (recoils on) himself; rnai- 
ketachi* worker of evil. 


kit&ba* (Ar. v^>)> took. 

kitikwa (S.), a bundle of millet 
with the stalks plaited to- 

kitila, a heap of anything. 

kitse, to plait ; cf . kiso. 

kitse, kisi, kichi (S.), pi. kit- 
saisai, fat. 

kitsim-bijimi (bull's fat), a 
grass used in thatching. 

kitso, kiso, a helmet, shaped 
coiffure worn by Hausa wo- 

kiwa, loneliness ; see kewa. 

kiwata, to keep or feed (ani- 

kiwo, hatred, refusal, a form of 
fy> q* v » ) yi n kiwo to hate, 

kiwo, 1. to tend, watch cattle,* 
to defend, protect; 2. used 
intransitively of the cattle, 
to feed, to graze. 

kiwuya, Muya, refusal to work, 
laziness ; cf . M. H. p. 147, mai- 
kiwuya a man who refuses to 
work ; see ki. 

kiya, to refuse ; see ki. 

kiyada (S.), kiyasda (K.), or 
before n. obj. kiyashe, to pre- 
serve, defend, protect, allah 

shi kiyashemu may God pro- 
tect us ; cf . kiyaye, 

kiyale, to neglect ; see kiale. 

kiy&ma, resurrection; see ki- 

Myashi, kyashi, a very small 
fly, sand-fly, to be distinguish- 
ed from kiashi, ant. 

kiyasi* (Ar. ^ti), to measure 
by a rule or comparison, D 94. 

kiyau, well ; see keau. 

kiyauri, covering of a door; 
see kaure. 

kiyauta, goodness ; see keauta. 

kiyaya, keyaya, lice. 

kiyaya,hdyawa,ref using; ciki. 

kiyaye, 1. to keep carefully, 
to preserve, to remember; 
cf. prov. idan ka rubuta ya 
tabata idan Jca kiyaye ya 
gudu litera scripta manet ; 
other forms of kiyaye are 
kiyada, kiyasda and kiyashe ; 
kiyaye kanka spare thyself, 
i.e. don't trouble ; 2. used to 
denote ready obedience; ki- 
yaye magana to obey a com- 
mand ; kura ba ta kiyayuwa 
the hyena cannot be tamed. 
kiyayeni suffer me; maki- 
yaye a shepherd. 

kiyeya, kyeya, envy, hatred, 
dislike, abokin kiyeye a thing 
to be avoided ; cf . maganin 
kiyeya rabuwa the cure for 
hatred is separation, abokin 




kiyeya a repulsive person; 

kiyo, well ; see keau. 

kizauro, see under abduga. 

ko, 1. either, or, and in nega- 
tive sentences, neither, nor ; 
hence its use 2. as an inter- 
rogative, e.g. mutum ya tafi 
ko did the man go 1 here ko 
is elliptic for ko ba hdka ba 
or is it not ml ko may also 
precede the sentence or both 
precede and follow it for the 
sake of emphasis; 3. even, 
although; A 66 hakana kishi- 
rua ko ya sha kogi bia/r so 
too he shall be thirsty though 
he drink of five streams ; cf. 
koda although, ko is also 
used in sentences where a 
negative meaning is implied 
though not expressed, e.g. ko 
daia not even one. ko is 


sometimes equivalent to *I 
think/ e.g. ka nuna ma&hi 
nama show him the meat, ya 
gani ko 1 think he has seen 
it. It is sometimes equiva- 
lent to really ! indeed ! 
ko, indef. pronominal prefix by 
which most of the indefinite 
pronouns and abverbs are 
formed from the interroga- 
tive, e.g. wa who? kowa 
anyone ; mi what ? komi any- 
thing, etc. ; kaka how, kokaka 

however; yaushe when, ko- 
yaushe at any time; yanzu 
now, koyanzu immediately. 

kobdodo or gobdodo, a thorny 

kobdua, gobdua, the yolk of 
an egg. 

kdbri, kwobri, kwauri (K.), 
kftbri, pi. kwabruka, kwobru- 
ka, shin-bone, kobrin kafa leg- 
bone, kobrin kofa door-post, 
kobrin itache a dried-up tree. 

kobro (K.), incompleteness; 
yin kobro to be incomplete 
or insufficient. 

kobsa, kopsa, kobso, pod of 
nuts, beans, etc. 

koda, though, although; cf. ko. 

koda, kanda, a dried-up nut. 

koda, to furbish or sharpen a 

koda, kwoda, kidney. 

koda*, the threshing of corn 
for payment; cf. maikoda. 

kodago, kurdugo, fruit of the 
fan or deleb palm ; see hwo- 

kodai, kwadai, 1. desire, long- 
ing, eagerness for, appetite; 
cf. prov. kwodai mabudin 
ivohala vain desire opens the 
door to trouble ; cf . hvadaye 
to long after; 2. membra 
privata. maktoadaita, q.v., 
covetous : maktvadaichi co- 




kodi, a top or anything spin- 
ning round ; makodi a stone 
used for smoothing a grind- 
stone ; dan kodi a small ball. 

koenna, anywhere, wherever, 

kofa, pi. ko/ojiy hole for en- 
trance, a hole, e.g. in a strap, 
door, gate ; E 19 mamzua ga 
hqfqfin bircme those who fre- 
quent the gates of the cities. 

kofai, ruin ; see kufai. 

kofato, pi. kqfatai, hoof. 

kofsa, pi. kofsoshi, kqfmna, a 
kind of guitar. 

kogawa, a rope for tying a 
thief carried by a dogari, 

kogi, buzzing of bees ; see kugi. 

kogi, pi. koguna, kogina and 
kogai, any large collection of 
water, lake, large river, a 
ravine through which any 
water flows. 

kogia, hook ; see kugiya. 

kogo, hollow; kogon itache 
hollow of a tree ; den, etc. ; 
kogon duchi chasm. 

kogua* echo. 

koi, egg ; see Jcwoi. 

koikoiya, to imitate another's 
pronunciation or actions. 

koikoiyo, n. imitation. 

koinya, kwanya, skull; koin- 
yan kai, id. ; see kwanya. 

koiya, to learn ; koiya ma to 
teach, e.g. ya koiya mani 

he taught me; maikoiya a 
teacher, makoiyi, makoyi a 
scholar; intens. form koi- 
koiya, q.v. 

koiya, n. teaching; koiya na 
shaitan the teaching of Satan, 
D 19 ; koiyawa teaching ; 
cf. koiyo. 

koiya, koya, a red clay used 
for staining women's faces or 
eyelids; when mixed with 
natron it is used in snuff. 

koiyo, koyo, n. learning; yin 
koiyo to learn, ba (or bada) 
koiyo to teach. 

koka*, used in Sokoto as 
equivalent to kaman like; cf. 
Gr. p. 129, L 20. 

kokanto, doubt ; see kokonto, 

kokara (S.), a tree from which 
walking-sticks are made. 

kokari, 1. to try, attempt, en- 
deavour, A 2, 3, 26; 2. to 
work diligently, cf . maikokari 
one who endeavours, kokaru 
diligence, B 16 ku bada ko- 
karunku give diligence, yin 
kokarinsa to do one's best. 

koki, a small red insect, in 
stories = the spider's wife. 

kokia, a tree with yellow hard- 
shelled edible fruit, its leaves 
are eaten by cattle (Strych- 
nos spinosa, Loganiaceae); na- 
mijin kokia another species of 
Strychnos with smaller fruit. 




kokiar-biri, a tree with paired 
" capsular fruit which grows 

in damp ravines (Yoacanga 

obtusa, Apocynaceae). 
koko, a drink made from the 

flour of gero beaten up in a 

turumi and drunk hot, honey 

being sometimes added. 
koko, or also, an abbreviation for 

ko kua, frequently used for ko. 
koko, pi. kokuna or dan-koko. 

a small calabash used as a 

kokofa, kokwafa, kwakkafa, 

to canter. 
kokonto, kokanto, 1. reason- 
ing, questioning, disputing, 

continued asking; 2. doubt, 

kokore, intens. form of kore 

to drive away, 
kokoro, a life-time, 
kokua, kokowa, kokawa, 

fighting, wrestling, exertion; 

yin kokua to wrestle, fight. 
kokua, ridge, pinnacle; see 

kokulwa, kokolwa, brains, 

skull ; cf . kolua. 
kokwafa, to canter ; see kokofa. 
kola (S.), water-lily. 
kolama (K.), eager desire. 
kdle, a small red pepper, the 

plant grows to the height of 

about two feet. 
kolemi*, a wide tract; cf. 

kolemin dawa maganin mat- 

kishi the expanse of the 

desert is the cure for a jealous 

kolfa, kwalfa, n. skimming of 

milk, etc. 
kolfe, kwalfe, to skim, 
koli, n. exhibiting goods for 

sale; dan koli a vendor of 

small wares, 
koli, kuli, kwalli or kwolli 

(Ar. J«L£»), antimony or 
stibnite = the <rrt/x/xt or sti- 
bium of the ancients; it is 
found in the eastern parts 
of Hausaland. Antimony 
powder, or a sulphide of 
lead, is much used by Hausa 
women for painting their 
eyebrows and the edge of 
their eyelids. It has been so 
used from very early times, 
cf. 2 Kings ix. 30 Jezebel... 
'oculos ejus posuit stibio.' 
It is also used for staining 
the teeth and lips. 

kolkole, konkole, to pick out, 
to pick the teeth, peel fruit. 

kolkoli, kwolkoli, a metal 

kolkota, lice ; see kwalkwata. 

kollo, skull ; see kolua. 

k51o, carrion kite. 

koloko, a material for making 
a black dye, obtained from 
the fruit of the bagarua tree. 




kolua, kollo, kwalua, ko- 
kulwa, skull, brains. 

koma, flea ; see kuma. 

koma, to go back, return; B 
143 tun ba akoma ba while 
as yet there has not been a 
returning, komatva return- 
ing. Jcomo to return to where 
the speaker is, to return here, 
to come back, ya komo kasua 
he came back from the mar- 
ket, komowa coming back. 

koma, homa, foma, hand-net 
with a handle like a shrimp- 

komarchi, a large snake ; see 

komaro, a leather bag; see 

komaro, utterly destitute. 

komawa, returning; see koma. 

komayya, a grass given to 
horses; cf. burburtva. 

kome, n. pi. kome-kome, re- 

komi* (S.), a canoe. 

komi, kome, anything, every- 
thing, A 48 ; babu komi noth- 
ing, so also ba komi or ba 
komi ba. kominene = what- 
soever it be, whatsoever ; see 
Gr. p. 18. 

komi, kwomi, a drinking 
trough for animals made out 
of a hollowed log. 

komo, to return here; cf. koma. 

komtsa or kwamsa, mucus 
from the eyes. 

kona, chaff. 

kona, kone, 1. to burn, to 
destroy by fire ; intens. form 
konkone to burn up com- 
pletely, kuna and kone are 
generally used as intransitive 
forms, ya kone it is burnt, 
but kasa tana kona the ground 
is scorched with heat ; 2. to 
burn with desire, etc. ; zuehia 

ta kuna the heart burned 

konane, fern, konana, pL ko- 
nanu, burnt : konewa burn- 

kon&ma, scorpion; see kund- 

kondariya, a bent tree, etc. ; 
see kwondariya. 

kondo, centre of thatched roof ; 
see kwando. 

kondua, yolk of an egg. 

kone, to burn ; see kona. 

konga, a plain ; see kanga. 

konga, a knife ; see kangar. 

kongi, beams made from the 
fan palm. 

konlka, a condition of preg- 

konko, a drinking-cup. 

konkole, to clean teeth, M. H. 
p. 61, to peel ; see kolkole. 

konkonche, kwankwanche, 
to loose or set free (slaves) ; 
see kunche. 




konkone, to fire, clear by fire; 

see kone, 
konkoni, stropanthus used for 

poisoning arrows, etc. 
konkosa, to strike (e.g. a pot) 

so as to produce a sound, 
konkua, kokua, highest part 

of the inside of the roof, 
kono* (K.), alms, 
kopsa, pod of ground nut ; see 


kora ( Ar. ifcji), baldness, either 
that produced naturally or 
by shaving; maikora bald. 

kora, also kori, before a n. 
used of swishing the scum off 
water before filling a cala- 
bash, intens. form kokore. 

kora, pi. kore kore, driving 

kora, k5re or k5ro, to drive, 
to hurry, to drive away; D 
21 y a kora kansa chikin azdba 
he hurries himself to (the 
place of) pain ; korowa driv- 
ing away ; koro sauki to send 

kor&ka, eagerness ; da kordka 

korama, apparently a pi. form 
oikwori; 1. a nullah which 
dries up in the dry season; 
2. a fast-flowing stream, a 

korami, trade. 

koranga (K.), leader, guide. 

korare, to hasten. 

korare, pi. koraru, a fugitive ; 
cf . kora. 

kore, a furrow. 

kore, to drive ; see kora. 

kore, a long tobe of black or 
dark shiny blue cloth. M. H. 
p. 203. 

kore, f. koria, pi. ktaorre, dark 
green, kore kore light green ; 
cf. shudi shudi light blue, 
shudi dark blue. 

kori, stump of tree ; see kobri. 

kori, kwori, q.v., pi. korurua, 

koria, a gourd ; see kworia. 

korino, korno, 1. green dyed 
leather ; the dye is produced 
by a mixture of copper filings 
(8inadari) and lime juice or 
tsamia; 2. medicine for the 
eyes made from powdered 
goat's skin. A variant form 
kwarno is used for green 

korjini, ugliness; da korjini 

korkora, concubine; see kwo- 

korkosa, n. shamelessness ; da 
korkoaa unabashed. 

korkwasa, driver ant; cf. 

kormdto, karm&to, 1. to carry 
false news, to tell tales 
against another secretly; 2. 




to interfere in a matter which 
does not concern one; cf. 
karambani; 3. to betray. 

kormdto, karm&to, ri. gossip, 
mischief-making, yin kormoto 
to carry secret news ; cf . M. 
H. p. 196. 

korno, husk of guinea-corn; 
see kwomo. 

koro, to drive, etc. ; cf. kora. 

korofi, dye-pit ; see karofi. 

kor5ro or kworSro, a bag 

containing 20,000 cowries, 

usually made of the leaves of 

the tukurua palm (possibly 

2 j 
from Ar. j£», Heb. cor> Gr. 

Kopos = a large dry measure). 

kororua, top, summit. 

korto, kworto, fem. kortua, 
adulterer, paramour. 

kortonchi, lasciviousness. 

kortu, a small gourd , see kurtu. 

korya, a gourd ; see kworia. 

kosa, corpulence. 

kosa, to be over ripe, so meta- 
phorically to be tired of 
waiting, na kosa I am in a 
hurry, ba shi kosawa da mu- 
tane he is patient to everyone. 

kosa, kusa, an iron nail. 

kosa-kosa, a short-legged peli- 

kosabro, a sack made of grass 

for holding cowries, 
kosada, to get enough to eat, 

satisfy ; see koshi. 

kosai, a cake cooked in oil. 

kosandi, inner wall of a house. 

kosashe, see koshi. 

kosfa, kwosfa, pi. kosfoji, 
kwos/oji, 1. egg-shell, peel of 
fruits ; kosfar arsashe a cart- 
ridge case ; 2. in pL, branch- 
ing off of roads. 

koshi, 1. to be satisfied, to 
have enough; 2. used as n., 
a being satisfied, satisfaction 
(esp. of appetite); cf. prov. 
ba dadi tana gidan na koshi 
' not nice ' keeps house with 
( I am satisfied/ ie. only a 
man who lives in luxury can 
afford to be discontented. 
kosa&he, pi. kosasu, one who 
has eaten enough, one who is 
satisfied, koshada* a causa- 
tive form of koshi to feed to 
satisfaction, to satisfy; sun 
chi sun sha sun koshi, they 
ate and drank till they were 

koshia, 1. a wooden spoon ; 2. 
a shuttle. 

koso, a small drum, open at 
one end, slung from the 
shoulder ; see kotso. 

kota, handle, e.g. of an axe; in 
Katsena bota is used. 

kotafani, shield; see kutu- 

kotakwana, n., 1. postpone- 
ment, neglect; 2. defiance. 




kotamta, to speak in parables ; 

* see kotanchi. 

kotana*, cousin, relation. 

kotanchi, kwatanchi, 1. to 
compare, to liken to, to place 
together; pass, akotanchi is 
made like unto ; 2. kotanchin 
kdza about so much, kotan- 
chin hdka like this, ka yi 
mini kotanchi ydda zan yishi 
give me an idea how to do 
this; cf. kutumshi likeness, 
F 145. kotanta, kotamta, 
kwatanta to speak in parables. 

kotarni, kotarnia, koturni, 
a large earthen pot with wide 

kotashi, a small basket used 
by women ; see kwotashi. 

koto, of a bird, to peck ; also 
used of the grazing of cattle 
or sheep ; maikoto beak. 

kotontawa, 1. to pay a second 
time, to pay over again ; 2. 
to spin round. 

kotso, koso, kotso, kozo (cf. 

Ar. ^^r^y a kettle-drum), 
a drum shaped like an hour- 
glass, held under the arm, 
one end open, it is covered 
with skin in front, but is 
open behind ; cf . kalango, 

kotutura, stump of wood ; see 

kowa, everyone, anyone, any ; 

babu kowa or ba kowa no 
one; the pronominal forms 
are kowa, kowanene, fern. 
kowa, kowacheche; the ad- 
jectival forms are kowane, f. 
kowache, pi. kowddane; see 
Gr. p. 18. ba ta kowa ba 
che it is not the property of 
anyone; combined with the 
pi. pers. pron. it denotes each ; 
kowanenmu each of us, kowa- 
nenku each of you, kowanensu 
each of them. 

kowainia, a finger-ring, the 
ring of a bit, etc. 

kowane, any, every, each; 
see kowa. 

kowar-wake, the husk on 
pods of beans. 

kowie, side ; see kauye. 

koya, to learn ; see koiya. 

koya, red clay ; see koiya. 

koyanzu, even now, now, im- 
mediately ; see ko. 

koy aushe, at any time, always ; 
see ko. 

koyi, an example. 

koyo, n. learning ; see koiyo. 

kozo, a kind of drum ; see kotso. 

kozozobe, kwazazzabo, 1. 
course or hollow of a stream ; 
2. a deep ravine without 
water ; 3. holes in the road 
made by running water. 

ku, 2nd pers. pron. pi. you. 
-nku, your, is used when the 




object possessed is masculine, 
and ~rku *or 4ku when the 
object possessed is feminine ; 
cf. Gr. p. 25. 

kua, a verbal prefix to denote 
the second person plural of 
the future tense; cf. Gr. 
p. 33. 

kua, kwa, too, also, likewise ; 
it follows as an enclitic the 
word to which it more par- 
ticularly refers, e.g. ni kua ni 
shiga I too shall enter, E 37. 

kuba, a cross beam. 

kubaka, 1. the fold in waist of 
trousers through which the 
cord (zaria) runs; 2. the cord 
round waist of trousers. 

ki&bche, kubuche, to slip or 
drop out of one's hands, also 
to escape from prison, cf. 
kilto. kubche kvbche to try 
to slip out, used of an animal 
caught in a trap ; cf . gubchi. 

kube, a sheath for knife or 
sword; cf. M. H. p. 206, 
talauchi yi kan wa halinka 
kube poverty acts as a sheath 
to your character, i.e. makes 
you act hypocritically. 

kube, to mix, intens. form ku- 
kube ; see kwabe. 

kube* (K), little, small. 

kube, an ear of corn. 

kubewa (a Yoruba word), the 
'okra' plant, the ripe capsules 

of which are used as a vege- 
table (Hibiscus esculentus, 
Malvaceae). It is a climb- 
ing gourd and grows esp. on 
house tops, in Kano it is 
pronounced kabewa. 
kuble, kulle, kulli (cf. Ar. 

J*$, bolt), to lock, lock up ; 

cf. shina kulle it is locked, 

na kulli akwati I locked the 

box; makubli or mahulli key, 

kubli, kulli, a lock. 
kftbri, shin-bone ; see kdbri. 
kububua, a poisonous snake, 

with large brown spots in a 

single line down its back and 

a white belly. 
kubuta, to be innocent, to be 

unharmed, to be acquitted, 
kubuta, n. ankle boots used 

for riding, 
kucha, kuza, to rush or fall 

kuchi, pi. kuche-kuche, talking, 

kuda, throbbing pain, e.g. of 

kuda, kuje, pi. kudaje, masc. 

kudaidai (cf. Ar. pi. £)\j£, 

stinging insects), fly; kudan 
kisan doki, i.e. the fly that 
kills horses, i.e. the tsetse 
fly. makafon kuda a large 
horse-fly which is so easy to 




catch that it appears to be 

kudafl, a small ant ; see kur- 

kudaku, a species of sweet 
potato (dankali). 

kudanchi, southwards. 

kudandemi, kudandan, a 
hut; see Jcwadandemi. 

kude (S.), intr. to withdraw. 

kudi, a black and red cloth. 

kudi, a bug. 

kudi, money ; see kurdi. 

kudigi, a weed ; see kuduji. 

kudira, destiny ; see kadara. 

ktidis, kldis, quickly. 

kudu, an apron made of skin. 

k&du, ktldus, south; also used 
adverbially, e.g. ya tafi kudu 
he went south. 

kududlfi, kudundifi, pond, 
cistern, a pit from which 
clay has been dug. 

kududura, a small knife used 
by women. 

kftduji, kudugi, a plant about 
two feet high, with a flower 
like tobacco, it grows amongst 
dauia, a medicine is made 
from it ; it is apparently the 
same as wuta-wuta, q.v. 

ku<Jukuki, cheek, cheeks. 

kudumbia, the cracking of 
skin in the under-joints of 
toes, caused by a small in- 
sect; cf. hambudiga. 

kudundune, to make a ball 
" of anything. 

kudunia, range of hills, hill. 

kudure, to lop, or break off. 

kuduru, 1. a man with his 
fingers, toes, or ears cut off; 
2. maiming. 

k&dus, south ; see kudu. 

kudus or birnin kudus, Jeru- 

kuduss, used of popping into 
a hole, ya yi kuduss = ya 
shiga rami. 

kiifa, a stain, the scar left by 
a wound : the trace of any- 
thing, e.g. kufan wuta,s, mark 
made by a burn, kufan mai 
an oil stain. 

kufai, kofai, pi. kufaifai, ruins 
of a place, a desolated or 
dilapidated town. 

kufita, kufuta, pi. kufitai, ku- 
futai, 1*. sandal; 2. long 
riding-boot with spur. 

kufil, lungs ; seefufu. 

kufuli*, to extinguish a fire or 

kufurtu, the first hoeing of 
the land before sowing; cf. 

kuge, a kind of cymbal. 

kugi, the roar of wild animals, 
the noise of an ostrich or the 
cooing of doves, or buzzing of 

kugiya, kogia, kogua, pi. 




kugiyoyi, hook, clasp, ku- 

gian f&tea a fish-hook. 
kugu, pi. kugogi, loin, 
kuibi, side of the body; see 

kuikui, kukui, a disease in 

women somewhat similar to 

kuikuyo, young of an animal; 

see kwikuyo. 
kuiwa, a kind of grass, 
kuje, fly; see huda. Jcuje is 

generally used of the larger 

biting flies, kuda of smaller 


kujera, kushera (Ar. ^j£>), 

chair, stool, esp. the wooden 
stool on which women sit. 

kuka, pi. kukoki, fern. Kanuri 
id. (Adansonia digitata), the 
baobab or monkey-bread tree. 
The Hausas eat its fruit and 
use its leaves for making soup. 
It does not grow to any great 
height, but has often a girth 
of 60 to 70 ft. 

kuka, pi. koke-koke, masc, cry, 
lamentation; yin kuka to 
cry, raise a cry, howl, low, 
etc., of men and animals, e.g. 
sania tana kuka the cow lows 
(ruri is used of the bull). 

kuka, pers. pron. 2nd pers. pi. 
used to denote the narrative 
or historic past; cf. Gr. p. 28. 

kuka, to make complaint; cf. 
kada kowa ya kuka da vxmi 
ya kuka da kansa let not 
any one complain of another 
(in doing so) he complains of 

kukaruku, crowing ; see kaka- 

kuku, an edible fish, six inches 
long, with sharp scales on its 

kukube. an intens. form of 
kube to mix. 

kukui*, a swelling ; see kuikui. 

kukui kukui, the sound made 
by a guinea-fowl ; cf . M. H. 
p. 197. 

kukuki, a tree, the bark of 
which contains an almost 
tasteless watery juice : it is 
sucked by thirsty travellers 
(Sterculia tomentosa, Ster- 

kukuma, a musical instrument 
which is played by rubbing. 

kukumche, pi. kukumtatu, one 
who has his hands tied to his 
neck; cf. seq. 

kukumi, kunkumi, the tying 
of a man's hands; cf. prov. 
karamin sani kukumi ne a 
little knowledge is as # the 
tying of a man's hands to his 
neck, i.e. 'a little knowledge 
is a dangerous thing/ 

kul*, if, when ; cf . kur. 




kula, a shrub from the roots of 
which a hot spice is prepared. 

kflla, 1. to care for, heed, be 
concerned about, used abso 
lutely (B 90) or with direct 
ace, or with da, or, less fre- 
quently, with ga ; 2. to care 
for in the sense of to covet, 
e.g. C 52 bai kula ba ga dunia 
he cared not for the mer- 
chandise of the earth, kali* 
intention, e.g. ina da kulin 
tafia or na hula tafia I think 

of going. 
kulba, the common reddish 

smooth-skinned lizard (ma- 

buia Perroteti) ; cf . shariTido. 

kulde, to strip off; see kwalde. 

kulere, a wooden-tipped arrow. 

kflli, intention; see kula. 

kulikasa, shamelessness. 

kulki, kuruki, pi. kulake, a 
short stick, club, a govern- 
ment messenger's staff. 

kulk&sa, very near ; see kitea. 

kulla, to tie two pieces of string 
together ; idiom kulla gaba to 
enter on a quarrel, to join 
issue ; kullu to be joined to- 

kulla, n. twisting cotton round 
a pin before spinning. 

kulle, to lock up. 

kulli, kwolli, antimony; see 

kulli, pi. kuUi-kutti, a knot, 

also used of a ball of pounded 
ground nuts ; cf . hibli. 

kfllo, kullo, to watch, look on. 

kulu, pi. kulayi, wale made by 
a whip. 

kulu, 1. froth skimmed from 
the top in the making of bread 
or masa cakes ; 2. leaven. 

kulubutu, a creeper with edible 

kulufita (ever-coming-forth), a 
synonym for the gauta (to- 
mato), so called because it is 
ever bearing. 

kulum [originally borrowed 

from the Ar.^^j ^^£»= every 
day], 1. always, constantly; 
hence 2. used with other ex- 
pressions of time, every, e.g. 
kulum safe every morning, 
kulum dere every night, B 88 ; 
cf. kulyaushe. 

kulume, an edible fish with red 
tail, about fifteen inches long. 

kulutu, protuberance, swelling. 

kulyaushe*, always; see ku- 

kuma, again. 

kuma, a flat fish with reddish 

kfima, koma, flea, louse. 

kitma, kumma, a stick. 

kumachi, kumurchi, kwo- 
machi, a black cobra, hooded 
but without spectacles, 14 ins. 
to 6 ft. long (naia nigricollis). 




kumakumi, a horseman's arm- 
our made of iron. 

kumallo, faintness; see ku- 

kumama, weak, infirm, feeble, 

kumamanchi, 1. weakness, 
infirmity, feebleness; 2. what 
is trying or troublesome. 

kumaro, komaro, a small 
leather bag. 

kumatu, cheeks, pi. of kumchi, 

kumba, pi. kumbuna, kumbabo- 
bijcumbai, 1. finger-nail, scales 
of a fish ; ta bude kumbabi she 
spread open her fingers; 2. 
an edible shell-fish sold in the 

kumbe or kwumbe, the fashion 
of shaving the front part of 
the head only; the heathen 
custom of leaving a tuft on 
top of head. 

kumbi, a colour made from 
bones and used for marking 
camels, M. H. p. 186. 

kumbu, 1. a small calabash 
with a cover; 2. a round 
object ; cf . shankumbu. 

kitmbu, ktLmbua, 1. a long- 
handled hoe with triangular 
blade ; 2. a leather ring worn 
as a charm round the wrist. 

kumbuche, to tie up in a knot. 

kumbuchi, esp. used of rough 

or hasty plaiting or doing up 
of a woman's hair. 

kumbura, kumbure, to swell, 
to be enceinte; kumburawa 
swelling with pride; F 30 
kana, kumburawa thou art 
proud ; kumburata swollen,, 
e.g. with pride. 

kumburata*, see kumbure. 

kumburi, kumburia, n. swell- 

kumchi, pL kumatu, cheek ; 
dan kumatu a man with fat 

kumchi, kunchi, narrow, con- 
fined, difficult of passage, it 
is often applied to the thorn 
fence surrounding a town; 
cf. Gr. p. 130, 1. 29; kumchin 
zuchia hot temper; makun- 
kuchi or makunkunchi a man 

• • • 

full of anger, lit. a heart in 
which there is no room ; 
kumchin sarkakia an im- 

■ • • 

penetrable thorn hedge or 
brake ; yobbo wanda ya yi 
kunchi domin girma nasa 
praise which was unworthy 
of his greatness. 

kumla, shame ; see kumya. 

kumkumia, a poisonous species 
of euphorbia tree about two 
feet high. 

kumo, a yellowish red biting 

kumolo, kumallo, qualm or 




faintness arising from lack 
of food. 

kumpa, froth ; see kunfa. 

kumpsa, to bud, used of young 
grain ; cf . kobsa. 

kumsa, kumshe, to tie up, 
e.g. in a bag; kumshashe, 
f. kumshashia, pi. kumshashu, 
tied up ; cf . (?) kimsa. 

kumshi, n. tying. 

kumshin-lalle, the binding of 
the hands or of the feet in 
henna bandages; see lalle. 

kumso*, to hide anything. 

kumtata, to make narrow, A 67; 
see kumchi. 

kumurchi, kumuchi, kwo- 
machi, komarchi, a cobra; 
cf. kumachi. 


kumus (S.), the sound of a 

kumya, kunya, kumia,shame, 
bashfulness, good manners ; 
rashin kumya want of good 
manners or of sense of pro- 
priety. sa y ba and badakumya 
to put to shame ; jin kumya 
to feel shame, to be ashamed ; 
ba shi da kumya ba he has no 
sense of shame. F 1 15 masu- 
zina su ka kumya those who 
sin will be put to shame; sun 
yi kumya they felt ashamed, 
sun chi kumia ke nan they 
were ashamed, M. H. p. 196. 

R. H. D. 

kumyata, kunyata, kumya- 

che, to shame, to be ashamed, 
kun, pronoun, 2nd pers. pi. 

used with perfect tense; cf; 

Gr. p. 27. 
kuna, intr. to burn ; see kona. 
kuna, to burn ; see kona, 
kfina, pure, unmixed ; kUna 

rua pure water, nothing but 

kuna, anger, disgust. 
ktina, kunna, to light, set 

light to; kunna fitila light 

the lamp ; kunna wuia adaki 

set fire to a house. 
kun&ma, konama, pi. kuna- 

momi, kunamai, 1. scorpion; 
2. hammer of a gun or rifle ; 
kunaman rua electric cat-fish, 

kunba, finger-nail ; see kumba. 

kunche, kwanche (K.), to 
loose, untie, to get loose; 
andaureshi ya kwanche he 
was tied up and got loose; 
kunchache, fern, kunchachia^ 
pi. kunchaehu, untied, loosen- 
ed; maikunche a wrestler; 
intens. forms kwankwanche 
and konkoncke to set free. 

kunchi, bush ; see kumchi. 

kunda, a charm placed in a 
field ; see kwanda. 

kundege, kwondege, armlets, 

" F225. 

kundi, pi. kundaye, a book; 
dan kundi a small book. 





kundu, used with yi 9 of an 

• arrow, to miss. 

kundu, a bird's gizzard. 

kunduda, a headman. 

kundudufi, a pond ; see kudu- 

kunduma, n. 1. toppling over, 
B 150 ba ni yi kunduma en 
fada ba I will not topple over 
so as to fall; 2. to dip the 
head in water. 

kundumi, kandami, a pond. 

kundumi, n. baldness caused 
by shaving off the hair. 

ktine, kunne, pi. kunuwa, 1. 
ear, sa kunne to give atten- 
tion to; 2. hunnen itache 

kunfa, kumfa, kumpa, foam ; 
yin kunfa to foam. 

kunfu, used of the meat sur- 
rounding the heart of an 

kunkeli, a small shield. 

kun-M-chi, a small weevil 
which eats corn, its name is 
derived from the saying, if 
you will not eat, we will eat 
it for you. 

kunku, pi. kunkaye (S.), a sun- 
dried brick, i.e. ball of earth 
mixed with straw. 

kunkumi, a celebrated or im- 
portant person, kunkumin 
tajiri a rich merchant; cf. 
M. H. p. 205. kunkumi is 

usually applied to one who 
has become rich by dishonest 

kunkumi, a man with his 
hands tied to his neck ; see 

kunkumi a (S.), soot ; see kun- 

kunkunia, blight, soot, used 
in making ink. 

kunkunta, narrow, used of a 
doorway; cf. kumtata. 

kunkuru, 1. small land tor- 
toise, cf . kififia water tortoise ; 
2. curved wooden board to 
which the unwoven thread 
of the warp is fastened, it 
is thought to resemble the 
curved shell of the tortoise. 

kunkurus, kurunkus, decapi- 
tation, the finishing of any- 
thing; cf. the phrase kun- 
kurus kan kusu the cutting 
off the head of a rat, an idiom 
denoting that a thing is done 
and finished with; so kun- 
kurus kan dambaria, M. H. 
p. 166. 

kunkuwa, an ant-heap. 

kunna, to light ; see kUna. 

kunsa, to fold up ; cf. kumtata. 

kunshe, to wrap into a bundle. 

kunshia* sleep, F 75; see 

kunta, to untie ; see kwanta. 

kunta, n. loosening. 




kuntawa, sleeping ; see kwan- 

kuntu, blanket (a Nupe" word). 

kuntukurS, a small drum. 

kuntumi, a merchant. 

kuntunkuru* applied by the 
Hausas to the brown army- 

kunu, gruel made of guinea- 
corn, rice, etc. 

kunun - dorowa (dorowa 
broth), a species of bird. 

kunya, pi. kunyoyi, a ridge of 
soil in farming in which seed 
is planted ; cf. kwiya (S.). 

kupturu, kuturu, blighted 
(corn) as contrasted with 
maiido; M. H. p. 199. 

kur* kul*, if, when, e.g. kur 
ankache masa if it be said 
to him, C 7. kur dai or kul 
dai even if. 

kura, pi. kuraye, hyena, fem. ; 
B 149 ina gani sarai kura 
gata I see distinctly, there 
is the hyena, kure, a male 
hyena, is also used; wasan 
kura an unappreciated joke ; 
dan kura the name of a par- 
ticular kind of turban; cf. 

• M. H. p. 203. goshin kure 
the doka or woman's head 

kura, dust. 

kura, gain, profit, esp. unlawful 
gain, overcharging, cheating, 

chin kura to make unlawful 
gain; F201 dilalai masuriba 
da kura the brokers who 
make unjust profits, i.e. who 
keep back money for things 

kura (?), cf . yana kura he fears. 

kur&da, kuradda, pi. kurddai, 
a small round hatchet used 
for cutting grass. 

kuran (Ar. J,Tji), the Koran. 

kuranga, 1. trailing rope plant; 
2. a ladder ; see karangama. 

kurari, threatening, boasting ; 
yin kurari to brag; cf. kirari. 

kurar-shanu (cattle dust), a 
weed with yellow flowers and 
white leaves (Conyza spinosa, 

kur&sa (S.), a bunch of corn. 

kurba, to sip. * 

kurba, a small lizard. 

kurbi, n. sipping. 

kurche, to escape ; see kubche. 

kurchi, to escape. 

kurchia, kurichia, pi. ku- 
rache, kurchiyoyi, dove. 

kurchia*, kurichia, kuru- 
chia, 1. childhood, mutuar 
kurichia death during child- 
hood ; 2. childishness. 

kurda, to press through a nar- 
row place, creep in; kur- 
danan kurdanan wandering 
this way and that, zigzag- 





Aurdafi, kudafi, small black 

kurdi, kudi, used as a pi. of 
ijia and tvuri, 1. cowries 
(kawara and alkawara are 
also used in the same sense); 
2. used generally for money 
of any kind; 3. price, e.g. 
kurdinsa nawa what is the 
price of it? kurdinsa ya tea 
it is enough for it. kurdin 
kasa tribute, taxes ; a plural 
form is found, kurdede much 
money ; kurdin fUa a tax 
paid by caravans, kurdin 
boda a tax paid to the Eng- 
lish, i.e. 15 p.c. on value of 

kurdi*, a small biting insect 
found in mats, etc. 

kurd&dufi, often pronounced 
kududdufi or kududdiffl, 
pond ; see kududufi. 

kurdugi*, a great man, warrior ; 
cf. M. H. p. 189. 

kurdugo, kodago, the fruit of 
the giginia palm ; ctkzvodago. 

ktire, mistake ; see kurre, 

kure, pi. kuraye, a male hyena ; 
see kura. 

k&re, 1. to probe, to go to the 
end of, dan kure little finger; 
2. to push another; 3. in 
Sokoto to miss, used as an 
equivalent for kuskure. kit- 
rewa is used of a place from 

which there is no outlet, the 
interior of a house furthest 
from the door; hainya tana 
kurewa the road ends here; 
cf. prov. ramin karia ba shi 
wiyar kurewa the hole of a 
lie it is not difficult to probe 
to the end, i.e. it is easy to 
detect a liar in his lies. 

kure, en wuri ya hare when 
the time comes, used when 
the sun comes out after dull 

kur§ge, pi. kuregai, kuregogi, 
jerboa (dipus), the length of 
its body is about eight inches, 
of its tail ten inches ; it pro- 
gresses by a series of jumps ; 
it burrows in the ground 
and feeds chiefly on grain ; 
cf. Browning, 'Saul/ vi, 5, 
" half-bird half-mouse." For 
a story concerning a jerboa, 
cf. M. H. p. 106. 

kurenga, a trailing rope-plant; 
see kuranga. 

kurfa, kurufa, pi. kurfai, long 

kurfi, pi. kurfofiy kurfu, hole, 
cave, empty cartridge-case. 

kurfu, pL kurafu (Kanuri kctr 
rafi hide), 1. a whip made of 
skin; 2. flogging, yin kurfu 
to flog, 8u yi masa kurfu 
they flogged him ;' 3. a horse- 




kfirga (S.), conversation. 

kttrga (K.), piles. 

kurginguma, a beetle = gur- 
gunguma, q.v. 

kuri, empty threat (Sokoto), 
in Kano ruba is used. The 
word is probably a variant 
of kuria a war drum, cf. 
Hausa riddle abu na kara a 
dawa ba hanji a thing that 
cries in the bush with no 
bowels ? Ans. A drum ; cf . 

kuria, kurya, kwuriya (Ar. 

* * + 

cji, to beat a drum), a sort 

of stringed drum, open at 
one end, used in war. 
kuria, a red vegetable stain 
for the teeth. 

kuria (Ar. A*/*), dice, lots; 
yin kuria to draw lots ; jefa 
kuria to throw with dice or 
with cowrie shells used as 

kurichia, dove ; see kurchia. 

kurikia, kurkia, pi. kurikoki f 
kurkiyoyi, virgin. 

kurimi, dense forest ; see kurmi. 

kurji, breast ; see kirji. 

kurji, kureji, kirchi, gurje, 
pi. kurdje, kurareji, scab, boil, 
esp. on dogs and horses, itch; 
ynaikurji one whoho.3 the itch. 

kurki, hen-coop. 

kurki, a bird like a crane. 

Ipirkia, virgin ; see kurikia. 

kurkono, kurukunu, guinea- 

kurkuku, dungeon, prison. 

kurkura*, to scrape ; see kar- 

kurkura*, to err, to fail; cf. 

kurkura, n. gargling. 

kurkure, to gargle, to throw 
water out of the mouth, rinse 
the mouth, v. n. kurkurewa. 

kurkurkur, wide -opened 

mouth; see kirkira. 

kurkusa= kusa kma very near. 

kurkushe, a swelling on the 

kurkutu (S.), a small drum. 

kurkwiyo, youngling; see&un- 

kurma, deaf ; see kurHrna. 

kurmajo, a (Zanfara) tribal 
mark on the temple. 

kurme, swimming, bathing. 

kurmi, dense forest. 

kurmus, the ashes of a burnt 
stick, cf . F 207 ; wuta ta fame 
kurmus the fire burnt it up 

kurmusu, pi. kurmusoshi, kur- 
mushe-kurmushe, eating in 
secret; maikurmusu one who 
hides himself to eat; cf. 

kurmuwa, sprinkling ; cp. 




kurna (Kanuri kurna, Fulah 
kumahi), zizyphus jujuba, a 
large tree of bushy appear- 
ance with small leaves and 
red edible berries. 

kurnan nasara (or kurna 
na sara), a tree with lilac 
flowers, ' the pride of India ' 
(Melia Azedarach, Melia- 

kurre, pi. kurakuri, accident, 
mistake, error. . Also as v. 
na kurre I made a mistake. 

kursa, kursan goro a large kola 

kurtu, kortu, pi. kurtuna, a 
calabash used as water-bottle. 

kuru, f. kurua, dwarf, pony; 
doki kuru, id. 

kuru, in silence ; cf . kurum. 

kuru, a small hand-drum open 
at one end ; see kuria, 

kurna, kurwa, 1. soul, spirit, 
shadow; 2. echo; cf. kururua. 

kuruchia, childhood ; see kur- 

kurufa, long riding-boots ; see 

kurufi*, an iron chisel ; pro- 

- bably a corruption of karifi, 

kurugga, a hoe = kente. 

korugunguma, pi. kurugun- 
gumai, a winged beetle which 
lives amongst the guinea- 
corn; see gurgunguma. 

kuruki, a short stick; see 

kurukunu, guinea- worm ; see 

kurukure, to throw out water 
from the mouth; seekurkure. 

kurulla, refusal to share food 
with another (used in Sokoto); 
cf. kememe, kurmusu. 

kurum, silence, e.g. D 94 muna 
kurum we keep silence ; yin 

. kurum, id. da kurum in si- 
lence ; D 29 abersu kuru let 
them be left alone, i.e. let no 
one speak to them; kurum- 
baka silence. 

kuruma, still water. 

kuruma, kurma, pi. kurumai, 
1. one who is deaf; 2. to 
be deaf; cf. prov. kuruma 
magana che 'silence gives 
consent'; kuruman wuri a 
cowry without a hole in it 
(i.e. like a deaf or stopped-up 
ear), kurumchi and kurumta 
deafness; shina da kurumchi 
he is deaf, 
kurumi, to embrace, grasp, 
kurumta, kurumche, to be 

kurumta, kurumchi, n. si- 
lence; yin kurumta to be 
kurungu, a species of cat-fish 
(Siluridae) about 3 feet in 




kurunkus, see kunkurus, 

kurunkushewa, a plant with 
delicate white flowers = no- . 
mijin tsada, q.v. 

kururu, crop of a fowl. 

kururua, 1. a cry, scream ; 
yin kururua to cry ; 2. com- 
plaint, grievance; 3. echo; 
cf. kurua, id. 

kururuta, to complain about. 

kuruskurus, edible root of 
small plant used in making 

kurwa, a spirit ; see kurua. 

kurya, a drum ; see kuria, 

kurzunu, roughness; da kur- 
zunu rough, uneven, 

kusa, mouse ; see kusu. 

kfisa, n. nearness, proximity, 
near, nearly; da kusa near 
at hand ; ktisa da or kusa ga 
near to, yin kusa to be or 
draw near, ya yi kusan (or 
ya kUsa) karewa it is nearly 
finished, ya kttsa he ap- 
proaches, ya hQsa ya gaya 
mani he was near to telling 
me ; ya kusa ya (or ya kusa) 
mantashi he nearly forgot 
it ; kurkUsa, kulk&sa or kitsa 
kusa very near, kilsawa draw- 
ing near, k&sata, kusache or 
kHsanta to be or to draw near 
to. . kHsata is also used as a 
n. consanguinity. kUsatowa 
coming near. 

kusa, tin ore ; see kuza. 

kusa, nail ; see kosa. 

kusache, to draw near to ; see 

kusanchi, to condemn; see 

ktlsata, to draw near; see 

kusato, to draw near to the 

kiisatowa, coming near; see 

kiisawa, see kusa, 

kusfa, or (in Sokoto) kusua t 
a hole, e.g. at the bottom of 
a wall, larger than raria, 

kushe* to despise, to attri- 
bute evil to one who is doing 
good ; ci.ku8anchi to condemn. 

kushe kushe, kushekusheya, 
an itching sore on hand or 
foot; F 106 suna dirkanka 
har kushekusheya they beat 
thee till thou art sore; spe- 
cially used of sores on the 
feet which are prevalent 
during the rainy season. 

kushera, stool ; see kujera. 

kushewa, kusheya*, pi. ku- 

shewoyi, kusheyi, the mound 
over the grave, tomb ; tourin 
hashewa or wurin husheyi 

kuskunta, to drive away; see 

kuskure, kurkura, 1. to miss, 




of an arrow to miss or fail 
to hit the mark; na kus- 
kureta I missed it ; 2. to fail 
to keep a promise, then to 
fail in duty, to err; D 4 
kada mu kurkura let us not 
fail, i.e. in our duty. 

kuskus* (Ar. U ȣ..A), cuscus 
(a North African native dish 
made of macaroni, etc., used 
by Hausas in N. Africa, not 
known in Hausaland). 

kflsu, mouse, kusun-tanka a 
small white-bellied mouse 
which nests in roofs ; kusun 
kyauro (K.), kusun kyemru 
(S.), water-mouse; kusun- 
hanu forearm; kusumblsa 

kusua, see kusfa. 

kusufi (Ar.), eclipse of the sun. 

kusugu*, anything small or 
. insignificant, also applied to 
anything of ugly shape. 

kusumbi, hump; da kusumbi 

kusumbi, restiveness. 

kusumblsa (i.e. kusu mouse 
and bfoa above), squirrel. 

Ipisumburua, a reed growing 
amongst the guinea-corn and 
like it in appearance; not 
edible ; flutes are made of it. 

kusurua (or by metathesis 
sukurua, q.v.), pi. kusuroyi 

• » * 

(cf. Ar. j^s>\ corner; kusu- 
ruan hanu elbow; badai 
ina da kusuruan uku the 
(stalk of the) badai grass 
has three corners or project- 
ing angles ; kusuruan arewa 
nearly North (a point of the 
compass), gabaz kusuruan 
arewa — North-East ; maiku- 
surua angular. 

kttta, to persuade. 

kutanchi, likeness ; see kotan- 

kut&ra, the name of a tree; 
rafters made from it are bent 
by being heated in the fire. 
Hence a beam for pumping 
water with, D 1 6 shvna takura 
kamal kutara he falls down 
like the beam for pumping 
water ; see jigo which is the 
word most frequently used. 

kfito, to escape, implying 
motion towards speaker, ta 
kulo she escaped here. 

kutofi, a bead necklace worn 
by women. 

ktitsa, to trespass on a for- 
bidden place, to step over a 

kutu, the male of the common 
lizard (Sokoto equivalent = 
kiski) ; see kadangare. 

k&tuf &ni, kotaf ftni, pi. kutu- 
fanal f a large round shield 
made of skin. 




kutuma = bura. 

kutumba, pi. kutumbobi, a 

short and fat person, 
kutumshi* likeness, F 145 

for kotcmchi, q.v. 
kutunku, kutunkun bauna a 

large bull buffalo, kutxmkun 

barao a formidable thief, 
kfitup kfitup, tottering, ap- 
- plied to the walk of the old 

or blind, 
kuturi, the hinder part of an 

animal ; cf. jakuturi the 

k&turu, pi. kutare, 1. leper; 

2. applied to gero = blighted. 

kuturchi or kuturta leprosy, 
kututura, kututtura, kotu- 

tura, kuturtura, or kutu- 

turri, 1. stump of a tree, 

branch with leaves cut off; 

2. stubble, 
kuwa, a cry, shout, 
kuyafa (S.), spoon; see kwiafa. 
kuyanga, kwiyanga, pi. ku- 

yangai, kuyangi, used as fern. 

of bawa = & female slave; the 

plural is used of slaves of 

both sexes, 
kuyiwa, kiwuya, refusal ; see 

kuza, to rush ; see kucha. 
kuza, kusa, tin ore. 
kwa, also ; see Jcua. 
kw&be, to come loose, of the 

head of an axe, etc., to come 

away from the haft, e.g. 

gatari ya ktvdbe. ya kwdbo 

it came loose and fell down 

by me. kwabia coming loose. 

gatari maiktvabia an axe with 

a loose head, 
kw&be, kw&ba, kw&bo, to 

repress, hinder, stop short ; 

kwdbe linzami use your bit, 

ya kwdbe magananshi he 

stopped his mouth, 
kw&be, kube, kw&ba, to mix, 

A 76 kam ba ma kwabe ka~ 

8anka ya shekare if there is 

no water to mix with it, 

your earth is dry. 
kw&bi, n. mixing, 
kwabri, kwauri, pi. kwabruka, 

kwobruka, shin-bone ; see 



kwache, 1. to plunder or take 
a thing away by force, to 
snatch ; 2. to rescue, deliver, 
abin kwache booty ; 3. to 
prevent, stop ; rua ya kwache 
the rain hindered me. kwa- 
cheche stolen, kidnapped. 
maikwachewa one who 
snatches away ; kwaso to 

kwachia, the raised part of a 
saddle ; see kwochia. 

kwachia, pi. kwachaye, a glass 
basin, M. H. p. 73. 

kwadai, longing for; aeekodai. 

kwadandemi, kudandemi, a 




, hut made with mud walls and 
roof, air circulates through a 
hole in the top which is 
closed ' by a circular grass 
shutter (boto) attached to a 

kwadaye, to long after. 

kwadigo or dan kwadigo 
(S.), a farm labourer who 
works for wages. 

kwado, an arrow poison ; cf. 

kwado, pL kwadi, kwadodi, 
frog, toad, kwadon hatehi 
uvula ; kwadon hanu biceps ; 
kwadon chinya thigh muscle; 
kwadon kqfa lock of a door. 

kwagiri, a long pliant creeper 
used for making walking- 
sticks; maikwagiri a nick- 
name given to one who is 
fond of beating men. 

kwagua, 1. pincers; 2. a crab; 
cf. kugiya hook. 

kwajiri, kwagiri, a cane. 

kw&ke, fading away, as of a dyed 
garment ; kwaki, adj. fading. 

kwakia, a long, slender, light- 
coloured snake. 

kwakole, to pick a thing out, 
e.g. of a hole ; see kolkole. 

kwakota, a tobe; see kwa~ 

kw&kwa, pi. kwakoki, kwakuna 
(Elaeis guineensis), oil palm 
tree, soup is made from its 

kernels ; main ja the oil ob- 
tained from it. The oil is 
expressed from its seeds or 
nuts which grow in large 
clusters. • It is largely used 
as food by the Hausas ; ktva^ 
kwan attagara coco-nut palm. 
( Attagara is said to be the old 
home of the Arago tribe.) 

kwakwafa, kokofa, kwok- 
kwofa, a canter .with little 
progress, a circus canter. 

kwakwalla, kwakwalla hakori 
to pick the teeth ; cf . sakatta. 

kwakwalwa, brains ; see kolua, 

kwakwari, place or hole made 
. for horses' dung, etc. 

kwakwata, kwakota, a tobe 
with short, lined body and 
wide single skirt. 

kwakwume, to grip, twist ; 
kwakwume wuya to grip the 

kwala, kwalla, 1. to wash 
thoroughly; 2. to jeer at, 
revile; cf. mdkwalla. 

kwalde or kulde, to strip off 
leaves from a stalk. 

kwalfe, kolfe, to skim. 

kwalima, greediness. 

kwalkwasa, travelling ants ; 
see kwarihwasa, 

kwalkwata, kwarkwatta, 
kolkota, lice. 

kwalli, antimony ; cf. Jcdli. 

kwalo, a ball ; see ktvdlo. 




kwalo, kwalua, 1. nut, seed 
capsule, e.g. of the water lily; 
kwalon goriba nut of the dum 
palm; 2. big, fine: kwaluar 
kdza a plump chicken. 

kwalna, skull ; see kolua. 

kwama (S.), a kind of red 

kwambe, a head shaved round 
the base with a circle of hair 

- left over the crown. 

kwami, used in compound 
kwamin wuta ; see gwami. 

kwamme (S.), the fruit of the 
kuka tree. 

kwamsa, k wansa, mucus from 
the eyes ; see komtsa. 

kwana, pi. kwanaki, kwanuka, 
the 24 hours of day and night, 
day. The sing, form is fre- 
quently used instead of the 
plural, e.g. kwana fudu four 
day 8; kwana nawa ke nan 
how many days ago was it ? 
kwanaki ya tafi he left a long 
time ago ; ban kwana to say 
good-bye ; kwana to pass the 
night, to sleep; ankwanda 
raa the night has been passed 
in the rain ; sai ankwan bin 
good-bye for some time (lit. 
till it has been slept twice), 
sanu da kwana bin a greet- 
ing after a prolonged absence ; 
kwana biu bin every other 
day ; kwananddga a bivouac 

on a field of battle ; kwanche 
to lie down, to sleep, to rest, 
B 58 ; kwanchiar hankali da 
approval of; liankali ya 
kwanta da I (or he) approved 
of ; baka kwana sai ka mutu 
you won't live till night; 
kwana da, kwanda to lie 
with ; kwankwanche, id. mak~ 
toanche a place to lie down 
in, a burial place ; kwanta to 
lie down to sleep; hankalirisa 
ya kwanta he became reason- 
able; rainsa ya kwanta he 
was satisfied; kwanta da to 
lay down; kwanta arua to 
float; rua ya kwanta (or 
kwana) the water settled ; 
kwantawa lying down ; F 63 
ka san kai dai ka kwantaivar 
ku8hewa thou knowest that 
thou shalt lie down alone in 
the tomb; kwantasda to allay; 
kwanto lying in wait, ambush.; 
kwanchia, n. sleeping ; kwan- 
chiar hankali, n. content; 
kwankwanche or kankivanche, 
adv. lying down. 

kwanafi, see kwarnafi. 

kwanandaga, bivouac ; see 

kwanche, to lie down; see 

kwanche, to untie; see kuncJie. 

kwanchi, n. lying down. 

kwanda, kunda, a cup in- 




verted on a reed in a field as 
a charm against thieves, the 
sight of it is supposed to 
cause the thief's hands to 
drop off. 

kwando, kondo, 1. the centre 
inside a thatch roof where 
the reeds meet together; 

• 2. a large round wicker 

kwangara, n. a white oblong 
shield, usually carried by high 

kwangara, v. to strike with 
the fist. 

kwangare, boxing. 

kwangi, laths or bamboo sticks 
used in making ceilings. 

kwango, the wooden frame of 
a drum. 

kwangura, shield ; see kwan- 

kwankwani, kwonkwani, a 
shrub, the seeds of which 

- form the chief source of arrow 
poison in N. Nigeria (Stro- 
phantus hispid us, Apocyna- 
ceae). The name is also ap- 
plied to Strophanthus sar- 
mentosus which is a tall 
woody climber. 

kwankwasa, to knock at a 
door, to tap a pot to see if it 
is cracked. 

kwano, a tin basin or bowl, a 
Nup4 word (?). 

kwanso, shell of eggs or nuts, 
cartridge-case; kwanson ah- 
duga cotton pod. 

kwanta, pinching; yin kwanta 
to pinch. 

kwanta, to loose, unbind, e.g. 
a load ; ci kunche. 

kwanta, to lie" down; see 

kwanta-rafi, reed buck : cervi- 
capra redunca; for list of 
antelopes found in Hausa- 
land, cf. under barewa. 

kwantasda*, to allay; see 

kwantatoi, sand grouse; cf. 
mwaka, ladin rogo. 

kwanto, lying in wait; see 

kwanya, pi. kwanyoyi, or 
kwanyuna, skull, brains ; see 

kw&ra, n. the act of trying 
to swallow something; see- 
under kwarika. 

kw&ra, the River Niger; see 

kw&ra, pi. ktoarori, grain, fruit, 

kwarft kwarft, 1. a thin jointed 
mat; 2. a thick split cane 
woven mat used as a door 
hanging, also called 'muna- 
fiki y because it hides what 
is within, but allows those 
inside to see out. 




kwaraba, thread-worm. 

kwarai, rightly, properly, 
thoroughly; na ji kwarai 
I understood aright; na- 
kwarai, f. takwarai correct, 

kwaraka, to be greedy; see 

kwarakwara, kwarkwara, 
kworakwora, a slave-wife = 

kwarami, dan kwarami a corn 
buyer who buys on the farms 
and sells in the market. 

kwaranga, a ladder; see ku- 

kwarari, bef. pron. kwarare to 
overtake, v. n., kwarare, suka 
y% kwararema they overtook 

kwarche (S.), witchcraft. 

kwarda, maikwarda one with 
a bent arm = mailaushi. 

kwardabi (S.), a door made 
of corn stalks. 

kwardodo (driver away of the 
evil spirit), the large mosque 
swallow: hirundo senegalen- 

kw&re, kwari, to peel, strip, 
bark, skin, kwaro strips of 
black leather worn round 
the neck and hanging in 
front, kwaria a strip of 

kw&ri, strength, firmness of 

texture, su yi kwari they 
are strong. 

kwari, quiver ; see kwori. 

kwari, a depression ; see kwori. 

kwaria, calabash ; see kworia. 

kwariche, the name of a poison 
given in food = sammu. 

kwarika, kwaraka, to be 
ravenous or greedy, to beg 
food ; maikwaraka one who 
lives by begging food, a para- 
site ; see kwdra. 

kwarikwasa, a hammer. 

kwarikwasa, kwalkwasa, 
kwarkwasa, korkasa, a 
large black ant, usually called 
the travelling or driver ant ; 
it travels in columns and 
feeds only on living creatures. 
For description of its habits 
cf. *Hausaland,' pp. 96, 164. 

kwarkware (S.), to clean out, 
take the inside out; cf. 

kwarkwaro, the sliding wood- 
en cylinder which works longi- 
tudinally in the shuttle and 
round which the weft passes, 
hanchin ktoarkwaro the thin 
wooden pin on which it re- 
volves; cf. tangori. 

kwarkwata, kwalkwata, 
kolkota, louse (pediculus 
capitis), in Sokoto kyaya. 
ka zuba rnani kwarkwata I 
have caught lice from you. 




kwarmi, gwarmi, pi. kwarmu, 
socket, hole, joint of scissors, 
depth of eye, mai kwarmin ido 
a man with deep-set eyes. 

kwarnafi, kwannafl, an ail- 
ment affecting chest or throat, 
heartburn; kwcvrnctfi ya fada 
it is cured. 

kwarno, green leather; cf. 

kwaro, pi. kwari, 1. a night 
moth, flying insect; 2. a 
thief who comes at night. 

kwaro, small change for money. 

kw&ro, strips of black leather ; 
see kwdre. 

kwarra (S.), a species of teal. 

kwarsana, to chip with a 

kwarugom, great pain. 

kwarukwasa, ants ; see kwari- 


kwaruru, kwalulu, ' earth 

pea,' used generally for gu- 

kwarzame, to scrape, scratch 

with the fingers. 
kwasa, a hoe with long handle 

and broad blade used for 

cutting up stubble. 
kwasakwasa, a bird, pelican, 
kwasfa, shell ; see kos/a. 
kwashe, part of the embroidery 

on the front of a tobe. 
kwashe, kwaso, to take up 

and carry away (distinct from 

kwache), to take food out of 
the cooking pot; kwaso to 
take and bring. 

kwatanta, to speak in parables ; 
see kotanta. 

kwatta, cf. bakinshi yana 
kivatta, he has -an accent. 

kwauri, dried trunk of a tree, 
shin-bone, etc. ; see kobri. 

kwaya, masc. or fern., a grain 
of corn, rice, etc. ; kwayan 
ido ball of the eye. 

kwazazzabo, dry gully; see 

kwazo, diligence, da kwazo 

kwiafa, kuyafa (S.), a wooden 

. spoon. 

kwibi, pi. kwibobi, kwibuna, 
side of the body, the side of 
the body between the bottom 
of the ribs and the thigh- 

kwikuyo, kwikwiyo, kurk- 
wiyo, pi. kwiakunye, kuya- 
kuyi f kwikuye, youngling, 
young of animals, puppies. 

kwilki, ktoilkin kofa door-post; 
cf. kulki. 

kwiwa, a shrub with pink 
flower, its leaves are used in 
making temporary shelters. 

kwiya, ridge in a field; see 

kwiyaka, a cistern for collect- 
ing rain-water. 




kwiyanga, female slave; see 

kwobe*, to repress ; cf. kwdbe. 
kwobruka or kwabruka, 

withered branches ; plural of 

kwabri, q.v. 
kwochia, kwachia, 1. the 

pommel of a saddle, kwochiar 

gdba the front peak, kwochiar 

baya the cantle ; 2. the shell 

of a tortoise. 
kwoda, kidney ; see koda. 
kwddago, kodago (S.), ripe 

fruit of the giginia tree ; cf . 

kwoddo, a mixture made of 

r&ma leaves, salt, pepper, etc. 
kwodogi, strong vigorous man. 
kwoflfa, a click made with 

tongue or teeth, a sign of 

kwoi, koi, pi. kwoinyaye, an 
• e 8S > a J e kwoi, used of a bird, 

to lay eggs, kwoiu kifi pearls. 
kwokkwofa, to trot; see 

kwokua, the name of a poison 

used for smearing on arrows, 

a plant belonging to the 

strychnine-producing family. 
kwoli, antimony ; see kdli. 
kwdlia, face decoration; see 

kwoliba, bottle; gidan kwoliba 

a prison with walls tipped 

with broken glass. 

kwolkwola, butterfly, 
kwolkwoli, kolkoli, a metal 

kwdlo, the ball-like fruit of 

fan or deleb palm, hence a 

nut; seekwalo; wasankwolo 

kwolshi (S.), unripe fruit of 

the giginia tree; cf. kwo- 


kwomarchi, cobra; see hu- 

kwomi, a drinking trough for 
animals ; see komi. 

kwomo, a small bean eaten by 

kwonda, to bring back or 

kwondariya, kondariya, a 
large wooden hook, some- 
times used for catching fish, 
also applied to one tree which 
encircles another. 

kwondege, armlets; see kun- 

kwondo, basket ; see hwando. 

kwondua, kondna, yolk of an 

kwongo, the slightly curved 

head-tray on which the women 

of some pagan tribes carry 

their loads. 
kwonkwombishi, a small 

black stinging ant. 
kwonkwosso, hip-bone, 
kwontso (S.), bait. 




kwora, kwara or ruan 
kwora, the Hausa name of 
the river Niger. 

kworakwora, a slave- wife ; 
see kwa/rakwara. 

kworemi, corn-trading ; yan 
kworemi traders in corn. 

kwori, kori, pi. korurua, 
quiver, in Hausaland usually 
made of wood and covered 
with skin; kworin kibia 
quiver for arrows. 

kwdri, kw&ri, furrow or de- 
pression in ground, pit, val- 
ley; cf. korama. 

kworia, kwaria, koria, pi. 
kore, hvoruka, kwore (cucur«- 
bita lagenaria), gourd ; cups 
or calabashes are made from 
it; muna kworia we are at 
the bowl, i.e. we are eating. 
kworia is also used to denote 


the shell of a tortoise, kworiar 

guga a calabash used as a 

kworno, korno, the husks of 

kworo kworo, 1. swelling of 

the glands ; 2. looseness, ya 

yi kworo kworo (my shoe) is 

too big for me. 
kworomi* maikworomi, one 

with sunken eyes. 
kwororo, a bag of cowries; 

see kororo. 
kworto, paramour ; see korto. 

kwosfofi, egg-shells, pi. of 

kosfa, q.v. 
kwosusu, a second annual crop 

of indigo (baba) ; it is regard- 
ed as better than the first, 
kwotami, katami, a hole 

where dirty water is thrown, 
kwdtana, a string of beads 

worn by women round the 

kwotashi, kotashi, a small 

basket with a lid used by 

kwozo, a toad (kwado) with a 

swelling on its back, i.e. a 

sick toad. 
kwozozobo, water course ; see 

kwumbe, baldness ; cf . kumbe. 
kwungura, a large oblong 

shield; see kwangara. 
kwur kwur kwur, the sound 

of running water, M. H. p. 

126; cf. war. 
kwuriya, a stringed drum ; see 

kyache (S.), to threaten, 
kyafa, kyapa, to dry meat 

before a fire so as to preserve 

kyafirflta, sand-fly. 
kyama, disgust, aversion, 
kyang, onomat. the clang of 

metal on metal, 
kyanwa, cat ; see kenwa. 
kyara, a. black horse. 




kyasi, to measure ; see Myasi. 
kyau, well ; see keau. 
kyaure, door ; see kaure. , 
kyauro (K), kyemru (S.), 

arrowHshaft ; see kemru. 
kyaya, louse (in Sokoto); see 

kyerr, tight, used of a string. 
kyetu, kyestu, ketu, a flint ; 

see kastu. 

The letter J is used by the 
Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English I. In a few 
instances the Ar. ^6 (i.e. a 
sort of modified d) is pro- 
nounced by the Hausas as I ; 
cf. fuluhi from Ar. JJ£«a?, 
lullo from Ar. ^£3. In the 
last case and in the case of 
many other words beginning 
with I, the initial letter re- 
presents the Arabic article, 
e.g. labdri from Ar. j-*^., laifi 
from Ar. 01 «-»». In the 
western districts of Hausa- 
land and in the hinterland of 
the Gold Coast an initial I is 
often substituted for r, e.g. 
lua f lafiy liga, like for rua, 
rafi, riga, rike. In these 
districts the feminine forms 
ending in -Isa, -Ita, etc. are 
not used, but the forms -rsa, 
-rta, etc. An I sound is some- 

R. H. D. 

times heard (where perfect 
contact of the blade of the 
tongue with the palate is not 
made) intermediate between 
r and I, thus we find jariri or 
jarili infant. I is inter- 
changed with 8, r, n and h, 
and perhaps with m ; cf. halal, 
halas; fasali^fasara; haberta, 
laberta; labe } robe; linke, 
minka; lumfashi, numfashi. 
la'ada, ladda, a special dis- 
count, a broker's commission. 
The usual commission paid 
to the broker., through whom 
almost every bargain in a 
Hausa market is made, is 
5 p.c. on the amount involved. 
If a man sells anything lada 
woje (lit. discount outside)* 
he receives the whole of the 
money paid and the buyer 
pays the market fee or broker's 
commission; if however the 
transaction is concluded lada 
chikiQit. discount within) the 

seller pays the commission. 
+ * * 
laana, la'na La), pi. laanoni 

(cf. Ar. tJjU), a curse; kai 
lacma a curse be upon thee ! 
kun yi la'na ye have brought 
a curse upon you ; ya yi laana 
it is an accursed thing. 
laanta, laana, laanchi, to 
curse ; ya laaneshi he cursed 





• * 

laasar, fern. (cf. Ar. j-a*, day 
or night), afternoon, esp. 
applied to the time between 
4 and 5 p.m. ; cf . Gr. p. 86. 
The initial letter represents 
the Arabic article. 

labaran, the fast month. 

9 < ^ 

labftri (Ar. j**. with art.), news, 
message, G 7 ; labdrin dunia, 
lit. news of the world. When 
two Hausas meet their first 
question usually is enna labari 
or enna labarin dunia? na 
ji labarinka I heard news of 
you ; laberta to publish news, 
with ace. to publish news of ; 
cf. haberta, id. 

labda, lapta, labda ga to put 
on a load, to put a saddle on, 
to pack up a load ; cf . M. H. 
p. 210, analabduwa shanu the 
oxen were being laden; labche, 
labtache, laden, loaded (cf. 

Ar. ju), saddle-cloth). 

labe (S.), n. a bow-string used 
in cleaning cotton. 

l&be, to crouch down, hide, lie 
in ambush, to seek conceal- 
ment; Idbe ga to hide at or 
under; yaki ya labe) alabe 
concealed ; lababo chikin gari 
to proceed against a town by 
stealth; ZafeisusedinSokoto, 
robe in Kano. 

laberta, to publish news; see 

labi, a small or newly made path. 
l&bo, deceit, wickedness, 
labubu, f. labubua the young 

of an animal. 

l&buda (Ar. j^), certainly, 
to be sure, no doubt, just so. 

labuje, name of town in Nup£, 
given as name to a kola nut 
of a superior kind, it being 
their place of origin. 

l&bu-l&bu, soft, spongy, used 
of mud. 

lSbuni, dam or embankment for 
enclosing and catching fish. 

9' * 

lada (Ar. S^U), wages, pay- 
ment, recompense, reward ; 
E 14 ku same lada you will 
receive a reward ; cf. prov. 
kowa ya chi ladan kuturu ya 
yi masa aski he who takes a 
leper's pay cannot refuse to 
shave him, i.e. if a man takes 
money for a job he must go 
through with it, however dis- 
tasteful it may be. 

lada, commission ; see la'ada. 

9 't 

l&dabi (cf. Ar. wot> liberal 
education), 1. education, e.g. 
B 37 ladabi gaskia a true 
education ; D 33 en kun samu 
yaya ku nema ladabi garesu 
if you have children seek in- 
struction for them; 2. the 




result of education, good 
manners; ya kamata sariki 
shi yi mam ladabi the king 
ought to teach them manners ; 
3. the bowing salutation on 
the knees with hands resting 
on the ground. 
ladftma, grief, remorse; ap- 
parently a form of nadama, 

ladan, ladftni (Ar. o^)> the 

man who calls to prayer, the 

lftdi, 1. Sunday ; 2. name given 

to a girl who is born on a 

Sunday; see lahadi. 
ladin kogi, crocodile bird, 
ladin rogo, sand grouse; cf. 

ktoantatoi, suwaka. 
ladiifi, a humble person, 
lafafa*, see lafia. 
lftfe, to turn back the ears, used 

of a horse, 
lftfe, to sew, to mend ; cf . lafi. ' 
lafero, laheru, leferu, large 

pad on a donkey's back, placed 

on top of akumari, q.v. 
lafi, lafe, hem ; la/en zone the 

hem or edge of the cloth. 
lftfia, pi. lafiyu, lafryoyi (Ar. 

2g$U), health, i.e. good health, 

B 62 ; yin lafia to be in good 
health; common in saluta- 
tions, kana lafia are you well? 
sai lafia or lafia lau quite 

well; used adverbially, e.g. 
ya komo lafia he came back 
here well, or safely; ya samu 
lafia he recovered his health ; 
sauka lafia may you dismount 
safely ! (a farewell to a horse- 
man) ; lafiaye, pi. lafiayazu, 
lafiyeyu a healthy person; 
B 46 allah shi bamu kwana 
lafafa may God grant us 
days of prosperity. 

lafua, a water-cress. 

lagoni, lamp- wick made of twist- 
ed cotton. 

lahadi, lftdi (Ar. jlsfijyj), 

Sunday, lit. the first day. 
l&hanl, blemish, defect; lahani 

ga ido a blemish in the eye. 
l&heru, a donkey's pad; see 


l&hira (Ar. *j^.t), the future 

state including both heaven 

and hell, A 7, 33. 
lai*, see lau. 

Isidore, a shrub ; see raidore. 
laifa*, to condemn ; cf . seq. 

9 0* 

laifi, pi. laifufuka (Ar. s*£*> 
with article), that which is 
wrong, sin, guilt; yin laifi 
to do wrong, bada laifi or 
laifa to condemn, babu laifi 
there is no harm in it; dauki 
laifi to confess a sin or wrong. 

laihi, eunuch. 

laima, damp, mildew. 





laima, tent ; see lema. 

laiya, laya, lahiya (Ar. 
i^fc^iJI , sacrifice) ; saltan lai- 
ya the feast on the occasion 
of the killing of the paschal 
lamb on the 10th day of the 
month Dsul Hiddsha, which 
commemorates Abraham's in- 
tended sacrifice of Ishmael; 
ragon laiya the paschal lamb. 

lajibi (Ar. ^J* ,e with article), 

wonderful, D 90 ; cf . ajaba. 
laka, mire, mud. 
l&ka, spinal marrow. 
lakabi,a nickname, distinguish- 

ing name, title (Ar. *?£))* 

lakhira, see lahira. 

lako lako, softly, gently; 
adaureshi lako lako tie it up 
loosely ; ay aba lako lako yike 
the banana is soft. 

lalaba, lalabe, pi. lalabobi, feel- 
ing, groping, the act of fond- 
ling; B 144 dunia ta kan yi 
lalaba the world, it would 
fondle (you) ; ya juri da la~ 
lobe he is accustomed to grop- 
ing about. 

lalabe, lalaba, to grope in the 
dark, to feel after, search 
with the hand for. 

lalache, to be useless, worth- 
less, idle, to perish, miscarry ; 
cf . lalata. 
lalafa 1. idle lazy; 2. quiet, 

' easy, tame, cowardly; laltz- 
fanchi idleness, quietness, 
easy disposition. 

lalaftu, laplaptu, lalabtu, 
darning; yin I. to darn. 

lalas* to burn with hot iron, 
pass, in F 170 ana mam lalas 
a hot iron shall be (prepared) 
for them ; used of burning or 
marking the skin with a hot 


lalashi or lil&shi, n. coaxing, 
persuasion ; see lallashi. 

lalata, 1. destruction, ruin, 
condemnation; 2. evil dis- 

lalata, 1. tr. to spoil; 2. to 
linger about, to be idle or 
worthless; lalachi idleness, 
indifference, badness; mai- 
lalachi, malalachi one who 
is idle, lalache to perish, be 
destroyed, pass away; B 101 
dunia ta lalache the world 
passes to destruction; lala- 
chewa perishing. M. H. p. 1 98 
yaki zai lalachewa = the war 
will miscarry, lalatache, fem. 
lalatachia, fA.lalatatu, 1. lost, 
perished; B 126 ku ber ta 
dunia lalatache leave the 
world to perish; 2. worthless, 
lalita* a small bag. 
lallaba, to mend, repair; cf. 




lallabe, that which is incom- 
plete, a partial repair. 

lall&sa, to persuade, appease. 

lallashi, n. persuading, appeas- 
ing, coaxing. 

lalle, lenle* need, necessity; 
da lalle of necessity, under 
all circumstances ; lalle ne it 
is necessary or needful, shina 
zua lalle he must needs come, 
en lalle kana so ha zamna da 
shi if you must needs wish to 
stay with him. 

lalle, lelle, the henna plant 
from which a red stain is 
made (Lawsonia inermis, 

lambe (S.), a game played by 

lambu, pi. lambuna, 1. a pole 
weighted at short end with 
mud and with bucket at long 
end for irrigating ground ; 
2. a dry season garden, an 
irrigated garden. 

lambusu, a grass eaten by 

l&mi, pure, tasteless, insipid; 
da lami, id., used of eggs 
without salt or of broth with- 
out meat, etc. ; lami lafia 
very good health. 

lamiranta, to long after, desire 


* * + 

lamiri* (Ar. j+\, ordered), ne- 
cessity, desire, used of the 

obligatory time for morning 
and evening prayers. 

lamuni, lamini (probably from 

* * * . 

Ar. ^>^*)> !• security; wot%- 

kan lamuni letter of safe 
conduct; 2. a surety for pay- 
ment of a debt; mailamuni 

• one who acts as surety; cf. 
M. H. p. 204, hachi na la* 
muncheka I credit you with 
the corn; ladan lamuni a- 
tauri nan it is the price paid 
for my protection here, na 
yi lamuni I stand security. 
lamunta, laminta to be or 
become surety for; constr. 
with accus., also intr. to be 
safe, cf . ba ya lamunta ba ka 
halhi it is not safe for you to 
shoot, lamunche, id., e.g. na 
lamuncheshi I became surety 
for him. 

lamyache (K.), to bind, tie 

up. f)Y&v> L 

lana, curse ; see laana£ 

lana for rana, day, M. H. 
p. 227, allah shi maUana. 

landi, a wanderer. 

langa, lenge, lunge, a chil- 
dren's game, hopping on one 

langabu, the skin of an animal 
beaten, cooked and eaten. 

lange lange, lean, slender. 

langi, lange, lengi, a long 
narrow bag for salt. 




lankosa, lankoahe, to droop, 
used of a leaf, to bend, tr. 
and intr., used of a tree, 
spear, etc.; cf. tankoshe. 

lankoso, drooping. 

lanza*, nuts. 

laplaptu, darning, the' stitch 
used in darning ; see lalqftu. 

lappa*, a cover for a saddle. 

lapta, to load ; see labda. 

laraba* larba ( Ar. v>*)> found 
in comp. balarabe an Arab, 
and its pi. larabawa Arabs; 

laraba (Ar. fimtf)\ j>ji), Wed- 
nesday ; lit. the fourth day. 

larura (Ar. *j$j*b\ 1. neces- 
sity, e.g. E 14 domin larura 
for the sake of necessity ; 2. 
trouble, ya rike larura he 
feels pain, e.g. on receiving 
punishment for wrong-doing ; 
3. needs, wishes, ya tsare da 
larurar sariki he looks after 
the king's interests ; cf. lale. 

laruranta, to hinder. 

lasa, lashe, to lick, lick up; 
of fire, to lick up, consume ; 
cf. prov. hanu maimia aka- 
lasa the hand that has soup 
gets licked (of cupboard love). 

lasabta, lasalta, to enumerate, 
make a list ; see lisafta, 

la&O, a score, used like hauia, 
q.v., for counting amounts 

divisible by twenty, lasa 
biu forty. 

lftso, a composite material used 
in building walls. 

lftsshe lashe, plenty to eat. 

latini, Monday ; see lilini. 

latse, laze, to squash, crush, 
&g. with the foot. 

lau, adv. used with lafia, quite, 
lafia lau or lau lau quite 
well, lau is sometimes used 
in Sokoto without lafia, e.g. 
lau mu ke we are very well. 
It is also used as an inter- 
jection implying denial, de- 
rision or disbelief ; cf . lau ai 
mu gamu (sotto voce) all 
right, wait till we meet ! 

lauashi, the leaves of onions ; 
see lawashi. 

laudi, bending; cf. proverb 
laudi ba karaya ba bending 
is not breaking. 

lauer, a sweet potato; see 

lauje, laushe, a small semi- 
circular sickle for cutting 
grass ; mailauje, mailmtshi a 
man with an arm bent like 
a sickle. 

lauma* loma (Ar. £^4J), a 
mouthful ; B 30 wonda ke 
jiran kabaki dungum. . .ba shi 
kulata da lauma he who 
waits for abundance to eat 
cares not for a mouthful. 




launi, pi. launoni, launoka ( Ar. 

OjjH), 1. colour, hue; 2. kind, 

species ; D 78. 
lauahi, loshi, thin, fine, as 

flour, dust, etc.; cf. roshi. 
lauahi, a sickle ; see lauje. 
laushiwa, being blunt; da lau- 

shiwa blunt. 
lausuru, a plant with edible 

seeds (cUgaru) and leaf like a 

turnip's, one variety has red 

seeds, and a smaller variety 

has black. 
lauya, to twist, to fold, to fold 

one leg over the other, 
lawali (Fulani lawal), a track 

or spoor, 
lawashi = gainyen albasa the 

leaves which sprout from the 

top of an onion. 
lawur, sweet potato, used in 

Sokoto for dankali. 

l&ya, pi. lamaye, layu (Ar. &>t 
with the article prefixed), 1. 
a writing of any kind, 2. a 
certificate of freedom or ma- 
numission of a slave; 3. a 
written charm or armlet, con- 
sisting of a piece of paper 
written on and sewed up in 
a leather bag and worn on 
the neck or arm; ya yi 
laya (lit. he made a charm) 
he vanished ; layan zana a 
charm which renders a man 

invisible ; it is also the name 
of the tree from the fruit of 
which is made the following, 
layan sabani, i.e. a charm to 
prevent injury in war; tum- 
kia mailawaye a sheep with 
two wattles hanging from 
the lower jaw. 

laya, a feast ; see laiya. 

lay&ta, layache, to roll over, 
roll up. 

lazami, lezami, linzami, 
horse's bit; see lizani. 

laze, to crush ; see latse, 

lazumta, lazumche (Ar.^jj), 

1. to adhere to, stick to- 
gether; 2*. to be necessary,, 
e.g. lazumcheni I must do, 
lazumtache obligatory ; cf„ 

lebatu, the wattles of a cock ; 

cf . seq. 
lebo, lebe, pi. lebuna, lebu 9 lip, 
lSdai, spoon ; see Itidai. 
lefe, 1 . a basket used by women 

made of kaba, i.e. palm fibre ; 

2. a present sent by the bride- 
groom to the bride several 
days before the wedding. 

leferu, lafero, pi. leferai, a 
pad for a donkey; see lafero, 

leka, leki, leko, to spy, peep, 
overlook, to look out from a 
doorway ; mi mka leka what 




did they peep at? ba ni so 
kowa shi leko daganan I don't 
want anyone spying in here; 
ci verbal nouns leleka. leke- 
leke. leke. Ukawa. shina leleka 
(or leke leken) dakuna he was 
inspecting the rooms, ya leka 
buta he squinted into the 
bottle, leken gam looking 
over the wall. 

leke, to roll up the covering of 
a doorway. 

leke (S.), the lower part of the 

lSki, 1. leather satchel; 2. a 
piece of cloth thrown over 
the shoulder. 

lekke, to be stretched out, used 
of a dog. 

lela, a dance accompanied by 
music, practised by young 

lele, one much loved, darling. 

lele, to tame, e.g. an animal. 

leleya, to rub or stroke with 
the hands. A children's 
game in which a piece of 
stick is buried in the heap 
of sand, when the sand is 
gradually scraped away. 

lelle, the henna plant, the leaves 
of which are ground up to 
make a stain for the hands ; 
the dye is specially used for 
decorating brides ; see latte. 

lema, damp ; see laima. 

I6ma, laima, Kanuri leima 

. (probably from Ar. £+«^»> a 
tent, with article prefixed ; 

cf. labari, from Ar. >*£»), 

1. tent; kafa lema to pitch 
a tent, ndde lema to take 
down (lit. to roll up) a tent ; 

2. umbrella. 

lemu, lemo (Ar. o>^» Pere - 
Of***)* ^ me » kmon. 

lenge, lunge, to hop on one 
foot; see lange. 

lengi, a sack of salt ; see langi. 

lesafi, counting ; see lisaji. 

lSshi, a cord or stalk on which 
fish are fixed for carrying. 

leso, a grass mat. 

letafi, writing; see litafi. 

leya, to kill for sacrifice; cf. 
saUan leya (or laiya). 

liar, dollar; a word used es- 
pecially by Hausas in N. 
Africa, possibly an inverted 
form of Spanish rial. In 
Nigeria it is used of the 
Maria Theresa dollar. 

lidi, ridi, a cultivated plant 
with white or purple flowers. 
The seeds produce oil and 
are used to make cakes, or 
added with the leaves to soup 
(Sesamum Indicum, Peda- 

lidin barewa, a wild species 
of lidi with divided leaves 




and beaked pods (Sesamum 
lifidi, lifdi, pi. lifida, a quilted 
shirt of mail worn by horse 
soldiers to protect horse and 

its rider (cf. Ar. juJ, to press 


lika, to join one thing to (ga) 

another. like intrans. to 

cleave to : see liki. 

lik&fa, pi. likafuy 1. steps placed 

for mounting a horse; likd- 

fan doki, id. ; 2. stirrup. 

fatan likafa stirrup leather. 

lik&fani (Ar. v>ji), a winding 

sheet ; cf . kafan. 
likaken wuri, a blocked-up 

cowry shell, with the hole at 

the back filled up ; see lika. 
liki, like, to stick to, absorb; 

rana ta like raba the sun 

absorbed the dew. 
lili, a wing feather. 
lilibi, veil ; see lulubi. 
lillashl, to appease ; see lal- 

lilo, n. swinging; wo lilo to 

limam, liman, pi. limami (Ar. 

^&UNI), leader in prayer, chief 

inallam ; limanchi the office 
or practice of a limam. 

lim&na, peace. 

limota (S.), a fool ; cf. loto. 

lingabu, the young twigs or 

buds of the adua tree, also 

a medicine made from the 

leaves of the tree, 
linjlla, the four gospels in the 

N.T. (Ar.). 
link&ya, swimming; yin lin- 

kaya to swim, 
linke (= nunke, q.v., or nimka\ 

to fold cloth, twist strands 

of thread. 

linzami, a bit ; see lizani. 

% * * 

lisafi, lesafi (Ar. y^), num- 
ber, account, bill ; yin lisafi 
to render or come to an ac- 
count, to number, count. 

lisafta, lisabta, lasalta, li- 
santa, to enumerate, make 
a list, reckon up; cf. ba 
ski lisabtuwa it cannot be 

lisha (Ar. ilijUl), about 7 p.m.; 

for list of approximate hours 
of the day see under rana. 
litSfi, letSfi, pi. litdtafi (cf. Ar. 

elegant literature), 

writing, book ; litafin allah 
a name frequently given to 
a butterfly, which is also 
called malam buda litqfinka 
mall am open your book, but- 
terfly, so called from the 
constant opening and shut- 
ting of its wings; another 
common form of the plural 
is litatafai. 






» •* 

lltini, lltinin (from Ar. j># 
i >*Lol), Monday, lit. the 

second day. 

liw&sa, an epithet applied to 
a piece of cloth without a 
seam in it. 

liyar, dollar ; see liar. 

liz&ni, lizami, linzani, n. a 
horse's bit or bridle, linza- 
min riga part of the em- 
broidery on the front of a 

loatse, to crush, bruise ; see laise. 

loatsu, fern, loatsua the young 
of an animal. 

loba, foreskin. 

loda, a herb, the root of which 
is put in milk to keep it. 

lofi or lofln taba, pipe, or 

loga (cf. Ar. iij), the meaning 

of a word, 
lojia, water melon, 
ldkachi, wdkachi (cf. Kanuri 

lokta), probably from .Ar. 

Cij, with article prefixed; 
time, season; lokachinda at 
the time that, or when ; 
wane lokachi when 1 lokacftin 
nan now. 
loko, 1. a temporary halting- 
place for carriers ; 2. a notch 
or projection in a tree for 
resting a load against; 3. 
the stick usually carried by 

porters in order to support 
their loads against a tree 
when halting. 

lokoja, the town at the con- 
fluence of the R. Niger and 
R. Benu£, 290 m. up the R. 
Niger from the sea. 

loloki, pi. lolokai (Fulah id.), 
closet, small dark room, cup- 
board, any secret place. 

loma, a mouthful ; see lauma. 

lonkwashe, to bend or to be 
crooked; cf. lankosa. 

loshi, thin, fine ; see laushi. 

loto, fern, lotua fool. 

loto, lotu, time, i.e. occasion 
or set time ; lotu is also used 
for a. watch or clock. 

lotso, doki mailoteo a horse 
with a depressed or hollow 

lotu, to load, or take up loads. 

lua*, used for rua, water; cf. 
M. H. p. 228. 

lubiya, dates tied up in a 

hide, pi. ludai, ledai, ludayi, 
spoons made from the rind 
of pumpkins. 

ludu, sodomy, from the Arabic 
form of Lot ; cf . luisu. 

lufudi, coat of mail; see lifidi. 

lugude, the action of women 
pounding in a mortar, often 
accompanied by a drum. 

lullo (Ar. ly*o$ with article), 




purification, F 148 note; cf. 
luloki, pi. lulokai, dividing of 

lulu, a small glass box for 
frankincense; it is seldom 
used except in the form dan 

luluba, to veil. 

lulubi or lulube, a long veil 
reaching to the feet. 

lumfasa, to breathe. 

lumfashi, lunfashi (cf. Ar. 
rt v-ju with art. prefixed), 
breathing heavily ; dauki (or 
hade) lumfashinka hold your 
breath; also used idiomati- 
cally en ji lumfashinka let 
me hear what you think, or 
your wishes. 

lumshi, 1. small white clouds ; 
cf. gilgiji ; 2. darkness (S.) ; 
cf . ido ya d&da lumshewa he 
was becoming more blind. 

lunani, thought, remembrance ; 
for tunani, cf. M. H. p. 228. 

lunge, to hop on one foot ; see 

lungu, the inside corner of a 
fence; lungun daki a dark 
corner of a room ; cf. dungu. 

lunka, to fold over ; see linke. 

lunzai, lunthai (Ar. ^1), 

lura, n. insight, wisdom, know- 

lura, to look into, attend to, 
with accus. and also with da, 
e.g. B 41 kada ka lura da 
aiki nai look not closely at 
his work. 

luru, 1. native cloth with alter- 
nate strips of two colours; 
2. a heavy cloth blanket. 

lutsu (Ar.), sodomy; cf. ludu. 

The letter j> is used by the 
Hausas to represent the 
sound of the English m. 
When n is followed by b it 
is usually pronounced m; 
this sometimes happens when 
n is followed by f, z, or ch, 
thus hamfude, hamzari, da- 
bamchi are written hanjude, 
hanzariy dabanchi. 

m&, a contraction of mua, used 
as a prefix to denote the first 
person plural of the future 
tense; cf. Gr. p. 33. 

ma, inseparable nominal prefix 
placed before verbs to form 
1. nouns of the agent, e.g. 
saka to weave, masaka 
weaver; 2. nouns of place, 
ag. sabka to unload, masabki 
lodging; 3. nouns of the 
instrument; cf. dauka to 
take up, madauki handle. 
This use of ma or max as a 
prefix to form nouns of the 




agent, etc. is analogous to, 
or borrowed from, the Arabic 
use of j> for a similar pur- 

pose, thus sLH)> ^° 8nave i 
\J*IJA, a barber; see mai. 

ma, too, likewise; as an en- 
clitic it follows the word to 
which it is referred, e.g. ni 
ma ina tafia en nema dukia 
I too am going to search for 
property; haderi na zua a 
storm is coming, Ans. da ma 
na fadi I told you so be- 

ma, to; na gode ma allah I 
gave thanks to God. It is 
placed immediately after the 
verb ; na dakanta ma sariki 
I waited for the king; cf. 
M. H. p. 224, ya yi ma yaki 
he settled the war. It is 
most commonly used with 
the personal pronouns, e.g. 
maka to thee, masu to them ; 
the vowel is often assimilated 
to that of the governed pron., 
e.g. mini=mani to me, mumu 
— mamu to us, musu = masu 
to them ; maka is frequently 
contracted to ma. 

maabanchi, flattery. 

maabba, mSba (cf. Ar. aJi), a 
beggar who sings the praises 
of a great man ; dan maaba 
used of a town crier. 

maaikachi, pi. maaikata, 1. 
labourer, workman ; 2. work- 
shop ; 3. instrument with 
which work is done. 

maaike, maaiki, pi. mo8uaike y 
maaika, 1. one who sends ; 
2. one sent, esp. used of 
Mohammed, messenger. 

maaiki, fern, maaikia, pi. ma- 
vuaiki, labourer, a servant. 

maaje, a place to lay up 
a deposit or to hide any- 

maaji, a court official in charge 
of the king's treasure; see 

maana, meaning (Ar. .ua*), 
wanan ena maanansa what 
does this mean 1 cf. azenchi. 

maanfaril, useful, a place suit- 
able for keeping anything in, 
e.g. maan/anin nama a meat- 
safe, larder. 

maasai*, blasphemy. 

maauna, maauni, scales, bal- 
ance, anything used for 
weighing or measuring; see 

maaunia, a corn dealer who 
buys from farmers and sells 
in market (a woman's trade). 

mabaachi, a scoffer, vain jes- 
ter; cf. baa. 

mabachi (Katsena), mabar- 
chi (Kano), pi. mabata, a 




mab&ga (S.), watch tower, 
sentry post; cf. bdgo. 

mabaiya, homage; see mu- 

maballi, a buckle, fastening, 
latchet; maballen takalmi a 
shoe strap or lace; see 

mabantari (K.), mabantali 
(S.), button. 

mab&ras, mabarashi, mabu- 
rus, a white material used 
in making turbans, possibly 
= bermu8hi by metathesis. 

mabiriki, maburki, a small 
stick for stirring milk or 

maboya, maboiya, maboyi, 
a hiding-place ; cf. boya. 

mabudi, a key ; cf . bude. 

mabugi, one who beats clothes. 

mabugia, pi. mabugai, a thresh- 
ing-floor; a place where 
clothes are beaten in dyeing; 
cf. buga to beat. 

maburki, a stick with which 
to stir a liquid ; see mabi- 

maburus, a white material 
for making turbans ; see ma- 

mabuya, folly, shina da ma- 
buya — shi marashankali ne. 

machara, used in Kano for 
a species of reed grass. 

machauchi, an animal which 

barks, about the size of a 

mache, pi. mala, woman, female, 
as opposed to namiji male, 
tamache adj. female; mache 
maimiji a married woman; 
yar mache a young woman; 
see mata. 

mache, machi* to die, to 
perish; from this comes the 
]5articip. adj. matache dead, 
q.v. amache is used as a past 
participle for 'dead,' M. H. 
p. 96. machewa - mutua, 

mache, matse, matsa, to 
push, squeeze, crush, force, 
press, amachem push the 
attack home; machiachi, mat- 
8iachi 9 1. one who is dis- 
tressed, perplexed, helpless; 
2. distress, poverty, care. 
machiata, matsiata anxiety, 
distress, machichi squeezing, 
D 14 ; cf. matsu. 

machechi, pi. macheta, 1. de- 
liverer, saviour, intercessor; 
2. deliverance; cf. cheche. 

machechia, intercession, de- 

macheto, a refuge. 

machi* to die, B 102; see 

machi, pi. machia, glutton : 
the plural form denotes also 
a place by the wayside where 



food is sold, also much food, 
abundance of food ; see cJii. 

machiachi, matsiachi, dis- 
tressed ; cf . tsia poverty. 

machiata and machichi, see 

machiji, fern. machijia, pi. ma~ 
chizai (lit. biter, cf. chiji), 
snake; farin machiji a thin 
snake (psammopis sibilans) 
sometimes 6 feet in length, 
it lies along overhanging 
branches of trees; sarkin 
machiji, 1. a black viper 
(atractaspis), 2. a cobra. 

machikura, pi. machiakura, 
one who obtains an undue ad- 
vantage, a cheat, def rauder ; 
from chi, q.v., and kura gain. 

machiri, a mutilating form of 

machirkia, matsirkia, a 
stringed musical instrument; 
cf . tearkia. 

machitsundum (lit. splash- 
maker), * African belted king- 
fisher' (Ceryles rudis); cf. 

machiwa (S.), bile. 

machiyi, he who feeds on . . .ma- 
chiyinka your dependent; cf. 

machuchi, maker of mischief, 
probably a contraction of 

m&da, madda, covetousness ; 

da madda avaricious; yin 
madda to fail to satisfy. 

m&dabi, pi. maduba, a wooden 
beater for pounding clay. 

madachi, the African ma- 
hogany tree, its bark is medi- 
cinal (Khaya Senegalensis, 

madadi-n, in place of, instead 

of; cf. madedi. 
madafa*, pi. madafai ; bu ma,- 

dafa, lit. the father of cannon 

(cf. Ar. yt> father and x^juo, 

cannon), is the name given 
to the Spanish dollar, which 
has cannon impressed upon 
it. The word is used by the 
Hausas in N. Africa. 

madafi, pi. madafai, kitchen, 
stove ; cf . d&fa. 

mad&gi, a shrub with white 
flowers, small bifid leaves and 
black twisted pods (Bau- 
hinia spinosa, Leguminoaae). 

mad&ha, a beggar or mallam 
who sings. 

m&dai, contemplation ; yin 
madai to contemplate, re- 

madaidaichi, pi. madaidaita, 
1. moderate size, average, 
e.g. yaro shina da madai- 
daichi the boy is of moderate 
size; 2. anything of moderate 
size; cf. daidaiche. 




madaji, the plain edge of a 
mat; cf. chinkai. 

madaki, madaiki, a chamber- 
lain, one of the chief officials 
in the Hausa states, in Kano 
the order of precedence is 
sariki, galadima, madaki, in 
Zaria the madaki comes next 
to the king. It is probably 
a contraction of madawaki 
and originally meant master 
of the horses. * 

m&dala (Nupe* id.), yes, in- 

deed, i.e. Ar. a^l Jj U, 

what has God shown! 
madamri or madamrin chiki, 

a girdle ; cf . damre. 
madanbachi, a cooking pot 

with holes pierced at the 

m&dara (cf . Ar. rt jj**), fresh 

or sweet milk, 
madat, madas, a poison ground 

up and used for destroying 

mice, etc. 
madauchi, madabchi, an 

office in Zaria usually held 

by one of the chief slaves. 
madaukaki, the great or high 

one, e.g. a king ; cf. daukaka. 
madauki, handle, that part of 

anything by which it is held 

in the hand ; cf . dauka. 
madawami, fern, madaivamia, 

long lasting, incessant; often 

pronounced madowami ; cf . 

made, the strutting of a woman. 

madebi, a spoon used for 
measuring ; cf . debe. 

madSdi, a substitute ; see ma- 

m&di, madya (F 230), a kind 
of molasses made from the 
fruit of the dumia, taura, 
dinya, or kaiwa tree, or from 

m&diga, used of the spot in a 
baby's skull which pulsates ; 
cf . diga. 

m&digo, immorality between 

madinkia, needle; cf. ma- 
dumki a tailor, from dumke 
to sew. 

madobia, a tree with yellow 
blossoms, and flat winged 
fruit : from its wood spindles 
are made (Pterocarpus erin- 
aceus, Leguminosae). 

m&d5gara, stay, prop, support; 
cf . ddgare. 

madoro, hunchback; cf. doro. 

m&dubi, glass, eye-glass, look- 
ing-glass. The latter is more 
commonly madubin fu»ka\ 
cf . duba. 

madudai* (cf . Ar. js), reckon- 
ed up, B 122. 

madudu (S.), an idler, slow- 




madufa, cannon, M. H. p. 63 ; 
cf. madqfa. 

madugu, pi. madugawa, madu- 
gaiy 1. leader or headman 
of a caravan ; he always walks 
behind, whilst the jagaba 
usually walks in front; 2. the 
title of a prince amongst the 

madumki, fern, madumkia, pi. 
madumkai, madumka, tailor; 
cf . dumke to sew. 

m&dundumi, a small aquatic 
bird which, the Hausas say, 
cannot see except at night : 
the ' darter ' bird, it feeds on 
fish ; cf . dundumi to grope 

m&dya, a syrup, F 230; ci.mddi. 

mafada, pi. mafadawa, council- 
lor, adviser or minister of a 
king; ci.faddwa. 

mafadachi, wild, inclined to 
fight; ct/ada. 

mafaka, a place to lie in wait, 
hiding-place; ci.fako, hako. 

maftlashi, glutton. 

mafalki (S.), mafarki (K.), pi. 
mqfalkai, dream ; yin ma- 
falki to dream ; cf . (?) falka 
to awake. 

mafarauchi, pi. mqfarauta, 

mafarauta, n. hunting. 

maf&ri, beginning, origin; cf. 

m&fashi,maifeshe,pl. mdfasa 9 

brigand, robber. 

mafauchi or mahauchi, q.v., 
a butcher who sells meat in 
the market ; cf . fauta. 

mafauta, n. butchering. 

mafiadi, a crosspiece of wood 
which rests upon two gdfa 
sticks, and supports the roof 
of a house. ♦ 

mafichi, landing-place; &.fUa* 

mafifichi, pb majifita, superior, 
'the great/ wanan mafifichi 
ne ddga wonchan this is su- 
perior to that ; see fifita. 

mafigirma, greater, lit. that 
which surpasses in greatness, 
it is usually followed by ddga. 

mafitsara, 1. bladder; 2. a 
scoop-shaped knife to smooth 
inside or outside of a gourd. 

mafiyawa,more, lit. that which 
surpasses in number, followed 
by ddga. 

mafori, maiforo, instructor; 
see foro. 

mafuchi, mafilfichi (S.), ma- 
ferfichi (K.), mafifichi, a 
fan ; cf . fifita. 

mafuri, a kind of bellows ; cL 

mag&bachi, 1. title of a royal 
official ; 2. a patron, lit. one 
who is in front, pi. magdbata 
great ones. 

magabchi, an enemy ; see gaba. 




magadi, magashi, magaji, pi. 

magada, magata, heir. 

magagachi, fool, senseless, 
B 108 ; cf. gigichi. 

magagari, 1. a tool or rasp for 
sharpening swords, etc. ; 2. 
saw ; see gagara. 

magagi, reeling or staggering 
as of a dying man ; magagin 
berichi stretching one's limbs 
sleepily on awaking. 

mftgaji, a minister of the house- 
hold, esp. of a king's house- 
hold ; magaji (of which maji 
is perhaps an abbreviation) 
is probably formed from gaje 
to inherit ; cf . maji. 

magaji, heir ; see magadi, ma- 

magajiyi, lazy, incompetent; 
from gaji to tire. 

magana (from gani to see), cf. 
shina da magana he is pretty. 

mag ana, pi. maganganu, 1. 
word, vocable; 2. speech, 
language, e.g. magana hausa 
the Hausa language; yin ma- 
gana hausa to speak or to 
know the Hausa language. 
maganan mi ku ke yi what 
are you talking about? al- 
lah shi maimagana ne amma 
ba da baki ba God speaks but 
not with the mouth, M. H. 
p. 228. ktren-magana an in- 
nuendo ; see k&re. 

R. H. D. 

magangami, magama, 1. 
meeting or confluence of 
rivers ; cf. gangama to mix ; 
2. joint of a limb, elbow, 
knee, etc. 

mftgani, pi. maganguna and 
magunguna, 1. medicine, re- 
medy ; mail nag ani a doctor ; 
maganin kuda a strip of 
leather placed over a horse's 
eyes to keep off flies ; maga- 
nin zawo a purgative medi- 
cine; 2. poison (cf. Kanuri 
magali, id.); 3. a charm, 
maganin yaki a charm to 
afford protection in war ; cf . 
prov. maganin gari da nesa 

maganta, discussion, yin ma- 
ganta to hold discussion. 

magantawa, magantirwa, 
council or discussion before 
a king, etc., or with any- 

magaria (zizyphus lotus), a 
bushy tree resembling the 
kurna, with edible fruit about 
the • size of cherries. The 
fruit is pounded and made 
into little cakes tuwon ma- 
garia, and sold at the little 
wayside markets. 

magariar-kura, zizyphus mu- 
cronata, Rhamnaceae. 

magarub, magariba, magu- 

riba (Ar. vj**)> *• ^ ate * n 





the evening, just before sun- 
set, the time between laasar 
and lisha, see rana; 2. the 
magashi, magaji, fern, maga- 
shia, heir ; see magadi. 

magaya, magauchi, pi. ma- 

gata, heartless, unsympa- 
thetic ; cf. gaya evil. 

m&ge, 1. the tame cat; 2. raa- 
gen tented the civet cat, it is 
a native of N. Africa but is 
kept in a state of captivity 
by the Hausas for the sake 
of the frankincense (twrare) 
which is secreted in a double 
pouch under its abdomen. 
idon mage squint ; cf. mu- 

mageduwa, ainhum, i.e. the 
disease in which the bone of 
the little toe becomes gradu- 
ally absorbed and the toe 
eventually drops off; maima- 
geduwa one so afflicted, cf. 
'Hausaland/ p. 152. 

magena, a tree from whose 
leaves a yellow stain is made; 
this mixed with indigo makes 
a green dye. 

magewayi, maigewoye, pi. 
magewaya, spy, scout (in So- 
koto inajewayi) ; cf. gewaya, 

magi, to walk aimlessly. 

magidanchi, a married man, 

because only a married man 
has a house of his own. 

magimpa, maigemfa, a plant 
used to put in a pond for 
stupefying and catching fish, 
one of the leguminosid class 
(Tephrosia vogelii). 

magini, fern, maginia, pi. ma- 
gina, 1. builder, potter; 2. 
an instrument with which to 

magirbi, sickle ; see girbi. 

magirki, pi. magirkai, stones 
put under anything to sup- 
port it ; anything which un- 
derlies something else. 

magiro, pi. magirgira, 1. ghost, 
evil spirit ; 2. one who paints 
his eyebrows and pretends 
to be possessed by a spirit ; 
cf. giro an eyebrow. 

magodi, magoji, a measure ; 
cf. gdda to measure. 

magogora*, tHroat ; see mako- 

magori, a plant with small 
white flowers clustered in a 

magudanchi, mugudanchi, 

pi. magudantai, a slave about 
fourteen years old ; probably 
formed from gida and origin- 
ally applied to a slave born 
in his master's house. 
magudia, a small plant with 
white chaffy flowers (Poly- 




carpaea linearifolia, Caryo- 

maguje, muguje, pi. magu- 
dane, maguda, 1. one who 
runs away in war, or from a 
master; 2. a place of running, 
a line of flight, so a trench 
for carrying away water. 

maguraza, a species of wild 

maguriba, evening ; see magar 

magurji, mugurji, a flat stone 
on which rice, etc. is rolled 
or on which cotton is pressed ; 
dan magurji the stone which 
is used as the roller; cf. gurje 
to press. 

maguzawa, pagan Hausas, 
heathen, a pi. form of bama- 
guje, q.v. 

magwaji, scales, measure ; see 

magwara, a small blue and 
copper-coloured bird, some- 
thing like a swallow. 

mahaifa, 1. birthplace ; cf. Gr. 
p. 137, 1. 11 ; 2. the uterus. 

mahaifi, pi. mahaifa, one or 
both parents. 

mahakumchi, a person in au- 
thority ; see mahukumchi, 

mahalbi, pi. mahalba, masu- 
halbi, 1. bowman, spearman, 
marksman, anyone who dis- 
charges guns or arrows; cf. 

halbi; 2. the constellation 

mahalbiyi, pi. mahalbai, wea- 
pon, implement for hunting, 
mahalichi, maihalichi* pi. 

mahalita, creator; cf. halita. 
mahamudi, white calico used 

in making tobes. 
mah&ram, the first month in 

the Mohammedan year, 
mah&ri, pi. mahara, a raider ; 

cf . hdri. 
maharma, maharama (Ar. 

^Uj^^o), handkerchief. 

mahasadi, one who causes 
trouble or vexation, slanderer, 
persecutor; cf. hasada. 

mahauchi, mafauchi, pi. ma- 

hauta, a butcher, mahauta a 

mahaukachi, fern, mahauka- 
chia, pi. mahaukata, a foolish 
person, a lunatic ; mahauka- 
chin kdre a mad dog; cf. 

mahawara, a black and white 

mahaway i*, an object of terror. 

mahayi, steps, ladder, means of 
ascent; cf. hawa to ascend: 
also a ford or the end of a 
ford ; cf . mashigi the entrance 
to a ford. 

mahayi, pi. mahaiya, a rider. 

mahukumchi, mahukunchi, 

pi. mahukumta, mahukunta, 





a person in authority; cf. 

mai, pi. mam, a nominal pre- 
fix forming nouns of agency 
from verbs, substantives and 
adjectives, e.g. gudu to run, 
maigudu a fugitive; gona a 
farm, maigona the owner of 
the farm ; girima great, mai- 
girima one who is great ; cf . 
prov. mai-uwa da murufu 
bai chin tuo gaya the man 
who has his mother by him 
with the stove will not eat 
uncooked food. The forma- 
tion is closely analogous to 
the Arabic ; cf . ma. Words 
beginning with max which 
are only occasionally used 
will be found under their 
original forms ; thus for mai- 
gudu cf . under gudu. 

mai, frequently used in con- 
versation for masa to him ; 
cf . nai for nasa. 

mai (Ar. %**), oil or grease of 

any kind, e.g. butter, the fat 
of meat; main shanu cow 
butter, main j a palm oil, main 
g8da oil obtained from ground 
nuts, main kadanya oil from 
seeds of shea butter tree, main 
ridi oil obtained by distilla- 
tion from sesamum seed, main 
8hafewa ointment of any kind. 

maia, to return, go again ; see 

maiabu, or in construct form 
maiabin, one. who possesses 
something, the owner, the 
proprietor; the pi. masuabu 
is often used for wealthy 

maiaddini, pi. mamaddini, a 
religious person ; see addini. 

maiagazawa*, maiagajewa, 
helper, F 106. 

maiajia, store-keeper ; cf . ajia. 

maialgus, maialgnsu, deceit- 
ful person ; cf . algus. 

maiamfadi (S.), door-mats for 
hanging over a doorway. 

maiaro, tenant, one who hires 
a farm from the maichi or 
holder; cf. aro. 

maiata, misfortune; see ma- 

maibada, pi. mambada, giver; 
cf . bada. 

maibaiwa, generous, M. H. 
p. 194. 

maibarra, one who begs in the 
name of God, the professional 
beggar, contrast mairoko ; cf . 

maichara, maishara, 1. cock, 

lit. the one who crows ; 2. 

the reed of a wind instrument ; 

cf. clia/ra. 
maichi, owner, proprietor ; 

sariki maichi the reigning 




king, in contrast with fitachen 
sariM the deposed king ; cf . 
chi to gain possession of. 
maida, to turn, change ; cf . da 
shi talaka ne amma ammai- 
dashi 8arki he was formerly 
a poor man but he is changed 
into a king; then with various 
modifications of the idea we 
have maida kamna C 9 to 
direct the desire, na maida 
kamna gareshi I like him, 
D 6 maida hxma to pay at- 
tention to or to do quickly, 
maida kansa to pretend, E 6 
maida addinin ama to imi- 
tate the religion of the hea- 
then, maida baya to put be- 
hind, to degrade, to cause to 
do, e.g. ya maidashi shi kwan- 
che he caused him to He down ; 
to turn or change in value, 
e.g. sariki ya maida kurdin 
mada/a sulli biu the king has 
changed the value of the 
Spanish dollar to 2*., kada 
ka maida mutum abin wofi do 
not put down a man as a 
worthless thing. In this last 
instance maida is used in the 
sense which is usually attach- 
ed to mayerda. mayes used 
without an object is equi- 
valent to maida : na mayes 
masa da magana I answered 
him ; ka mayes = ka komo da 

shi. mayer masa hand it 
over to him; mayesda, ma- 
yerda to send back, to return; 
cf. mayesdashi put it away, 
also to translate, e.g. a letter; 
maishe is used before a pro- 
noun, F 207 jahimi na ji ta 
maishesu the fire, I under- 
stand, shall change them ; ya 
maisheni bawa he made me a 

o * 

maida* (Ar. SjuU), table. 

maid&fua, cook ; see ddfa. 
maidagirima, n. gratitude, 
maidalili, 1. with reason; 

see dalilL 2. a kind of 

maidaukan-kaya, a carrier; 

cf. maikaya the owner of a 

maidere, lord of the night, 

M. H. p. 227. 
maidilanchi* trader; cf. di- 

maidoro, humpbacked, 
maidumi, warm, fresh, used 

of milk or of cooked food ; 

see dumi. 
maiesa, why? cf. mayesa. 
maifefeto, winged, M. H.p. 158; 

cf . faifeto, 
maifeshe, pi. mamfeshe, robber, 

brigand ; see mafashi. 
maifltina, a tease ; see fitina. 
maiflto, ferryman ; cf . fito. 




maiforo, mafori, instructor; 

cf. foro. 
maifochi, one who gasps for 

breath; ci.fuchi. 
maigaraji (S.), a man who 

talks fast without stopping 

to think ; cf . garaje. 
maigaskia, an honest man ; 

cf. gaskia. 
maigero, with eyebrows, M. H. 

p. 205 ; cf. gera. 
maigewoye, majewaye, spy ; 

cf . gewoye. 

maigobe, lit. possessor of to- 
morrow ; cf . ubangijinmu 
maiyo maigobe He (God) is 
our lord to-day and for ever. 

maigona, pi. masugona, posses- 
sor of a farm ; cf. gona. 

maihakia, a man with only 
one eye ; cf . hakia a disease 
of the eyes. 

maihalichi*, creator, see ma- 

maihari, a single isolated 
warrior on horseback ; cf. 

maihaya* (Ar. 31*^.), the liv- 
ing One, ie. God. 

maii, intoxicated, e.g. with gia 
or barassa. 

maiikochi, possessor of power, 
M. H. p. 228. 

maijia, one-eyed ; cf . ijia. 

maijika, lit. possessor of the 
bag, a kind of stork. 

maikai, a person with a large 

maikamsir, a flint-lock gun; 
see kamsir. 

maikari*, scorpion. 

maikasala, a beggar who re- 
fuses to work ; cf. kasala. 

maikatarta*, one who trem- 
bles; cf. makarkata, maker- 

maikeau, maikiyo, beautiful, 
good ; cf . keau. 

maikeri, blacksmith ; see ma- 

malkesua, a firefly; see ma- 
ke sua. 

maiki, vulture, Gr. p. 137, 
1. 12 ; cf. meke. 

maikinji, 1. enemy; 2. a hard- 
headed or stubborn person:; 
cf . ki. 

maiki ra, blacksmith ; see md- 

maikiso, fern, rnaikisia, hair- 
dresser ; cf . kiso. 

mai-M-wuya, maikiuya, a 
man who refuses to work, 
M. H. p. 147; cf. ki, cf. 
yaro ba ki vruya a name 
given to a large iron needle 
used in thatching roofs. 

maikiyo, beautiful; see mai- 

maikoda, fern, maikodai, a 
person seeking employment 
or hire; cf. koda. 




maikoda, maikodia, a woman 
who pounds corn ; cf . prec. 

maikoiy a, maikoya, a teacher; 
see koiya. 

maikora, a bald man ; cf . Jcora. 

maikoto,beak ; cf. koto to peck. 

maikunche, a wrestler ; cf . 
kunche to loosen. 

maikurmusu, one who eats 
on the sly, greedy ; see kur~ 

maikwaraka, a glutton, used 
esp. of a man who lives by 
begging food, M. H. p. 147 ; 
cf . kwarika. 

maikwarda, one with a bent 
arm ; cf . mailauje. 

maikwazo, a diligent or ener- 
getic person ; see kwazo. 

maikworomi, one with sunken 
eyes; cf. kworomi. 

mailazuuni, one who goes bail 
or surety for another. 

mailamunta, one who is surety 
for payment of a debt; cf. 

mailana* for mairana, lord 
of the day, M. H. p. 227. 

mailauje, one with an arm 
bent like a sickle; cf. mai- 


mailoma, glutton; cf. loma a 

maimade, one fond of display ; 

see made. 
maim&gani, a doctor. 

maimageduwa, one who has 
lost his little toe ; see mage- 

maimai, n., 1. tilling the 
ground, heaping up the earth 
round a plant when it has 
grown to a height of about 
three feet, especially used of 
digging round yams ; 2. yin 
maimai, applied to writing, 
to blot out or erase, to 
repeat an action; cf. na yi 
maimai I have written it 
twice over, ka maimaita abu 
you have repeated it. 

mai-mai, the owner or seller 
of butter ; also of meat, juicy, 
with plenty of fat in it ; cf . 


maimaita, to repeat again and 
again, maimaichi repeatedly. 

maimalaka* ruler, M. H. p. 
228 ; cf. malaka. 

maimeki, maimaki, mai- 
mako, 1. that which is 
parallel or like to something 
else: 2. a substitute for 
something else ; 3. maimekin 
is used as a preposition 'in 
exchange for.' 

mai-muwa (S.), our lord, our 

maina*, 1. cf. Kanuri id., a 
prince ; used only of the son 
of a king; 2. a species of 
large antelope. 




mainauwa*, a man who goes 
slowly or deliberately; cf. 
nauwa weight. 

mainema, a profligate or pros- 

mainidai* (cf. Ar. tjJ), one 
who calls. 

mainya, manya, pi. of baba 
great. It is frequently re- 
peated for the sake of em- 
phasis, e.g. mainya mainya 
mutane very great or very re- 
spectable persons ; cf . maiya 
maiya; Gr. p. 137, 1. 14. 

mairaki, a coward ; see raid. 

maireda, miller, proprietor of 
a mill; cf. marede a mill- 

malroko, pi. maroka, a man 
who begs by cajolery or flat- 
tery, contrast maibdra. 

mairowa, a grasping, covetous 
person ; cf . rowa, marowachi. 

mai'sa, mesa, misa, a python, 
said by the Hausas to eat 

maisaida, pi. masusaida, one 
who sells, salesman; cf. saida. 

maisanda achi goriba (man- 
wit h-a-stick eat thedum palm 
fruit), the name given to a 
particular kind of cloth. 

maisane, thief, usually applied 
to a robber who steals openly ; 
cf. sane. 

maisanko, bald ; see sanko. 

a 7 J . 

maisarari, spacious; cf. sa- 

maisari, a retailer of goods, 
a peddler ; cf . save to cut up. 

maishaida*, pi. masushaida, 
a witness ; cf . shaida. 

maishako, a man with a cold 
in the head ; cf . shaka. 

maishe, to change ; see maida. 

mai-shi, pi. masu-shi, owner, 

maita, 1. witchcraft ; 2. a man 
who utters charms which 
cause the death of another ; 
cf. maye. 

maita'adi, mischievous, des- 
tructive ; see ta'adi. 

mait&rian-hainya, a highway 
robber; cf. tdre. 

maits&ri,maitsaro, a guardian 
or custodian ; see ts&ra. 

maitsia, a poor person; see 

maitsini, sharp pointed (used 
of needles); cf. maikarifi, 
sharp (used of a knife). 

maiwa, the species of gero 
(millet) which ripens with 
the dawa in December. 

maiya, a great one; see 

maiya, sorceress ; see maye. 

maiyanchi, age, honour, im- 
portance; see mainya. 

maiyani, mayani, handker- 
chief; cf. yane. 




maiyawa, jA.ma8uyawa,much, 
many; cf. yawa. 

maiyelwa, spacious ; cf. yelwa. 

maiyesa, a colloquial expres- 
sion, for what cause, why? 
see mayesa. 

maizache*, meditating; cf. 

maizumba, a rogue, one who 
refuses to restore a pledge or 
who buys a thing and runs 
away without paying for it ; 
see zamba. 

majajaiwa, majejawa, ma- 
jaujawa, majujawa,asiing, 
slinging .(a stone). 

majarabchi* a villain; cf. 

majayi, a girth or girth-strap; 
cf. kaitara, bauji. 

maje, the copaiba tree, a large 
tree from which a sweet scent 
is obtained (Daniellia thuri- 
fera, Leguminosae). 

majemi, pi. majema y a tanner; 
also used of a tanning block. 

majewaye, magi way e or 
maigewoye, scouts, spies; 
cf . jewayi, gewaya. 

maji or maje (perhaps a short- 
ened form of magaji 9 q.v.), 
one of the chief officers of 
a king : another possible de- 
rivation is from maaje one 
who stores (the king's goods); 
see maaji. 

majibari, a moth. 

majidi, a lodging house. 

majiga, majigi, a red dye 
made from the pounded wood 
of a tree and used in staining 
the body. It is sold in 

maji-kira, an attendant who 
listens for a call, an orderly. 

mSjIna, a cold, cold in the 
head, mucus, sickness ; hura 
majina to blow the nose ; cf . 

majinachi, majinyachi, ma- 
jiyachi, one who is sick, an 
attendant on a sick man ; cf . 

majinachia, blood letting ; cf. 

majinata*, one who gives 
water or acts as an attendant 
in time of sickness ; majina- 
taka thy water-bearer, B 59 ; 
see jinia. 

majin&ya (K.), vein; see jini. 

majingini, pillow; seejingina. 

majiya, pi. majiyata y nurse; 
cf. majinachi. 

majujawa, a sling ; see maja- 

majusi, pi. majusawa (Ar. 

), heathen, lit. a ma- 

gian, sometimes pronounced 
maguji; cf. bamaguje. 

mak&da* (Ar. jl&o), being on 

j * 




the point (or, one who is 
on the point) of doing any- 

makadaichi or mukadaichi, 
sole, only ; shi makadaichi 
he only ; cf . kadaichi. 

makadashi, makadas, a re- 
gent or one who holds an 
office in another's absence. 

mak&di, a drumstick, a drum- 
mer ; cf . maikidi. 

makafche, to become blind, 
to be blind ; see makamche. 

makafchi*, a tiller of the 
ground; cf. kafa to dig. 

mak&fo, fern, makqfua (S.), 
makaunia (K.), pi. makdji, a 
blind man ; cf . kafo, id. 

makafta, makanta, makam- 
ta, makopchi, blindness. 

makagara, objection ; cf . (?) ga- 

makalechia, a thin stick made 
from a corn stalk and used 
in thinning cotton with the 
bakan shiba. 

makama, 1. the title of a 
royal officer ; 2. the chief of 
the police. 

mak&ma, that which lays hold 
or is laid hold on, hence the 
handle of anything = kota. 

makamche, makanche, ma- 
kafche, 1. to become blind, 
to be blind ; 2. to dazzle the 
eyes, wolkia ta makamcheka 

the lightning has dazzled 

thine eyes, 
makami, pi. makammai, 

wound ; anyi masa makami 

he was wounded, 
makangari, a rebel ; see kan- 

makankara, one to rub out, 

A 38, a knife used for erasing ; 

cf. kankara, 
makankari, a mussel shell. 
makanni, a platform from 

which guardians of crops 

drive away birds, 
makanta, makamta, blind- 
ness ; cf . makafta. 
mak&ra, to be late in starting 

or doing anything ; D 23 ku 

her makara da salla leave off 

saying your prayers late ; mai- 

makdra one who is late. 
mak&ra, n. lateness, cf. na yi 

makdra I am late. 
makara, the basket of palm 

fronds in which kola nuts 

are packed for the march, a 

load of kolas. 
makaranchi, fern, makaran- 

chia, a scholar ; cf . karatu. 
makaranta, school; cf. karatu. 
makarfo, makarufo, a tree 

from which medicine is 

obtained (Dalbergia sp., Le- 

makari, a complainant; cf. 





makftri, end of anything, e.g. 
the end of a book ; maharin 
kasa a boundary ; cf . proverb 
abu maiwuya shina da maka- 
rinsa the thing which is diffi- 
cult comes to its end at last ; 
makarin berchi the last sleep, 
i.e. death ; cf. hare. 

makftri, a shield made of skin. 

makari, prop or support to 
prevent anything falling, any- 
thing placed under something 
else, e.g. stones placed under 
a bag to keep it off the 

makariachi, makaryachi, pi. 

makariata, a liar ; cf . karia. 
makarkata, one who trembles, 

adj. trembling; see makerketa. 
makarwa, partridge ; see ma- 

makftsa, a vital spot (fr. kashe 

to kill) ; ya sameshi a makasa 

he hit him in a vital spot, 
makasari, makassari, fern. 

makasaria, halt, lame, 
makashi or makasshinkai, 

a murderer, 
makaskachi, pi. makaskasta, 

poor, oppressed ; cf. kaskasta 

to despise, 
mak&ta, to stick with a hook, 
makaunia, fern, of makafo, a 

blind woman, 
makaurachi, a place of migra- 
tion to, a new site ; cf . kaura. 

makauyo, headman of a vii 
lage (kauyi). 

makawa, resistance, objection, 
that which can create a 

makaya, porcupine; see kaya 
thorn ; cf . makibia, begua. 

make, to seize, lay hold of, to 
take under the arm. 

make*, to be hung up, get 
fixed in (a tree), v.n. makewa. 

makelachi, one who stares, 
generally used in a bad 
sense ; also used in the sense 
of cruel, M. H. p. 96 ; ci.kdlo. 

m&k3ra, an anvil, blacksmith's 
shop, v. Mr a to forge ; cf. seq. 

mftkeri, maikeri, maikira, 
pi. makera, mttkira (Z. ), black- 
smith ; sarikin mtikira the 
title of one of the principal 
officers of the court at Zaria. 

makerketa or makarkata., 
trembling or shivering with 
fear or cold. 

makSro, pi. makerori, a large 
sore, ringworm. 

makerua, makarwa, makor- 
wa, pi. makware, a red-legged 
partridge, francolin (in So- 
koto fakara is used). 

makesua, maikesua, a fire- 
fly ; cf . dimin-dawa. 

maketachi, pi. maketata, work- 
er of evil, cruel ; cf . keta. 

maketari, a ford; karamin 




maketari a shallow ford ; cf. 

mashigiy and mahayi. 
makewaye, latrine, closet ; cf. 

makiayi, herdsman ; see ma- 

makibia, porcupine; lit. pos- 
sessor of arrows ; cf . makaya, 

makidi, a player on a musical 

instrument, esp. on a drum; 

cf. kidi. makadi. 
makinkiro, a disease affecting 

the hair. 
makiraye, messenger; see kira. 
makisake, hearing news before 

it is officially reported; cf. 

kisa (Ar.) news, 
makiyachi, one who refuses 

or dislikes labour; see ki y 

makiyaya, a place for feeding 

cattle ; see makiyaye. 
makiyaye, pi. makiyaya, herds- 
man, also applied to one in 

charge of horses. 
makiyi, mikyi, pi. makiya, one 

who hates, adversary; see 

mako, discomfort. 
makobchi, neighbour ; see ma- 


makodaichi, makwadaichi, 
covetousness, makwadaita 
covetous ; cf . kodai. 

makodi, pi. makodai, the 

smooth flat stone used for 

smoothing a grindstone. 
makofchi (S.), makwabchi 

or makochi (K.), pi. makota, 

makqfta, makoshe, neighbour, 

also the next in rank to. 

makoshen sariki the king's 

head warrior. 
makdgoro, makogwaro, pi. 

makogorai) throat ; cf . ma- 

makoiyi, makoyi, a scholar; 

cf . koiya. 
makdki, lamentation, esp. used 

of lamentations at a funeral, 
makoko, swelling or wen on the 

throat; also used of 'Adam's 

apple ' in the throat, 
makokofo, green woodpecker; 

cf . kofa. 
makoma, end, ran makoma 

the last day. 
makonchi, a grave, 
makopchi, blindness ; see ma- 

makopkoffi, the 'coppersmith 

makorwa, partridge ; see ma- 

makoshi, makwoshi, throat; 

wanken makoshi a gargle, 
makoyi, scholar ; see makoiyi. 
maku, heavy rain, in tens, form 

mamako, q.v. ; see malka. 
makuba, husk of the locust 

bean dorowa. When steeped 




in water the liquid is 
sprinkled over newly laid 
walls and floors to bind to- 
gether the surface. 

makubchi*, neighbour ; see 

makubli (S.), pi. makublai, 1. 
key ; 2. button ; cf. kubli to 

makublia, pi. makubla, a fe- 
male slave, concubine; see 

makukubi, a black and white 

makulli (K.), lock. 

mftkttra, n. 1. choking; 2. a 

m&ktlre, to choke. 

makuri* (cf. Ar. >£»U), to 

deceive; C 18 ita makuri she 
acts deceitfully ; cf. M. H. 
p. 227. 

makurma, a species of ante- 
lope; cf. kuvmi. 

makuru, a woman's loin cloth. 

makurua, throat ; cf. makure, 

makusata, relatives; see kusa. 

makwadaita, covetous, greedy; 
cf. kodaL makodaichi. 

makwalla (K.), a place where 
idle persons sit and jeer at 
passers by; cf. kw&la. 

makwanche, makwonche, 
1. a place to lie down, a 

sleeping-place, den, lair; 2. 
a burial-place; cf. kwana. 

makwoiwa, a species of red 
travelling ant, smaller than 
the kwariktvasa, it eats white 

makwoiyo, pi. makwoyai, vil- 
lage headman ; cf. Jcauye (%). 

mala, pi. malalaki, a large 
leather bag such as is carried 
by a blind man to hold 

malafa, malfa, pi. mdlafunay 
mcUqfai, a large hat made of 
plaited straw; also used of a 
plaited straw mat (in Sokoto 
tvundi). y 

malaika, pi. malaiku, angel. / ^ * 

malaka, mallaka, n. property, 
government; cf. pro v. dbin 
chikin aljifu maUakan mai- 
riga ne that which is in 
the pocket is the property 
of the owner of the cloak ; 
i.e. all that a son or a slave 
has belongs to his father or 
master ; maimallaka ruler, 

malaka, mallaka, mallaki, 

before a n. obj . ; mallake before 

* * * 
a pron. obj. (Ar. dUU), to rule, 

reign, govern ; mallaki bawa 
to own a slave, 
malala, n. a flood, plenty; ma- 
lala ya yi there was abund- 




malala, to flow out, fill up, 
spread over, suna malala du- 
nia they overrun the world. 

malalachi, f. malalachia, pi. 
malalala, 1. idle person, idler; 
2. wicked person ; cf. lalata. 

mftlam, malami, pi. mdlamai 

(cf . Ar. j£&), a learned man, 
a doctor; baban malami a 
great scholar or doctor in 
learning; often used as a 
title, e.g. mdlam musa. ma- 
lamin daji is a common title 
of a jackal ; a feminine ad- 
jectival form malama is occa- 
sionally found ;cf.M.H. p. 208. 

malfa, a straw hat ; see malafa. 

malika* maliki* angel ; see 

malka (S.), marka (K.), ma- 
ku, heavy rain, e.g. rain 
lasting all day ; cf . sarqfa. 

malle, a species of guinea-corn. 

malmala, a ball of tuo, one 
man's ration ; cf . dunkule a 
ball of fura. 

malmo, marmo, a tree with 
fragrant flowers and leaves 
and a black or purple berry 
(Eugenia owariensis, Myr- 

malmon-biri, a tree with a 
white flower and small purple 
fruit like a damson. 

malolo, the pouch of a bird; 
see maroro. 

malufi, velvet ; see mulufi. 

malwa [perhaps a contraction 
of malulua, a plural form 
of mart, q.v.], leg-irons ; cf. 

mama (cf. (?) Ar. >!, mother), 

a woman's breast. 
mama, mami, mame (Z.), to 

attack, fall upon a town. 

mamftbi, fear, anxiety. 

mamachi, fern, mamachia, a 
dead person. 

mamachi, dead = mataclie. 

mam&ki or abin mamaki, 
anything wond erful ; yin ma- 
maki or jin mamaki to won- 

mamako, a heavy downpour ; 
see maku. 

mamare, to feel for or grope 
about with the hand for any- 
thing; cf. mare. 

mamari, a sort of plank with 
which to beat a floor; also 
used as a v. to plaster a floor. 

mamari, marimari, muri- 
muri, large fish-hooks at- 
tached to a line. 

mamaya, n. something unex- 
pected, a surprise attack. 

mamaye, mame, suddenly; 
yin mamayi to be astonished. 

mamayi, pi. mamaya, heir, 
e.g. to a kingdom (used to 
translate Khalif), successor, 




deputy, substitute; cf. mai- 

mamumi (Ar.), a worshipper 
in a mosque. 

mamuna, ugly ; see murnona. 

mana, if you please, of course, 
then, etc. ; zo mana come if 
you please ! rarely used in 
writing but extremely com- 
mon in conversational Hausa. 

mana (K.), mana (S.), to us. 

mana, mani, to press, cling 
to, tr. and intr. ; kainka ku 
manashi da bango press your 
head against the wall; ina 
manawa da shi it is pressing 
against it. 

if *• 

manaa* (Ar. ^jl«), meaning, 
manafuchi, deception ; see 

manche, to forget ; see manta. 
manda (a Bornuese word), 

black salt from Bornu. 
man da war i, sewing-thread. 
mando, a blight on guinea- 
corn, etc. 
mandua, bracelet; see mun- 

mangala, the pack saddle for 

a donkey or ox with pockets 

for water pots, etc. 
mangara, mangare, to kick, 

to kick backwards with the 

heel as in boxing. 
mani, to me, for me ; see ni ; 

sun yi mani or ayi mani I 

manmaza*, contracted from 
maza maza, or malmaza, very 

manomi, 1. planter, cultivator; 
2. sowing-time. 

manta, manche, to forget, 
err, make a mistake, man- 
tua forgetting, forgetfulness, 
error, mistake ; yin mantua 
to forget, to make a mis- 

mantanpas (S.), a muzzle- 
loading gun. 

mantawa, a parasitic plant 
with fern-like leaves and 
green pendent fruit which 
is sold as a love charm. 

manti, swagger ; cf . takama. 

manuni, forefinger; see nuna. 

manya, pi. of baba, great. 

manzani* (cf. Ar. Crtj*)> Dar " 

ber ; see wanzami. 

manzo, pi. manzani, 1. mes- 
senger, esp. one sent by a 
king ; yin manzo ga to send 
a messenger to ; 2. manzo is 
often used as a title of an 
official at court. 

m&ra, loins, used generally for 
hypogastric region. 

m&ra, the odd numbers; cf. 
chika ko m&ra even or odd. 
allah mdra ne God is one. 




m&ra, to take up with the hand 
or in a spoon. 

m&ra, 1. to strike ; 2. rattling ; 
ka ji kachokacho ina ma/ra 
dost thou hear the pod rat- 
tling? see mare. 

mara, a calabash with a piece 
broken out, a broken pot; 
also used to denote a small 

mara, without ; see maras. 

m&raba, marhaba, an excla- 
mation of welcome (cf. Ar. 

marabi, that which separates 
or divides; cf. ena marabin 
wanan da wanclian what is 
the difference between this 
and that ? Also, the person 
who distributes, giver. 

marftdi, mur&di (cf. Ar. >tj), 
a searching after, what is 
sought for, desire; maradin 
mutane that which men desire. 

maradi, a slanderer. 

marai, a small bird with red 
plumage which feeds on 

maraichi, orphanhood ; cf . 

maraita*, a going away, C 29 
gawa ra maraita lahira a 
corpse on the day on which 
the dead man sets out for the 
next world, maraita also de- 

notes to depart in the evening 
and maraito to come in the 
evening: possibly it is formed 
from the same root as mareche 

maraka (S.), heavy rain; cf. 

mar&ki, mareki, fern. maraka y 
pi. marukka 9 maraku, calf up 
to two years; dan maraki a 
bull calf, yar maraki cows. 

maraki, marako, a fellow- 
traveller, a spare man or 

maran lebo, the lip disk (pe- 
lele) worn by certain pagan 
tribes embedded in the lips. 

mararabi, an intensive form 
of raba, 1. divided, different ; 
2. division, mararabin hainya 
the meeting-point of two or 
more roads; muraraba y a 
plural, is sometimes used for 
regions which are divided. 

ma-raraki, one who bores, a 
gimlet, a sieve ; see rarake. 

marari, a small grass basket 
used in making bread for put- 
ting flour and water in. The 
water is strained out ; cf . 

maras-, fern, marashia-^ pi. ma- 
rasu~, maro8a-, a negative pre- 
fix, denoting the absence of 
a thing in the same way as 
Mess 1 in English, e.g. ma- 




raskumia shameless, maras- 
hankali senseless, maraskarifi 
powerless, e.g. marasa-kumia 
shameless people, marasa-lafia 
sick people; formed from rdsa 
to be without. 

maratayi, handle, suspender, 
peg ; maratayin kansakali 
sword-string or belt; also 
used in Sokoto like ragaya 
(K.), q.v., for the slinging of 
a calabash from the roof; cf. 

marauchi, a riddle. 

maraya, 1. a cave in rocks, 
hiding place ; 2. ambush. 

maraya*, a large town or city. 

maraya, a strap round a horse's 
head fastened to the bridle. 

mar&ya, fern, marainia, pi. 
mardyu, orphan. 

marbika* (cf. Ar. rt *iXjj), 
confusion ; used adverbially, 
su komo marbika they re- 
turned in confusion. 

mftre, m&ra, mari,to strike, to 
give a blow with the hand. 
mariy pi. marumari, a blow, 
a stroke, marmarawa, strik- 
ing repeatedly. It is specially 
used to describe the hand-over- 
hand stroke in swimming. 

marea, mareya, mariya (cf. 

•a ^ 
Ar. <L>jU, wild cow), a red 

cob antelope, Buffon's cob. 
mareche, evening ; da mareche 

R. H. D. 

in the evening; mareche ya 
yi the evening came on. 

marede, pi. maredai, millstone ; 
maireda a miller, or proprietor 
of a mill. 

marefia (S.), a net for fishing ; 
cf . r&fa. 

mareki, calf ; see mardki. 

marena, testicles. 

marenia, f. a nurse. 

mareta, to depart in the even- 
ing ; see maraita. 

marga, a tree with yellow 
blossoms like laburnum. 

margi, a spear used for throw- 
ing, harpoon. 

marhaba (S.), welcome; mar- 
habshe to welcome ; see ma- 

mari, a large species of fish. 

m&ri, pi. marurua, malulua 9 
fetters; see malwa. mdrin 
kusu (mouse's irons) a thorny 
plant like spinach used medi- 
cinally ; cf. kayar kusu. 

m&ri, pi. marumari, mare mare, 
a blow ; see mare. 

marike, a tree ; see marke. 

mariki, pi. marika, handle; 
cf. rike. 

marikichi, a deceitful person, 
esp. one who pretends to buy 
but steals ; cf . rikichi. 

mariko, custodian, jailer; cf. 

marili, oryx ; see mariri. 





marili* (Ar. 


), sick. 

marimari, fish-hooks ; see ma- 

m&rina, pi. mdrinai, a dye-pit, 
a deep hole in which cloth 
is left to soak in indigo dye ; 
for a description of the dye- 
pits of Kano, cf. M. H. p. 57. 
mdrini, pi. masurini, dyer, 
dye-worker, proprietor of a 
dye-pit ; cf . rina. 

mariri, marili, oryx. 

marka, used in Kano for malka 
continuous rain. 

marke, marike, a tree with 
small pale leaves and balls 
of whitish flowers. Its wood 
is durable and resists white 
ants (Anageissus leiocarpa). 

marmara, 1. stones collected 
together, e.g. those placed 
round a well to keep it from 
falling in; 2. a rocky or 
stony piece of ground; 3. 
(K.) stones for building. 

marmarawa, redupl. parti- 
cipial form of mare, striking 

marmari, desire; yin marmari 
to be fond of, to like; esp. 
used of anything sweet to 
the taste; abin marma/ri a 
delicacy, the verbal form is 

marmara, marmaro, maro- 

maro, a spring or fountain 
of water. 

marmashi, crumbs, remains 
of food. 

marm&ta, eunuch. 

marmo, a tree ; see malmo. 

marokachi, begging ; cf . roko* 

maromaro, a spring ; see nuir- 

maroro, malolo, 1. double 
chin or a swelling under the 
chin ; 2. crop of a bird. 

marowachi, 1. greed, greedi- 
ness ; 2. a greedy, selfish per- 
son; cf. rowa. 

marsa, large selected kola 
nuts; cf. 8aranwaga large 
and small kolas mixed, minu 
little kolas. 

martabba* (Ar.), honour, dig- 

marubuchi, pi. marubuta, a 
writer, scribe ; see rubuta. 

marude, mairude, pi. maruda y 
one who tempts, deceives or 
misleads; cf. rude. 

marufi, pi. marufai, a covering 
of any kind, a cork stopper ; 
marufin kofa door, i.e. usually 
a mat let down in front of a 
doorway; cf. rufe, 

maruru, boil, abscess, prob- 
ably derived from rua water. 

marwa, pain. 

marwashi, a ramrod. 

m&sa, a cake or small round 




piece of bread made with rice 
and dawa such as is dipped 
into broth, juyen-masa (turn- 
ing over the cake), an ex- 
pression used to describe the 
action of pulling up on a 
horizontal pole and turning 
over legs foremost between 
the arms. 

m&sa*, quickly ; see maza. 

masaala (Ar.), question, mat- 
ter, ga masaalar, touching, 
as regards. 

mas&ba, pi. masabai, a large 
hammer used by blacksmiths. 

masabi, masebi, 1. flint and 
steel for striking a light; 
2. a bow-shaped instrument 
used for cleaning and pre- 
paring cotton = bakan sMba ; 
cf . sdbi. 


masabki, masapki, masafki, 
a lodging-place ; cf . sabka. 

mas&f£ha(cf. Ar. »~>U), shak-^- 

ing hands, 
masai, a hole ; i.q. saiga. 
m&sai, carrion ; cf . mushe. 
masaka, 1. a shuttle; 2. a 

weaver; cf. saka. 

masakanche (cf. Ar. yjSL>), 
peacemaker, mediator ; cf . 

masaki, weaver; seetnasaka. 

masaki, maseki, the largest 
kind of gourd, wide and deep, 
used for carrying fodder ; cf . 


M. H. p. 155; also used as 

a drum, 
mas'ala, pi. mas'aloli (Ar.), 

matter; see masaala. 
masallachi, pi. masallatai (cf. 

Ar. rt^JL©), place of worship, 

m&sani, pi. masana, a learned 

mau, a mallani ; cf. sani. 

masar, mazar, Egypt (Ar. 

J * 
j*aa) ; itchen masar (Egyptian 

tree), a shrub which is some- 
times planted in compounds 
(Croton Zambesiacus). 
masara or dawa masara, 

Egyptian corn, maize, kan 
masara the feathery top of 
growing maize, goiyon ma- 
sara, maize cob, so called 
because carried below the 
kai or tuft, masaran giwa 
a poison used for arrows. 

^ masaran machiji a plant with 
a red and yellow flower some- 
what resembling a tiger-lily. 

masarauchi, pi. masarauta, 
ruler, governor; cf. sarauta. 

masarchi, a mounted drum- 
mer or trumpeter. 

masarchi*, pi. masartai, a 
comb ; cf. masefi. 

masarmama, matsarmama, 
gall bladder, gall. 

m&sasaki, pi. masasaka y car- 
penter, joiner; cf. sasaka. 





mas&sara, fever, a cold; masd- 
sara ta kamani the fever 
caught me, i.e. I caught 
fever, jin masdsara to have 

masaso*, the name of a black 
snake, applied to a warrior. 

masebi, flint and stone ; see 

masefi, a frame used in weav- 
ing through which the warp 
threads pass after leaving 
the alera ; cf . matsefi, 

ma&Ski, gourd ; see masakL 

mashako, 1. a sore throat; 
2. a rat trap; cf. shake. 

mashari, a rake with two 
prongs used for gathering 
up rubbish; cf. shara. 

masharua, 1. rainbow; lit 
water-drinker; 2. the arch 
used in building, see kofofin- 
guga ; 3. an arch. 

mashasha, a quantity of any- 

mashaya, 1. watering-place, 
waterside; 2. a place of in- 
toxicating drinks, E 17 ; cf. 

mashayi, pi. mashaya, a toper. 

mashekare, a place where 
cattle stay through the rains; 
see shekare. 

mashekia, winnowers ; cf. shi- 


mashemi, a hoe ; cf . shema. 

masherera, mashirare, the 
small mosque swallow ; cf . 

m&shi, m8ji, pi. masu, masu- 
suka, 1. a spear ; yesda mashi 
or yada mashi to throw a 
spear as a declaration of war ; 
this expression is specially 
applied to the first war waged 
by a king after his accession ; 
cf. Gr. p. 139, 1. 46 ; 2. ma- 
shin tamraru a shooting star, 
usually regarded as prognosti- 
cating war from the quarter 
whence it comes ; 3. a stick 
of wood dipped in antimony 
for smearing the eyes ; 4. ma- 
shin jirigi a pronged stick 
used for tethering canoes; 5. 
mashin zomo (hare's spear) a 
species of fern with leaves 
arranged alternately on the 

8tem ' .*< s^ 

m&shi dij 1. a resting-place^ 

lodging, khan; 2. steps by 
which to come down from a 
place ; maimashidi host, inn- 
keeper ; cf . shida. 

mashigi, the entrance to a 
ford, a ford ; karamin ma- 
shigi a shallow ford ; cf. ma- 
ketare, mahayi. mashigin 
rami the entrance to a hole. 

mashimfidi, pi. mashimfvda, 
1. a small trader who spreads 
out things for sale; 2. a 




covering for a horse; cf. 

mashimi* a tanning block; 

see majemi. 
mashirare, the small mosque 

swallow ; see masherera. * 
mashiye, the small stick used 

for applying antimony. 

masiba,pl. masibai ( Ar. 4^mm), 

pain, affliction; D 40 en shara 
ka aika ka sha masiba if thou 
hast done evil thou wilt meet 
with great pain, 
masifa, 1. mischief; 2. mis- 
fortune, calamity; 3. mis- 
chievous, maimasifa, pi. ma- 
sumasifa a felon, villain, mis- 
chievous or vicious person. 
Possibly this may be only an- 
other form of prec. 

masilla, misilla (Ar. JUL**), 

a large sail-needle. 

masirchi, comb ; see maseji. 

masisika, floor, threshing-floor ; 
cf. sisika. 

maski, a spot, e.g. of grease. 

maskwa, a grain something 
like guinea-corn grown in low- 
lying ground. 

maso, pi. masowa, lover, friend ; 
F 79 ; cf. masoyi. 

masokachi, mirror; see mat- 

masomi, pi. masomai, begin- 
ning, from soma to begin; 

cf. A 30, ita dunia nana che 
masomi a lakhira this world 
is the beginning of the future 
state ; cf . soma, 

masoro, a kind of pepper, M. 
H. p. 123, also a tree which 
produces berries from which 
pepper is obtained. 

masoshi, comb ; cf . maseji. 

masoyi, pi. masoya, masoyu, 1. 
one who loves, or is fond of 
either a person or a thing, a 
lover, friend; 2. pass, be- 
loved, dear ; cf . maso. 

masr, Egypt ; see masar. 

masu, dragon-fly. 

masu, massu, matsu, to be 
hungry or distressed ; cf. 
matse, matsua. 

masukwani, a place for horses 
to gallop ; cf . sukua. 

masulifdi, mail-clad ; cf . lifdi. 

masuna, = chiwon sainyi. 

masuna, pi. masusu, one who 
fishes, e.g. with hand-nets; 
cf. 8U. 

masunchi, one who fishes with 
a net. 

masunta, a place for fishing, 

masuru, cat ; see muzuru. 

masusuka, a threshing place ; 
cf . susUka. 

masutashi, nomadic people; 
see tashi. 

masuwa, affliction ; cf. masu. 




mata, 1 . plural of mache women ; 

2. mata is also applied to a 

married woman, wife, of which 

the pi. is rhataye. 
mata*, death, another form of 

mutua ; B 158 mata ta maida 

mutum kwanche death causes 

men to lie down, 
matab&ta* F 82, enduring, 

lasting; cf. tabdta. 
matache, fern. matachia y pi. 

matatu (cf. Ar. OU), 1. dead; 
2. a dead person, corpse; 3. 
broken, e.g. tukunia matachia 
a broken calabash or a cala- 
bash with holes in the bottom, 
matatun kworia broken cala- 
bashes or vessels ; see similar 
use of mutu ; cf . mamahi. 

mataimaki, helper; see tai- 
mako assistance. 

mat&kara*, a ladder made of 
wood or rope. 

mataki, 1. a sort of spindle, 
used esp. by women, made 
of skin; 2. the two sticks 
used as pedals for the feet in 
working a loom ; cf . sq. 

mataki, pi. matakai, 1. steps ; 
matakin soro the stairs lead- 
ing to an upper floor; 2. foot- 
stool; cf. taki. 

mataki, soles of the feet, A 30; 
in comp. matakinbiri a horse 
whose ankle-joint nearly 

touches the ground, lit. one 
that steps like a monkey. 

matalaga, small hammer ; see 

matalauchi, pi. matalauta, 
poor, poverty stricken ; cf. 

matamache, thoughts, cares, 
concerns; matamachen dunia 
the cares of the world or of life. 

matamachi, iron-ore; cf. t&ma. 

matamni, pi. matamna, a molar 
tooth, lit. the grinder, from 
tamna to chew; the plur. 
matamna = all the teeth to- 

matankadi, a sieve; cf. tan- 
kadi to winnow. 

matankani, the fan used when 
grinding flour to get rid of 
the chaff. 

matanyi, helper ; see taya. 

mat&ra, masc, or mataran- 
hatsi, a place where corn is 
stacked, a stack ; cf . tdra to 

m&t&ri, spool, bobbin. 

m&tashi, young, growing ; ma- 
tashin balaga, a boy arriving 
at age of puberty ; the femi- 
nine form is matashiyar-bal- 

matashi, 1. used in comp. ma~ 
tashin kai pillow, rest for the 
head ; 2. the repetition of the 
first word of following page 




at foot of preceding page; 
cf. tashi, kai. 

mat&t&ki (fr. tdki manure), 1. 
the wandering of animals to 
graze on and manure a farm ; 
2. the place where the ani- 
mals wander. 

matauria, used esp. in expr. ma- 
tauria zuchia hard-hearted; 
cf. tcmri. 

mataushi, lit. presser; 1. ma- 
taushin kofa a piece of wood 
leaning against a door to keep 
it shut ; 2. mataushin wotiha 
a signet ; cf . taushe. 

mataye*, helper ; cf. taya. 

matsa, matse, mache, q.v. 
(the last two forms are speci- 
ally used before a personal 
pronoun), to squeeze, press; 
cf. matsu. 

matsafa, pi. mateaji, a place 
for worship, a fetish spot. 

matsafi, pi. masutsaji, one who 
worships or sacrifices to idols, 
an idolater ; cf . tsafi. 

matsaifata, matsefata, twee- 
zers, or large needle; see 

matsakaichi, f. malsakaicha, 
midway between, the mean 
of; cf. tsdka. 

matsarbaje (S.), tendons of 
the foot. 

matsarmama, gall ; see ma- 

matsatsaka, leech ; cf . (?) 
tsaga to bleed. 

matsawa, n. pressing, squeez- 
ing ; cf . matsa. 

matsawa, length, extent, en- 
during; cf. tsawo. 

matBayi, a raised place; cf. 

matse, to squeeze ; see matsa. 
matsefata, see matsaifata. 
matsefi, masefi, pi. matse/ai, 

mateefuna, a comb made of 
wood or iron ; cf. masarchi. 

matsetsi, a ring or pad of grass 
which a water carrier puts on 
his head to prevent his water 
pot from falling ; cf. gamo. 

matseyi, duration, mateeyin rai 
for life ; also abiding place. 

matsi, machi, n. squeezing ; 
wurin macln a narrow place. 

matsiachi, matsiyachi, pi. 
matsiata, one who is destitute 
or in distress ; cf . mache. 

matsina*(Ar. JLb*), suspicion, 

matsira, a refuge, place of 
safety ; cf . tsvra, 

matsirkia, machirkia, a 
stringed musical instrument; 
cf. tsa/rkia. 

matsokachi,masokachi, mir- 
ror; mat8okachin ido the 
pupil of the eye ; cf . tsokachi. 

matsorachi, cowardice, terror. 




matsorata, matsorache, a 

coward ; cf . tsoro. 
matsu, a pass, form of matse 

(cf. mtxche), 1. to be narrow, 

hainya ta matsu the road is 

narrow ; 2. to suffer hanger, 
matsua*, hunger; cf. masu. 
matuchi, fern, pudenda, 
matuka, boundary, limit, the 

utmost possible, 
matuki, a paddle used as a 

rudder ; 2. one who paddles; 

cf. tuka; 3. a handle fixed into 

the pole of loom ; see takala. 
matuna* matunan*, a 

thought; cf. tuna. 
maturike, stable, M. H.p. 222; 

cf. turike. 
matuturchi, everlasting; cf. 

matuwa, an ass (f.). 
xnauda, dark-coloured salt. 
maulo, a musical instrument ; 

see molo. 
mauro, pi. maurori, a poor 

slave who begs, 
mawadachi, pi. mawadata, 

1. fortune; 2. a man of for- 
tune ; see ivada. 
mawashi, a grindstone; cf. 

mawauta, 1. abstr. from wawa 

folly, foolishness ; 2. concr. a 

foolish person, 
maya, maia, to return, 
may a, maye, mayi, to take the 

place of another, to succeed 
another, to take over, see 
maida; kamayesarautaseizB 
the kingdom : used of corn 
= to be backward in ripening. 

may&fi, pi. mayd/ai, bed- 
clothes, coverings, covering 
thrown over shoulder ; cL 
ydfa to fold over. 

mayaki, pi. mdyaka, soldier; 
cf . yaki. 

mayani, maiyani, pi. maya- 
na% handkerchief; cf. yane. 

may&ta, sorrow, calamity^ 
trouble; cf. prov. sabo da 
mayata maganin tvota rana 
being accustomed to misfor- 
tune is the medicine for the • 
(unknown) future ; used of a 
rich man who was formerly 

mayawa, many ; see maiyatva. 

mayayi*, an interpreter. 

maye, n. drunkenness; yin 
maye to be drunk. 

maye, to take over, succeed; 
see maya. 

maye-maye (S.), a dish made 
of rdma leaves and flour. 

maye, mayi, fern, maiya, ma- 
yia, pi. mayu, one with evil 
eye, sorcerer, wizard, A 82 
note ; cf . maita witchcraft. 

mayenki, mayanki, knife; cf. 

mayenwachi*, pi. mayenwata r 




one who is hungry or desti- 
tute; cf. yunwa. 
mayes, mayer, to change ; see 

mayesa, maiessa, maiyessa, 

why? a corruption* of mi ya 
sa what caused it ? 

mayesda, to send back, return; 
see maida. 

mayi, 1 . intoxicated ; see maye ; 
2. jan mayi a cannibal. 

mayi, sorcerer ; see maye. 

mayi, to take the place of an- 
other ; see maya. 

mayinchi, gluttony. 

mayoderi*, strategem. 

m&za, quickly; frequently re- 
duplicated thus, mdza mdza 
or malmdza very quickly. 

m&za, mazaje, mazaizai, men, 
plural of mijiy q.v.; mazan- 
gaskia brave men, * real men.' 

mazakuta, mazakunta, ma- 
zakunchi, 1. bravery, man- 
liness, mettle; 2. penis. 

mazambachi, pi. mazambata, 
rogue, M. H. p. 206; cf. 

mazamni, dwelling-place, habi- 
tation, seat, spot on which a 
man sits down ; maizamni, 
mazamni, inhabitant. 

mazar, Egypt ; see masar. 

mazargi, 1. a string, e.g. for 
tying up trousers {wanduna) ; 
2. a noose for catching ani- 

mals; cf. zarge, azargagi y 

m&zari, spindle. 
mazawuri, the large intestine* 
mazifa (S.), overseer. 
maziga, the stick fastened to 

the bellows ; see zugazugu. 
mazigi, one who blows a fire 

with bellows worked with a 

stick fixed into a skin ; cf . 

mazo, bush buck (tragelafus 

mazoni, sitting place ; amaida 

wanan amazonin wanan 

change this in place of that. 
mazoro, wild cat; see muzupu. 
mazowa, inhabitants, 
mazubi, seal, stamp, 
mazugu*, dan mazugu one who 

is foolish, 
mazurari, spout, funnel; cf. 

meke, mekiya, mikiya, pi. 

mekiye, the black and white 

fishing vulture (gypohierax 

mele, ulcer, rash. 
mena (K.), a species of ante- 
lope ; see maina. 
merki, a species of acacia; a 

medicine for horses is made 

from it. 
mesa, python ; see ma'isa. 

metin (Ar. 0^^)> two ^ un - 




metso, a small species of ante- 

mi-, to, prep, used as insepar- 
able prefix before a pronoun; 
see ma. 

mi, me, what? In interroga- 
tive sentences the personal 
pron. must be employed as 
well as the interrog., e.g. mi 
ya sameka what is the matter 
with you? Forms strength- 
ened by the addition of the 
subst. verb are mine, minene, 
what is it ? 

mia (cf. (?) Ar. eU), broth, 

« relish ; cf. prov. mugun mia 
ba ta karewa atukunia bad 
soup never gets finished in 
the pot. 

mia, an hundred ; see minya. 

mi&gu, bad, pi. of mugu, q.v. 

miau, mio, saliva, spittle; 
tofi miau to spit. 

michali* mithali* simili- 
tude; see misali. 

miji, pi. maza, mazaje, mazai- 
zai, man, husband ; miji da 
mache married man ; cf . na- 
miji male. 

mijinachia, vein ; cf. majin- 

mijiria, mijirya, minjiria, 
misiria, 1. cramp, convul- 
sions; kafata ta yi mijiria, 
or mijiria ta kama kafata 

my foot has gone to sleep ; 
2. electric fish; 3. a large 
tree like a kurna with red 
mika, mi£e, 1. to stretch forth, 
e.g. th# hands or limbs ; mike 
teawo 'step out* ! to straighten 
out ; 2. to yawn, or as a n. 
yawning; cf. M. H. p. 147, 
sai shina mika he does no- 


thing but yawn, mikaken 
dutsi a precipitous rock or 
cliff, miko to pull in towards 
oneself, mikii to be extended 
or stretched out, e.g. hainya 
ta mika the road stretches 
out to a distance, mimike 
or minmike to sit at ease. 

mike, to recover, get well. 

miki, pi. miyaku, sore. 

mikia, vulture ; see meke. 

mi-kwana-ki-ba-ni, the name 
of a mouse. 

mil (a borrowed English word), 
used in Sokoto to denote 
1000 gaba cubits, or 2000 
camel paces. 

milgi, a kind of fish. 

mine, minene, what ? see mi. 

mingio, a venereal disease = 

minjirya, cramp ; see mijiria. 

minshari* nansari or han- 

sari (cf. (?) Ar.^Li; Fulah 

min harra=l snore), to snore. 

minu, a name given to the 




cheapest and smallest kola 
nuts after the largest have 
been picked out; cf. marsa. 

minya, mia (Ar. ijU), an 

hundred ; arba mia four hun- 
minzeri* (cf . Ar. fjlfcl*), tele- 

4 " 

scope), spectacles, 
mio, spittle ; see miau. 
mirda (S. ), to twist ; see murda. 
mirdago, see murdago. 
mirgina, murgina, mirgine, 

to roll about, e.g. a stone, 
mirmirto, a plant with an 

edible root. 
misa, python ; see maisa. 

misaIi(Ar. J2*), 1. similitude, 

parable, proverb, D 94 mu 
dai mu yi michali kadom we 
indeed speak a little as it 
were in parables ; 2. like, as, 
used like tamka. misalinsa 
— kamansa an expression ap- 
plied to a picture or likeness; 
3. meaning, explanation, ex- 
ample ; cf . har ya wuche mi- 
sali it was past all reason. 

misalta, to compare; see mi- 

misilla, a large needle ; see 

misiria*, cramp, etc.; see mi- 

miskal* (Ar. JUi«), a weight 

especially used for measuring 
gold = 86 grs. 
mita, a noise. 

mitalafi* ( Ar. s*J£*), generous, 

miyo, spittle ; see miau. 

mizani ( Ar. o!>**)> scales, bal- 

ance; F 139 akai da mi- 
zani ga kowa the balance is 
brought for everything. 

moda, 1. the refuse of a gourd 
(duma) used for making 
spoons; 2. a large wooden 
spoon used for dipping up 
mia, etc. 

moda, a plant from which a 
species of hemp is obtained 
(Sansevieria spinosa, Lili- 

modi, a gambling game played 
with cowries; yin modi to 
throw down dice, shells, etc. 
in gaming. 

molo, pi. moluna, music, play- 
ing; kidin molo drumming, 
E 16; abin molo a musical 
instrument of any kind; 
molo is sometimes used to 
denote a kind of guitar with 
three strings. 

monomi, planter; seemanomi. 

monzo, for manzo, messenger, 
M. H. p. 218. 

mori, bef. pron. more, v. n. 
moro, to make a profitable 




use of; cf. wane ka he rrwro 
which do you use 1 ina mo- 
r on8a I am making use of him; 
moria use advantage, profit. 
yin moria to be profitable. 

motsa, 1. tr. to shake, to move; 
2. intr. to move ; 3. to be in 
commotion, e.g. gari duka ya 
motsa the whole town was in 
a state of excitement ; shina 
nema shi motsa mani he is 
trying to rise against me; 
v. n. motsuwa, cf. ya ki mot- 
suwa it can't be moved. 

motsi, mosi, movement ; mot- 
sinshi his movement. 

mowa, favourite wife. 

ma, 1. first pers. pron. pi. 
comm. gender, 'we'; 2. -nmu, 
used as poss. pron. * our ' ; it 
is suffixed to a noun when 
the object possessed is mas- 
culine; the forms -rmu or 
-Imu are used when the object 
possessed is feminine; 3. as 
objective pron. = ' us/ e.g. sun 
hannamu they hindered us. 

mua, often contracted to ma, 
used as a prefix to denote the 
first person plural of the 
future tense; cf. Gr. p. 33. 

mubaiya (Ar.), homage, allegi- 
ance sworn on installation of 
a king. 

mubugu, mubugi, mabugu, a 
professional cloth hammerer. 

muburmi, a small calabash. 

muchia, a stick used for stir- 
ring soup, a large stick used 
by dyers. 

muchu*, to be moved; cf. 

mud&bar (S.), freedom given 
to a slave on the death of 
his master (Ar.). 

mudu (K.), pi. muduna (Ar. 

jlo), 1. a measure, made of 
wood or metal; the Sokoto 
equivalent is rakka; mud* 
anabi the cup or measure 
with which the contributions 
of Jida kai, q.v., are made ; 
2. curb, chain. 

mufuradi, * singular ' ( Ar. 

" * J 
>j*a); cf. jami' * plural. 

mug&ma, 1. a stay ; yin mu- 
gama to make a stay at & 
place for some days, to ab- 
stain from work, to rest, e.g» 
as on Friday ; 2. a rest day. 

mugo, a white ass. 

mugu, fern, mugunia, pi. mi- 
agu, bad, e.g. mutum mugu 
or mugun mutum a bad man; 
cf. mumuna. 

mugun-dawa, the wart-hog; 
cf. durungu, alhanzir. 

mugunta, badness, wicked- 

mugurji, a flat stone ; see ma- 




muhawara, contention, join- 
ing of issue in a case; cf. 
haivala, and toohala. 

muhiba, love. 

mujededdi* a title given to 
a reformer or innovator (cf. 

Ar. j^). 

muji, in comp. mujin kariji, 
loadstone, magnet. 

mujia, pi. mujiye, owl. 

muka, first pers. pron. pi. pre- 
fixed to narrative tense. 

mukadaichi, only ; see maka 


muk&das, a regent; see ma- 

mukami*, power, jurisdiction 
(? = hakumi by metathesis). 

mukamuke, jaw-bone, a pi. 
of mumuki, q.v. 

mukira, blacksmiths, a pi. of 
mdkeri, q.v. 

muku = maku, to you, for 
you; cf. ma. 

mukublia, makublia, a con- 
cubine, female slave, from 
kuble to lock up. 

mukurna, a species of ante- 
lope ; cf . makurma. 

mukuru, a woman's under- 

mulki*, Ar., kingdom, rule. 

mulmule, a ball, a round piece 
of anything. 

mulmuleli, to rub anything 
in the hand, e.g. guinea-corn. 

mulmushi, n. smile ; see mur- 

mulufi, maiufi (cf. (?) Ar. rt 
±fyo), 1. velvet, wool, wool- 
len cloth ; 2. the name of a 
small scarlet woolly beetle; 

3. the scarlet * cardinal-bird'; 

4. a cummerbund, 
mulwa, pi. mulwoyi (S.), fetters 

put on the feet of slaves or 
prisoners; cf. malwa, 

mumberi, part of the embroi- 
dery on the front of a tobe. 

mumona, mumuna, ma- 
muna, ugly ; see muni. 

rnunm = mamu, to us, for us; 
cf . ma. 

mumuki, pi. mukamuke, lower 

mumuna, ugly ; see mumona. 

nmrnnTri, fern, mumuna (Ar. 

• *•» 

sj«*y*), believer, one who is 

mun, pronoun 1st pers. pi. used 

with perfect tense, cf. Gr. 

p. 27. 
muna, first pers. pron. pL pref. 

to pres. tense ; cf. Gr. p. 28. 
muna, joy = murna. 
muna (S.), mana (K.), to us. 
munafuchi (S.) or munafichi 

(K.), guile, deceit, hypocrisy. 

munafuki (S. ), munafiki (K. ), 

fem. munafuka, pi. muna- 

• <■> 
fukai (Ar. ui?U«), hypocrite. 




mundua, mandua, pi. mun- 

daye, arm -ring, bracelet, 
bangle, usually made of sil- 
ver or brass ; mundayen kd/a 
foot rings. 

munguli, a cake of native salt. 

muni, ugliness, cruelty; da 
muni ugly, cruelly. 

muntalaga, matalaga, a small 

muntsini, to pinch. 

munumunu, a dark-coloured 

mura, n. a cold in the head. 

mur&di, desire ; see maradi. 

muramura, a species of guinea- 
corn; cf. ddwa. 

muraraba, divided; see mar a- 

murda, murde (K.), mirda, 
mirde (S.), to twist, wind, 
throttle, e.g. shina murda 
wuyan kaza he wrings the 
neck of the chicken; used 
of medicine, etc. to gripe, to 
cause griping, murje, 1. to 
rub in the hands; 2. to 
twist, e.g. thread; intensive 
form murmurda. murdage 
to wring, twist, maimur- 
dagen baki the man with a 
twisted mouth. 

murdago, mirdago, throttler. 

murdaka, two or three reeds 
forming a circular binding 
line inside a roof and near 

to the centre (kwando) ; there 
are several such in a roof. 

murfu, pi. murafuy tire-place, 
hearth ; see murufu. 

murgine, to roll about; see 

murgu, pi. murgogi, 1. money 
paid by slave to master for 
permission to work for him- 
self, i.e. either a lump sum 
or daily self-hire; 2. money 
paid to a king by a master 
for return of a fugitive slave. 

murgude, to twist, distort; 
amurgude twisted. 

muri, a stable; dan muri a 

muria, murya, pi. murioyi, 1. 
loud voice, cry ; 2. wind-pipe. 

murichi, muruchi, stalks of 
a young giginia tree ; in ap- 
pearance they are like celery 
and are largely eaten. 

murimuri, fish-hooks ; see rna- 

• j 

murjan (Ar. o^>*)> pea* 1 
red beads used as ornaments ; 
murjanin tudu a large red 
bead or stone used by women 
in a necklace. 

murje, to rub in the hands, to 
twist ; see murda. 

murjeki, mursekyi, to draw 
the foot along on the ground, 
e.g. to crush an insect, crush, 
crumple up. murjeke, fern. 




mutyeka, pi. murjeku, rubbed, 

murmura, n. a kind of sweet 

murmura*, to rub or thresh 

murmushi, mulmushi, smile, 

yin murmushi to smile. 
murna, muna, joy, gladness ; 

yin murna or jin murna to 

rejoice, F 217 suna muma da 
jama l u annabawa they re- 
joice with all the prophets, 
murshan, beads, M. H. p. 1 24 ; 

cf. murjan. 
murtsuka, to tear, rend, to 

rub (grain) in the hands ; cf. 

muruchi, stalks of young palm 

tree ; see murichi. 
murufu, murfu, pi. murafu, 

fire-place, stove, place on 

which the pot is placed for 

cooking; usually formed with 

three stones. 
murya, voice ; see muria. 

murza* (cf. Ar. jj*), to rub. 

musa*, Moses. 

m&sa, mussa, pi. musoshi, mu- 
sai (S.), cat ; cf. muzuru; dan 
mussa a name given to a 
snake which spits like a cat. 

musafaka*, to shake hands. 

musaya, n. change, e.g. change 
of money, yin musaya to ex- 
change one thing for another. 

musaya, musayi, musaye^ 
bef. pron., to change alter, 
e.g. to change clothes, to 
change religion. 

mushe (K.), a dead body, car- 
rion ; yin mushe to die a 
natural death. 

mushia*, owl ; see mujia. 

musiba, pain ; see maslba. 

musilmi*, A 5, i.q. musulmi r 


muska (Ar. **JL«o), musk. 

musu, n. denial, dispute, con- 
tention, contradiction; mai- 
musu one who habitually con- 
tradicts. mu8uwa contend- 
ing ; F 159 babu musuiva ga 
kowa there is no contending 
for anyone. 

musu 1 mi, pi. musulmai (Ar. 

^JU„«), a moslem, Mohamme- 

dan. musulumchi worship, 
religion, in the Mohammedan 
sense of the word, musu- 
lumta* to become a Mussul- 

musuru, Fulah id., cat; see 

musuwa, contending ; see 

mutu (Ar. OU), 1. to die; 
2. to end, come to an end, 
e.g. har wata ya mutu until 
the month -end ; hainya ta 
mutu the road is closed, umta 




ta mutu the fire has gone 
out. matache, pi. matatu, 
dead, mutua death; mutuan 
allah a natural death. It is 
not polite to use mutu of a 
friend or a great man, thus 
a Hausa would say sariki ya 
rasu lit. the king is lost (to 
us), in anyi raaka mutua if 
bereavement befall you. ba ya 
ida mutua he is not qu i te dead. 

mutua, death ; see mutu. 

mutum, mutume, pi. mutdne, 
man, human being ; A suf- 
fixed e regularly appears be- 
fore the genitival suffix n 
and before the pronoun nan 
or ga } e.g. mutumen nan or 
mutumenga this man, mutu- 
men 8ariki the king's man; 
mutum is frequently used in- 
stead of the pi. form mutane ; 
cf. M. H. p. 208, mutum ya 
fi arbain the men were more 
than forty. 

mutumchi, humanity, also 
office, position, chin mutum- 
chi to disgrace a man, to take 
away his self-respect, sariki 
ya Jishe shi ya chimutum- 
chinsa the king deposed him 
and deprived him of his 
position in life. 

mutume, see mutum. 

mutumnia, 1. woman ; 2. con- 

muturu, fern, mutura, without 
a hump, specially applied to 

muzuru, muzulu, mazoro, 

m. cat ; kyanwa is used as 
the feminine; muzurun-juda 
civet cat. In playing dikka 
which is the commonest form 
of chacha when the shells fall 
4 open (i.e. with the teeth 
uppermost) and 2 shut, the 
throw is called idon-mazuru 
cat's eye ; see under mage. 

The letter q is used by the 
Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English n. When Q 
is followed by b it is pro- 
nounced m. This is some- 
times the case when n is 
followed by f y z or ch ; for 
instances see under m. n is 
sometimes interchanged with 
I ; cf . nimka, linke ; nadama, 

n, for use of the letter n as a 
definite article, see nan. 

na, fern, ta, particles, 1. pre- 
fixed as signs of the genitive, 
e.g. G 1 litaji na labari sara- 
kuna the book of the history 
of the kings ; n a shortened 
form of na is used to denote 
the possessive and genitive 
relation, e.g. dokin sariki the 




king's horse, sauran nama 
the rest of the meat. When 
the object possessed is femi- 
nine this n is changed to I or 
r ; 2. used before pr. names, 
e.g. A 19 na ahmadu of Ah- 
madu; 3. pron. suflf., e.g. nasa 
his, nata her, nam their; 4. 
placed before card, numerals 
to form the ordinals, e.g. 
nabiu tabiu second, na goma 
tagoma tenth. The connec- 
tive na is often used where 
suna would have been ex- 
pected, e.g. mutane na yin 
hdka the men are doing so, 
dawaki na gudu the horses 
are running away, wasa na 
zua/ada, leken garu na mi 
the performers are going to 
the palace, of what use is 
looking over the wall? boko 
na ido ba na gan gari ba the 
stranger (though) possessing 
eyes cannot see the town. 

n&, a contraction of nia used 
as a prefix to denote the first 
person singular of the future 
tense ; cf. Gr. p. 32. 

na, pronominal particle, first 
person sing. masc. and fern. = 
I, 1. prefixed to the simplest 
form of verb to denote the 
perfect tense : na tafi I went, 
or I have gone; 2. as an 
inseparable possessive pron. 

B. H. D. 

suffixed to either singular or 
plural substantives provided 
that the object possessed is 
masculine, e.g. ubana my 
father, dawakina my horses, 
cf. use of -ta when object 

possessed is feminine. 

• * * 

na'am (Ar. j&o), yes. It is 
used in response to a sum- 
mons ; e.g. yes sir ! or, here 
sir ! It is not used in answer 
to questions. 

na'amaa (Ar. j&o\ a kind of 
sweet herb or grain. 

nabaya, fern, tabaya, that which 
comes after, the second. 

n&bua, thickness of lips. 

nache, to approach. 

n&chi, nachia, n. constancy, 
continuance, persistence; da 
ndchi constant. 

n&dii, before, already, e.g. ba 
ya ji tsoro ba kaman nddd he 
was not afraid as before ; it 
is used also as equivalent to 
' former/ e.g. litqfin nan duka 
data kaman nada this book 
is just the same as the former 
one ; cf. da of old. 

nad&ma (S.), nidama, ladS- 

ma, Ar. JUtjJ, repentance, 
n&de, commonly pronounced 
nide to roll, roll together, used 
of twisting yarn in spinning, 
also to put on a turban; ta 





yi ntde kaman riamiji she 
wore a turban like a man. 
nade also denotes to put on 
the royal turban, i.e. to be 
crowned as king, e.g. akan&da 
he came to the throne ; nan- 
nada to coil oneself up, used 
of a snake; verbal n. nan- 
,nade, node-node the winding 
of a turban; nadu intr. to 
roll or coil up. 

n&di, n. rolling, twisting ; yin 
nddi to roll. 

nadiye (K.), a form of nddo 
to roll, twist. 

naf&ri, fern, tcfdri, ord. num. 
first; da nafdri first-born son. 

naferko, nafarko, f em. taferko, 
first; F 147 ga tozo nai na- 
ferko at its first turning. 

nafsi* (Ar. ^-aj), the desires; 
D 22 ku hi attah ku her bi 
la'inu da shi da nafsi follow 
God, cease following the wick- 
ed man, leave both him and 
his desires. 

n&gari, fem. tdgari, pi. ndgar- 
yaru, good. 

nagerta, nagarta, goodness, 

nahau, nahauri (Ar. ^mJ), 
grammar ; malamin nahau a 
mallain so learned that he 
knows grammar (which is the 
final stage of education). 

nai, of him, to him, his ; equi- 
valent to nasa. 

nai, a contracted form of na yi 
I did, I made. 

naibi (Ar.), deputy, agent. 

naima, nema, kindness; see 


* * * 

najasa, najasu (Ar. u~»*J), 

abomination, excreta ; yin 
najam to be filthy. 

naka, separable possessive pron. 
second pers. sing. * thy,' used 
when possessor and thing pos- 
sessed are both masculine ; 
when possessor is fem. and 
thing possessed is masculine 
naki is used ; cf . taka, taki. 

naki, thy ; cf . prec. 

nakia, small balls of sweet stuff 
make of rice and honey ; cf . 

nakiri* (Ar. J*£), Nakir, an 

angel whose office, according 
to Mohammedan belief, is to 
try the dead in their graves; 
cf. D 41. 
naku, separable possessive pron. 
second pers. pi., used when the 
object possessed is masculine; 
cf. taku. 

nakuda (cf. (?) Ar. £&), to be 

in travail, 
nakuja, balls made with rice 

and honey, 
nama, pi. namomi, namuna, 




masculine (cf. Zulu 'nyama 
meat), 1. flesh, meat; naman 
daji bush-meat, venison, game; 
2. namcm daji wild beast, also 
as coll. the beasts of the field; 
naman kaza mushroom. 

namiji, fern, tamata, pi. mazaje. 
Both forms are compounded 
of the prepositions na, ta % and 
the nouns miji and mata. 
1. male, fern, female; 2. na- 
miji also = man, husband, the 
pi. is then maza ; namiji da 
shara, lit. the man with the 
broom, a taunt applied to a 
bachelor, because he has to 
sweep his own house ; phr. 
jan namiji with reckless cour- 
age ; cf . miji. 

namu, separable possessive 
pron. first pers. pi. 'our/ 
used when object possessed 
is masculine ; cf . tamu. 

nan, 1. this, that, these, those, 
e.g. dokin nan this horse, lita- 
tafai nan these books ; 2. so, 
e.g. shi ke nan it is so ; 3. 
here, e.g. ba shi nan ba he is 
not here ; ananan, lit. he (or 
it) is here, is used at the end 
of a sentence for ' so it was ' 
or ' so it is ' or less frequently 
in the sense of 'moreover.' 
ke nan also denotes 'so it is,' 
ka tafi ke nan har abbada you 
are departing in fact for ever, 

ko ranan nan kasamu perhaps 
thou wilt find it one day, 
achikin gari yi ke ko anan ne 
he is in the town or some- 
where, nan da nan j ust now, 
is used of past action or in 
narration, n which is prob- 
ably a contraction of nan is 
sometimes used as though it 
were a kind of definite article. 
Thus a man who had failed to 
see a woman whom he had 
expected would say enna ma- 
chen where is the woman ? 

nana, here, hither, this, A 10; 
cf. prec. 

nftna, 1. to stick to, cause to 
adhere ; 2. intr. to stick, ad- 
here ; 3. to flatten. 

nan&fa, a plant with small 
black seeds, red inside; a 
purgative is made from it. 

nanake, flattened; maihanchi 
nanake a man with a flatten- 
ed nose. 

nandanan, just now ; see nan. 

nani, n. sticking, adhering. 

nankaiya* wading through 

nansari, n&sari, to snore ; see 

narike, narika, narka, to 
melt, tr. and intr. to smelt; 
particip. adj. narkake, fern. 
narkaka, pi. narkaku, melted. 
nariku to melt, be melted ; 





ina akan nariketva it is just 

at melting point, 
nariki, narki, n. melting, 
narko (S.), threat. 

nasa (Ar. ^^J), used of water, 
to spread. 

nasa, separable possessive pron. 
third pers. sing, 'his,' used 
when possessor and thing pos- 
sessed are both masculine ; cf . 

n&sa, n&she, to throw, e.g. 
a spear; nasa wani abu a 
uuuta to throw anything into 
the fire, pass. part, nasashe. 

n&sara (Ar. j-oJ), victory, suc- 
cess, good luck ; Q2bayayi 
nasara ba he did not obtain 
the victory; nasarchi victory, 

nasaranta, to become a Chris- 

n&sari, to snore ; see nansari. 

n&she, to spear ; see nasa. 

n&she, to be saturated with oil, 
to be greasy or oily, used of 
cloth on which oil has been 
spilt : riga ta nashe ; cf . nu- 
che (?). 

n&shi, pi. nashe-naske, n. throw- 
ing, e.g. a spear. 

n&so, n&shi (S.), to be greasy. 

nassia, da nassia graceful. 

nasu, separable possessive pron. 
third pers. pi. * their/ used 

when the object possessed is 
masculine; cf. tame. 

nata, third pers. possessive fern, 
pers. pron. ' her,' used when 
object possessed is masc. and 
possessor is fern. 

nata, an early crop of kola nuts ; 
see under goro. 

nati, dark blue thread, darker 
than shudi. 

natsu, 1. to be occupied or en- 
grossed in anything; cf. ka 
natsu da aikinka you are en- 
grossed in your work; 2. of 
a man, to be at peace ; 3. of 
wind, to be calm ; cf. seq. 

natsu* nazu* (cf. Ar. rt^ki, 
to be distant), used with han- 
kali, e.g. hankalinsa ya nazu 
lit. his wits are away, i.e. his 
wits have not yet come back 
to him, he is still asleep or 

natsu, natso, natsua, n. peace- 
fulness, calm, attentiveness. 

natsua, n. peace, calm. 

naiiku, fern, taiiku, ord. num. 
third ; A 48 naiikunsu the 
third among them, the third 
one of them. 

nausha, naushe, nushe, to 
hit with the fist, to box. 

naushi, n. boxing. 

nauwa, v. to be late, to linger. 

nauwa, weight, heaviness, a 
drag or weight, dull witted- 




ness; cf. mainauwa a man 
who goes slowly. 

nauyi, noyi, weight, heavi- 
ness; da nauyi heavy. 

nawa, separable possessive pro- 
noun first pers. sing. ' mine/ 
used when the possessor and 
the thing possessed are both 

nawa, n. late-coming; yin na- 
wa to come late ; cf. nauwa. 

n&wa, often pronounced nauwa 

* & + 
(cf. (?) Ar. y*~>, al>out, ac- 
cording to), how much ? liow 
many ? e.g. kurdi nawa what 
is the amount? su yi nawa 
how many were there ? g&da 
nawa how many ? 

naw&ya, to cause distress to. 

naw&ya, distress, ha sa mani 
nawaya you cause me distress, 
ni na gamu da nawaya I ex- 
perienced distress. 

ne, substantive verb to be, used 
with any person or number 
but usually with masc. sub- 
ject ; with a fern, subject che 
is used, while ke is used with 
either gender. It is usually 
placed at the end of the clause, 
e.g. wanan barao ne this man 
is a thief, though this might be 
written wanan shi ne barao. 
ne in reply to a question is 
sometimes placed after a com- 
plete, verbal phrase, l who is 

it you want?' Ans. na zo 
wurinka ne ' it is you that I 
come to.' In answer to a 
foolish question na sani ne ? 
(ai ban sani ba being under- 
stood) do you think that I 
know, or how should I know? 
cf. M. H. p. 190, ya yi chin- 
tua (teintua) ne=he has made 
a find. In Sokoto and Zan- 
fara na, ka and ta are fre- 
quently used for ne, ke and 
che, e.g. godia ta it is a mare, 
doki na it is a horse. 

nema, n. masc. seeking; raai- 
neman aure a suitor for a 
wife ; abiii nema an object of 
desire; matar nemansa the 
girl of his choice ; dan nema 
child of courtship (i.e. not 
preceded by a marriage), 
bastard; see under nima. 

nema, without obj., with n. obj. 
nemi, with pron. obj. neme, 
to seek, look for, search ; ya 
nemi abin kansa he looked 
after himself; a pass, form 
anim is found in B 155 kai 
dai anim shinni gun matta- 
mai thou must seek know- 
ledge with the mallams ; nemo 
to go to seek and return with 
a thing. . 

nSna (S.), nlna (S.), or nttna 
(K.), 1. to be fully cooked, 
e.g. abinchi ya nena the food 




is finished cooking; 2. to 
cook; 3. to be ripe, e.g. diyan 
itache ta nena the fruit of the 
tree is ripe, nenane, nunane, 
pi. nenanuy nunanu, 1. cook- 
ed, baked ; 2. ripe. 

nesa, nisa, distance, da nisa 
at a distance, far, d&ga nisa 
from afar, nesa is sometimes 
used as an adj. rua nesa ya 
he the water is distant ; nes- 
anta to place at a distance, to 
drive away ; nesanchi, ni- 
sanchi to keep aloof from ; 
nisanta, n. aloofness, keeping 

ni, first pers. pron. sing. comm. 
gender, 'I'; when followed 
directly by a verb it is used 
like zani to denote the future 
tense, ni tqfi I will go. It is 
often placed for the sake of 
emphasis before na or ina; 
ni na tafi it was I who 
went, or I indeed went ; cf. 

ni, first pers. suffixed pron. 
comm. gender preceded by 
1. a verb, e.g. mn kirani 
they called me ; indirect obj. 
e.g. ya bani wanan he gave 
me that; 2. a prep., e.g. mani 
to me, gareni id. 

Ilia = is it I? do you mean me % 
e.g. in answer to a call, esp. 
used in the district of Sokoto. 

The final letter is the sub- 
stantive verb; cf. under a, 
nia, used as a prefix to denote 
the first person singular of 
the future tense: often con- 
tracted to na. 

niam*, Ar. ^mj, prosperous, 
found B 169 tana niam it is 
a prosperous place. 

niche, to immerse, to drown ; 
see nuche. 

nid&ma, remorse ; see nadama. 

nifa, to wish ; see nil/a, 

nlka, to grind. 

niki, n. grindstone, mill. 

nima, naima, pL nimomi (Ar. 

2l+mj), pleasure, kindness ; D 

75 mu aha nima we shall have 
pleasure; dan nima y 1. a 
bastard (see under nema) ; 2. 
a term of endearment used by 
a father to his son ; cf. niam. 

nimka, to fold up cloth, paper, 
etc. ; see nunka. 

nlna, to be ripe ; see ntna. 

ninkaya, to dive, to swim. 

ninsari, to snore ; see nansari y 

nisa, distance ; see nesa. 

nisanchi, to keep aloof from ; 
see ne%a, 

nishi, groan, cry ; yin nishi to 
groan, used of a sick man, 

nisso, niswa, calm ; cf . nateu. 

nitso, to dive, sink ; cf . niche. 




-nka, -nki, -nku, -nmu, 
inseparable possessive pro- 
nouns; cf. ka, ki y ku, mu. 

noche, to sink ; see nuclw. 

noke, to withdraw into shelter, 
to retire into its shell, used 
of a tortoise's head, or of a 
snake retreating into its hole. 

noma, nomi or nome, to work 
with the hoe, to till the 
ground, nomame, nomeme, 
fern, nomamia, used of crops 
that have been hoed and 
weeded, mainoma, mainomi, 
pi. mamnoma, a tiller of the 
ground, manomi a sowing- 

noma, pi. nomomi, nomuna, 
farm-work; !A. 24 noma ga 
mata bai kamata ba kun sani 
farm-work is not becoming 
for a wife, you know. 

nome, a plant about three feet 
in height, the white grains 
of which are ground and 
eaten (Sesamum Indicum). 

nomejlde, used of farming in 
one place and living in an- 
other ; cf . noma, gida. 

nonanu, ripe ; see under nena, 
M. H. p. 182. 

nono, pi. nonuna, nonaye, 1. 
breast, pap; 2. milk; cf. 

nonon giwa, a forest tree; 
see rahaina. 

nonon kurichia (dove's milk), 
a creeping plant with pink 
fleshy stalk and pink flower, 
so called from its white milky 
sap (= euphorbia pilulifera). 

nordi, a black and white cow. 

noyi, weight ; see nauyi. 

-nsa, -nshi, -nsu, -nta, in- 
separable possessive pro- 
nouns; cf. sa, shi, 8v, ta. 

nuche, niche, to sink, immerse ; 
see nutsa. 

niife, niifi, nifa* to search 
for, to wish for ; ya nufi gida 
he set his face towards home, 
ka yi nufe ka tafi did you 
intend to go ? B 42 kaina na 
ke nifa ba kowa ba I myself 
desire nothing. 

niifi, nftfe, n., object of desire ; 
F 251 da na fita sokoto... 
nufina that I may go forth 
from Sokoto is my desire. 
ya yi nHfe = he desired or he 

mlna, to be ripe ; cf. nSna. 

nuna, to aim at, nunc to aim at 
place where the speaker is; 
cf . seq. 

nuna, mini, to show, to point, 
to explain, e.g. B 41 abinda 
malaminka ya nunama that 
which your Mallam explains 
to you. nuna hanu to point 
with the hand. ya nuna 
masa da or ya nuneshi da 




he pointed at him with ; 
manuni forefinger, nunawa, 
particip. form, showing, mani- 
festation, explanation. 

nunane, cooked, ripened ; see 

nunfashi, to breathe = lum- 
fashi, q.v. 

nuni, a sign, instance, example, 
ya yi mani nuni he signed 
to me ; see nuna. 

nuni, the mounting of a mare 
by a stallion. 

nunka, nunke, to fold cloth, 
to twist strands into a thread 
or rope ; cf . nimka, linke. 

nunki,a strand of rope or thread. 

nuri*, to gaze upon, C 15 kai 
nuri wawa behold the fool ; 
cf. annuri and lura, 

nusa, nuso, see nuta. 

nushe, yin nushe to strike for- 
ward with the fist, to box; 
see nausha. 

nusufi, half (cf. Ar. ^A*u), 
not used colloquially. 

nuta, n. diving. 

nutsa (EL), nuto (S.), nutse, 
nitso, to dive, dip under 
water, sink, nuche to im- 
merse, to sink, drown. 

-nwa, suffixed interrogative 
pronoun for na wa of whom ? 
whose? dokinwa whose horse? 
tumkianwa ke nan whose 
sheep is this ? 

nyenyawa, a fox. 

oda, uda, a long-eared ram. 

oho, an exclamation, it does 
not concern me ! sun fi ho 
sun gaza da kddan oho 
whether they were more or 
less does not matter; see 
under gaza. 

oraki, dan oraki ass belonging 
to a celebrated Sudanese 
breed, large-sized and of a 
light tawny colour. 

othman (Ar.), Othman. 

In Hausa as in Arabic there is 
no distinctive symbol for the 
letter p. It is represented 
by f, or less commonly by b. 
In many words the sounds f 
and p are constantly inter- 

pa, pi. pdni (S.), a stone. 

pago, woman's luggage carried 
in a bag ; see /ago. 

paiya paiya, faiya feiya, a 
shrub with narrow jointed 
pods, common on river banks, 
also called alambo and waken 
rafi (Ormocarpum spinosum, 

pal, much ; see pul. 

paiasa or falasa, punishment. 
palashe to punish, e.g. ya 
palasheni he punished ma 




palinwota, often. 

palle, one thickness of cloth, 

e.g. in a tobe; cf. ribbe doable 

palpashe, cf. M. H. p. 179,= 

falfashe, an intensive form 

of faslie, q.v., to break in 

palshe, to break, for paste, 

M. H. p. 215 ; aeefashe. 
pampama (S.), a hole = rami. 
pampammi, famfammi, a 

wind-instrument used by a 
court musician. 

pansa, ransom, pansawa ran- 
soming ; sqefansa. 

panshe, pansi, to ransom, re- 
deem; neefanshe. 

papaka, flapping; see pupuka. 

pasa, arrow-head. 

p&sa, to break ; seefdsa. 

pasakori, a tree; see fasa- 

pashe, to burst, to break ; see 
fashe, pashe da gudu to run 
very hard, pashen hainya 
brigand, sun pashe hainya 
they spoilt the road, M. H. 
p. 210. 

pashi, a small kanto of an 
inferior kind of salt. 

passi, light coloured, used of a 

passuba, passvba ta yaki in- 
struction in manoeuvres. 

pat&ka* fat&ka*, a florin (a 

word probably introduced 
from Lagos). 

patako, a plant used in tanning. 

pat&la, head-cloth. 

pelele*, lip disk worn by pagans 
= maran lebo. 

pelua, a brass ornamental ap- 
pendage to a bridle, covering 
the front of a horse's head. 

perma, a young elephant. 

perma, to take by surprise, 
fall suddenly on. 

perpezi, a small plant with 
green berries, used as a medi- 
cine for rheumatism. 

pesa, to spit ; see/e*a. fr* 

peshi, driving rain. 

pSti pSti, a soft mash of rice, 
guinea-corn or anything simi- 

piauka = basiru. 

piga (a form of Jige), to pluck, 

pilapili, pelapele (K.), fila- 
fili (S.), pL pUapilai, a 

pinjum, the sound made when 
a stone is thrown into water. 

pom, exclamation = bang. 

poma, a wooden sword. 

potopoto, mud, slush. 

pudu (Daura), four ; cf. fudu. 

pul, pal, fdl, very many, very 

much ; shortened forms are 

fa or bu ; fu and fvl are the 

forms used in Sokoto ; pul is 




used at Kano ; cf. Fulah fo 
altogether, completely. 

pupuka, flapping of wings, con- 
vulsive movement ; see fu- 

purmissi, close crowding. 

The letter j is used by the 
Hausas to represent the 
sound of the English r. It 
is sometimes interchanged 
with I, e.g. harbi, halbi ; fir- 
maki,falmaki. In the words 
in which this interchange 
occurs the r sound is more 
commonly heard in the Kano 
district and the I sound in 
the Sokoto or western Hausa 

ra, a shortened form of rana, 
day, e.g. C 27 babu murna 
ra shigowa dunia there is no 
joy on the day of entry into 
the world. 

rab, exactly, precisely, ya ka- 
ma rab it fits exactly, ya 
gamu rab, sun yi daidai rab 
it is an exact match. 

r&ba, r&bi*, to divide, separate, 
distribute, decide, e.g. as a 
judge, part from, leave ; raba 
da ni get away from me ; cf . 
enna marabin wanan da wan- 
chan what is the difference 
between this and that ? alkali 
mairaban gaskia ne a judge 

is a dispenser of truth, M. 
H. p. 153; marabiwa the 
angel of death, lit. he who 
separates ; ya rabi /asalinsa 
he interprets, rababe, fern. 
rababa, pi. rababu, divided y 
cloven, separated, rdbu, intr. 
and pass, form of raba, 1. to 
be divided ; 2. to depart, slip 
from, leave, e.g. rabu da ivuta 
move away from the fire; 
tunda shekara bdkoi na rabu 
da kano it is seven years 
since I left Kano. rabaa 
separation, estrangement, rd- 
bo or rdbu, pi. raberihi, di- 
vision, part, e.g. D 82 rabunta 
bokoi its divisions are seven ; 
share or portion ; E 8 rabon 
doki da maidoki the share 
assigned to a horse and its 
owner; portion, lot, A 22 
da r.abo wuta their portion 
shall be the fire ; separation, 
B 118 sarikin rabo author of 
separation ; C 30 rabonta da 
dunia its separation from 
this world ; cf. M. H. p. 221 
rabona shi ke such was my 
parting (with him) ; cf. also 
kina da rdbon tafi glda it was 
your lot to go home, M. H. 
p. 221. rdbo also denotes 
that which is fated or de- 
creed, rdbon dunia da the 
parting of the world from, 




i.e. the cessation of a custom. 
rabonka da...tunyaushe How 
long is it since you left 1 
intens. form = raraba ; cf . 
rdbas, r&basda, rabda. 

rftbft, reaba (cf. Ar. <^**.j iv, 
to make anything moist), 

r&babe, divided ; see rdba. 

rabaja* (S.), fringe, mane. 

rftbas, used without an object, 
to distribute ; cf . rdba. 

rabasda, followed by an object, 

to divide. 

rabbi, ribbi (Ar. ^j), Lord, a 

title of God ; cf. C 1, D 2. 

rabda, rabshe (before a pro- 
noun), tr. to separate from. 

rftbe, rftba, rftbo, to crouch, 
etc. (a Kano form of Sokoto 
Idbe, q.v.); cf. donga da ya 
rabo da ski the fence that he 
was leaning against. 

rabe da, to know. 

r&bi, half ; cf . rdbo. 

rabi, robe, serval-cat ; see 

rabji, serval-cat ; see rabi ; cf. 
raphe to crouch. 

rftbo, r&bua, division ; see 

rabshi, roshi, fineness, used 
of ashes, flour, etc. yin rab- 
shi to be fine. 

rache, to turn out of the way; 
see raise. 

rada, 1. to whisper, speak se- 
cretly ; 2. to calumniate. 

rada,' n. whispering, accusa- 
tion, calumny; mairada a 

radadi (K.), pain; mairadadi 

rftfa, a net for catching fish, 
esp. used in Sokoto; cf. ma- 

rafago (K.), a grain store ; cf. 
rafonia, rwmbu. 

rafake, ranfake, to cling to 
or hide behind any person or 
thing in fear ; ya ranfake ga 
itache he hid under the tree; 
cf. raphe. 

r&fam, a maternal uncle. 

rafania, aunt on the mother's 

r&fasa, a plant which grows 
close to the ground with a 
yellow flower and small leaves 
which are made into a vermi- 

rftfashe, rafashe aiki to shun 
or fight shy of work. 

rafi, refe*, pi. rqfuna or rafa- 
fuka, brook, pool; irrigated 

enclosure ; cf. Ar. tju>, a 

region near water, 
rafkama, to lose one's senses 

temporarily, to make a slip. 
rafonia, pL rafon.% a round 

closed-in chamber, built of 

mud, about four feet across, 




common in Hausa huts, used 
for storing grain or treasure; 
also a large jar for grain in- 
side the house; the Sokoto 
equivalent is rufewa, q.v. 

rafsa or rapsa kuka, to utter 
a cry. 

r&ga, pi. ragogi, 1. a kind of 
sack made of network ; aikin 
raga network ; 2. a net for 
fishing; 3. a hammock. 

raga, to leave over, to leave 

, behind. 

raga, ragga, pi. rdgogi (S.), a 
torn or ragged garment. 

ragaia, a rope ; see ragaya. 

ragaiche, to be idle; see ra- 

ragaita, pi. ragaitu, idleness, 
want of employment, mai- 
ragaita one who saunters 
idly about; cf. rdgo,raganchi. 

r&gama, halter, a rope put on 
horses or camels to lead 
them, also a leather halter 
decorated with metal. 

r&ganchi, ragonchi, laziness, 
idleness; cf. ragaita. 

ragaya, pi. , 1. a rope tied to 
anything, e.g. to a rafter in 
the roof, ropes supporting a 
shelf, etc. ; A 13 mu ga an- 
hafa ragaya ajia zari we see 
ropes set up (for weaving), 
and thread is placed ready; 
2. a string basket hung from 

the roof to contain odds and 
ends; 3. the slinging of a 
calabash from the roof to 
keep its contents safe from 
rats, etc. ; Sokoto equiv. = 

rage, to decrease ; see rigi. 

raggas*, a messenger, fore- 

r&go, fem. rdgua, pi. rdgaye, r&- 
gage, rdgaje, rdguna, an idle 
person, a waster, a coward; 
cf. Gr. p. 138, 1. 38, sunka 
kore yunfa rago they drove 
away the coward Yunfa. r&- 
gon kaya abortion. rago 
maza a bird whose note is 
heard in the evening, said by 
the Hausas to be so called 
because it is idle, its mate 
providing it with food [or it 
may be derived from the Ar. 

SUj, a species of bird, from 
Ar. rt j£j, to call loudly]; 
cf. ragonchi, ragaita. 

rago, pi. raguna, 1. a ram; 2. 
fig. a chief warrior. 

r&gonchi, idleness ; see ragon- 

ragonmaza, a bird ; see under 

r&gu, to decrease ; see rigi. 

r&gua, ragowa, remainder ; 
used in Sokoto for saura. 
yin r&gua to be over; see 




rftha (Ar. ^j;), n. joy, exult- 
ing, amusement; yin raha to 
speak proudly, exult. 

rahaina, rahainya, a large 
forest tree with dense foliage 
and red blossoms, and large 
non-edible beans, also called 
nation giwa. 

rai, pi. raiu, raiuka, rawuka, 
1. life; karban rai, daukan 
rai the taking away of life 
(by Allah), i.e. death, da 
rai living, alive, na rike wa- 
nan rai da rai I will stick 
to this all my life ; 2. mind, 
soul ; ya zdto achikin rai he 
imagined in his mind; cf. 
phr. da giriman rai haughty, 
da karamin rai modest, hum- 
ble, da zafin rai irritable, 
fretful, da sainyin rai of 
patient temper or disposition ; 
3. followed by possessive 
pron. =self ; ina da son rainsa 
I have a liking for him ; ra- 
insa ya kwanta he is at his 
ease ; F 254 fa raina kun ji 
na yiwa wonga waatsi and I 
myself, do you hear, make 
this song of instruction ; 4. 
the plural raiuka is applied 
to evil spirits. 

raia, r&ya, to keep alive, give 
life to take care of, to render 
(land) productive ; ya raiasu 

ahkachin yunwa he kept 
them alive in time of famine ; 
raiesda to quicken, raiu to 
come to life, ba shi raiuwa 
he cannot be restored. 

raida (S.), to leave. 

raidore, laidore, a common 
shrub with yellow flowers 
(Cassia occidentalis, Legumi 

raiesda, to quicken ; see raia. 

raina, to quarrel with; prob- 
ably another form of rena, 

rairai, rere, 1. sand (cf. rere 
to filter) ; 2. a grass from the 
leaves of which when ground 
up a medicine is made; it 
has sharp thorns. 

rairaia, a sieve ; see rereya. 

rairo, the beard of a goat ; see 

raiuwa, coming back to life; 
see raia. 

rajiya, the name of a fish. 

raka, rakaa (Ar. **£»>), rais- 
ing the hands in prayer. The 
four motions of a Moslem in 
prayer are, kama standing up 
and looking towards Mecca, 
rdka raising the hands and 
calling upon Allah, rdkuu 
bending down with hands 
on knees, sajada prostration. 

r&ka, r&ki, rake, to accom- 
pany, to escort ; cf . ar&kashi 




dede pass it on correctly (of 
a message passed from mouth 
to mouth), rdkia (S.), rdko 
(K.), pi. rakiyoyi, the act of 
accompanying ; yin rdkia to 
escort, A 26 ka yi kokari 
rdkia rua achikin dere do 
thou endeavour to escort 
her to the water in the 
evening ; na kai maka 
rakia I will bear thee com- 

rakadi, a cry, outcry. 

rakaso, rukaso, to pursue in 

r&ke, sugar-cane ; see r$ke. 

raki, fear, na yi raki I feared; 
cf. Gr, p. 139, 1. 42, kun yi 
raki ye trembled, mairaki a 

r&ko, n. escorting ; see rdka. 

r&koto (Z.), a cry ; cf. rakadi. 

rakua, rekua, a small non- 
stinging bee ; cf . gala. 

rakuman-rua, waves. 

rakumi, pi. rakuma (Ar. 

^jZdj), camel; cf. phr. ra- 
kumin allah a man of extra- 


ordinary patience, rakumin 
kasa the larva of a small 


species of ant. zamar ra- 
kumi an expression used to 
describe the sitting posture 
in which the body rests on 
the inside of the thighs with 
the feet splayed outwards. 

rakumin daji the giraffe. 
rakumin touya larynx. 

r&kuu, the stooping position 
adopted by a Moslem in 
prayer with hands on knees ; 
see rdka. 

r&ma, 1. to pay, make restitu- 
tion, restore, give in place of ; 
2. to revenge ; rama alb&ri to 
reciprocate kindness, rama 
gaya to revenge an ill. sai 
en rama wait a bit! (used 
in friendly and unfriendly 
senses), mairama, pi. mam- 
rama avenger ; cf . ramche. 

r&ma, n. purchase or ransom 

r&ma ( Ar. j*ej), leanness ; yin 
rama to be lean, ya yi rama 
he is getting lean, i.e. he is 
very ill ; cf . prov. ramar ba- 
shi ta fi kibarsa the leanness 
of a debt is better than its 
fatness, arame or ramame, 
fern, ramamia, pi. ramamu, 
particip. adj. lean, emaciated. 

r&ma, toaccompany, e.g. zanird- 
maka I will accompany thee. 

r&ma, ramma (Ar. £y) (Hi- 
biscus spinosus, Malvaceae), 
1. a plant from which native 
ropes (farin-ramma) are 
made, soup is also made from 
its leaves; it grows like a 
reed; 2. the rope made from 
this plant ; (?) see rumuya. 




ramanchi (K.), ramantaka 
(S.), leanness; cf. ramua. 

ramche, ranche, 1. a debt, 
loan, esp. used of things 
consumable, cf. aro; 2. yin 
ramche to borrow, pawn, 
pledge, sun yi ramchen kur- 
dina they borrowed my 
money; cf. prov. kowa ya 
chi shinkafar ranche tasa ya 
chi whoever eats borrowed 
rice eats that which is his 
own, i.e. borrowing won't 
save expense ; cf. Gr. p. 97 ; 
see rama to pay. 

rame, to be or become lean or 

rami, rame, pi. ramuna, ramu, 
hole, pit; sometimes applied 
to the ditch surrounding a 
town; cf. Gr. p. 138, 1. 29. 

ramka, to restore, indemnify. 

ramko, compensation, indem- 

ram ma, a plant ; see rdma. 

rammar-kurumi or rammar 
rafi, an undershrub with 
small yellow flowers (Wissa- 
dula rostrata, Leguminosae) ; 
cf . dangira. 

ramno or raiino, small grass 
used for making bricks for 

rampaki, to hide behind any- 
thing ; see rafake. 

ramta, to lend or borrow ; cf . 

ramua, leanness; cf. ramanchi. 

ramua, revenge, compensation; 
cf. rama. 

rftna, ra, pi. ranuka*, 1. the 
sun ; har rana ta fadi until 
the sunset ; diyan rana heat 
waves in the air ; 2. the day, 
properly the time from sun- 
rise to sunset ; cf . kwana the 
day of 24 hours, rana is 
however frequently used like 
kwana, e.g. rana uku three 
days, kwanaki is often used 
as the plural of rana. When 
rana means 'day' it is either 
masc. or fern., when it means 
' sun ' it is fern. ; mu yi tafia 
rana duka we travelled all 
day, D 61 rana chart on that 
day, rana tana da zafi> or 
rana ta yi kwarai it is hot. 
rana ta yi the sun is high. 
bdbal rana the Day of Judg- 
ment, sai wata rana farewell 
till another day. ranan gobe 
(lit. the day of to-morrow) 
the last day, the resurrection 
day. ra is often used as an 
abbreviation of rana; cf. ran 
gobe B 11. randa — rana da 
on the day that, i.e. when. 
ransuna the day on which a 
child receives its name, rana 
is usually placed before the 





days of the week, which are : 
laJiadi Sunday, litini Mon- 
day, talata Tuesday, laraba 
Wednesday, alhamis Thurs- 
day, aljimua Friday, assubat 

The hours of the day are 
approximately : jijifi the twi- 
light just before the dawn ; 
assuba or azuba the dawn ; 
hantsi two hours after dawn, 
circ. 8 a.m. ; walaha circ. 
10 a.m.; rana tsdka or tea- 
kan rana midday; zowall 
circ. 2 p.m. ; azuhur the 
time of the call to prayer, 
circ. 2 or 2.30 p.m.; laasar 
4 to 5 p.m. ; maguriba or 
magarub just before sunset, 
mareche late in the evening : 
lisha very late in the evening; 
between lisha and jijifi comes 
dere night, and tsdkan dere 
midnight, uban rana step- 
father, adoptive father. 

rana, v. used of the sun, ana- 
rana the sun is shining. 

ranche, a debt ; see ramche. 

randa, when ; see rana. 

randa, pi. randuna, a large 
earthen pot with a narrow 
mouth ; cf. tulu ne ya ke ka 
kawo randa tana da daka the 
tulu you carry to and fro, 
the randa remains in the 

rande, a rope fastened between 
two posts to which animals 
are tied. 

ranfake, to hide behind; see 

rangaji (K.), rangoda (S.), 
to sway to and fro, to act 

rangama, barter, the exchange 
of goods for goods. 

rangama, an abbreviation of 
ranan gamu, day of meeting; 
D 8 kuji teoro akoi rangamu 
mu da mu da allah be afraid, 
there is a day of meeting 
between us and God. 

rang&za, a plague amongst 

rangoda, to vaunt; see rcm- 


rangomi, a trade reduction ; 
see rongomi. 

rangomta, to make a reduc- 
tion; see rangomi. 

rani (cf. Ar. ^ij), the first 
part of the hot season after 
the conclusion of the cold or 
harmattan beginning about 
March; cf. Gr. p. 87. chi 
rani to go on an expedition, 
or undertake work, during 
the hot season. 

ransuna, the day on which a 
child receives its name; cf. 
rana, mna. 

rantse, ranche, to swear, take 




an oath ; na ranche da cdlah 
I swear by God ; cf . rantsua. 

rantsua, an oath, yin rantsua 
to swear ; cf. ranche. 

ranye, to escape, flee. 

rapke, to crouch, hide behind ; 
see rafake. 

rapsa or rapsa kuka, to utter 
a cry ; cf . rubsa. 

rara, the cup or bowl full of 
grain, over on selling corn to 
a dealer, which by custom is 
the latter's perquisite, ko 
rara ban yi ba there was not 
enough to give me my per- 

rara, a large black bird with 
white breast and red feathers 
under the tail, it eats locusts; 
used of the glossy ibis and 
lesser bustard. 

raraba, rarabi* D 94 an in- 
tensive form of r&ba, q.v., to 
divide, to scatter ; E 8 arara- 
bata a division is made, ba 
ararrabe it was impossible to 
distinguish between, mura- 
raba divided, B 23 mura- 
raba da ba su gamu katsu the 
regions which are divided and 
have never met ; cf. rerebi. 

r&rafe, r&rafo, r&refo, walking 
slowly, crawling along. 

r&rafe, rarrafe, rereffe, to 
creep or crawl, of animals, to 
walk on four legs like an 

R. H. D. 

animal, B 1 7 1 . mairarafe, pi. 
mamrarafoi creeping things, 
reptiles = abin kasa. 

raraka, raruke, to burrow. 

rarake, n. boring, yin rarake 
to bore a hole. 

raratse, to pound, break in 

rarauka (K.), reproof. 

rare, to strain, to Alter, rnai- 
rareway pi. masurarewa, one 
who strains or Alters, marari 
a strainer or filter, usually 
in the form of a small grass 
basket through which water 
is strained out in making 
bread, etc. ; cf. rereya and 

raria, 1. a calabash with holes 
in bottom, used for straining; 

2. a hole in a wall for water to 
flow out; 3. sieve; see rereya. 

rariar kasa, a weed with yel- 
low flowers, sometimes used 
with lele to stain the nails 
(Ohrysanthella procumbens, 
Compositae). # 

raruke, burrowing ; cf . raraka: 
r&sa, 1. to lose ; 2. to be lost ; 

3. not to be in possession of 
a thing, to be without; ka 
rdsa kudu da arewa you have 
lost your bearings ; B 10 ba 
shi rdsa huja ba he is not 
without reason, idonka ya 
rdsa gani ne ? can't you see ? 





ya r&sa ni da gani he did 
not see me. ya rasa is an 
euphemism for ya tnutu, Le. 
he is dead, na r&sa hainya 
I am ignorant of the way, 
but na bache hainya I have 
lost the way. rdsa used with 
a negative means can't be 
stopped from, ba shi r&sa 
kuka = ba ahanna masa kuka 
he must cry it out. 

rashi or reahi, loss, a being 
without anything ; cf . prov. 
rashin sani ya fi dere dufu 
to be without knowledge is 
worse than to be out in a 
dark night, sanu da reshi 
a form of salutation to one 
who has lost a relative or 
friend by death ; cf. sanu da 
ketva and sanu da rabua ; 
E 49 da babu rashi da kowa 
without lack of anything, yin 
reshi to lose, reshin karifi 
weak, reshin haifua barren, 
reshin lafia ill ; cf . similar 
use of maras. 

r&su, to depart, die; ya rasu 
he died ; see rasa. 

rata, da rata ' rather a long way. ' 

r&tata*, abundance, e.g. of food, 
water, etc. 

rataya, rateya, rataye, to 
hang up, to hang, to tie ; rata- 
yawa particip. adj. ; marataya 
one who causes another to do 

anything, e.g. Q. wa ya kira, 
Ans. ni ne, Q. rataya ko da 
kanka, i.e. did you call me 
yourself or did someone tell 
you to call me ? 

rataye, rataya, n. slinging, 
hanging, accoutrements; aror 
taye hung, maratayi, q.v., the 
slinging of a calabash from 
the roof. 

ratse, n. tr. turning out of the 
way, deviation ; yin raise to 

ratse, ratsa or rache, q.v., to 

miss; ratsa hainyan sheria 
to break the law; also to 
skip words in reading, cf. 
A 73 ; ratsa hainya to pass 
along the side of a road, to 
deviate from it ; sun ratsa ta 
gari they turned off towards 
the town ; ratsa rua to cross 
a river. 

ratsi, intr. to go out of the way; 
see ratse. 

ratso, to turn off in the direc- 
tion of the speaker ; ratsowa 
a deviation. 

rauda (cf. Ar. rt >^j), 1. to 
shake; rauda kai to shake 
the head ; cf . kauda kai ; 2. 
to drive away. 

raunana, v. adj. weak, infirm. 

rauni, 1. wound, bruise; da 
rauni wounded ; 2. pliancy as 
opposed to gaushi. 




rauni*, to sway to and fro. 

raura, to tremble, to shake, to 
shiver or shudder, as with 
cold; raurawa shaking, trem- 
bling; yin raurawa to become 
deranged or raving. 

rawa, dance; y in rawa to dance, 
ina taka rawa I dance, ji- 
kinsa yina rawa his body 
is all of a tremble, rawa is 
also applied to the drill of 
soldiers, mairawarkai* man 
with St Vitus's dance in his 
head ; cf . roya. 

rawani, pi. rawuna, a bandage 
of any kind, head-dress, tur- 
ban; rawanin aarauta the 
badge or insignia of royalty ; 
ya maida rawani he resigned 

rawatsa, n. prattling, babbling. 

rawaya, a shrub with large 
yellow rose-like flowers (Coch- 
lospermum tinctorium, Bixa- 
ceae), a yellow dye is obtained 
from its bark by tanners, = 

rawaya, pi. rawayu, yellow. 

raya, to dance ; cf . rawa. 

raya, to take care of ; see raia. 

rayi*, life. 

raz&na, raz&ni, to fear (often 
used with da), to start or 
hasten in fear of anything, 
frighten, disturb ; D 38 6a 
mutua ni ke razana I do not 

fear death, F 75 ka razana 
daga kwana hasten to arise 
from sleep. 

raattni, n. fear, terror. 

reaba, a rope. 

rebe, to separate ; see rdba. 

reda, to jeer at. 

reda, to grind wheat, guinea- 
corn, etc. ; ba shi reduwa it 
cannot be ground; maireda 
a miller, marede a mill-stone. 

re£e, to scrape away, e.g. a bad 
surface of meat, etc. ; to cut 
into strips. 

refe, bank of a stream ; see rafi. 

refe, refo, pL rqfuna, refu 9 a 
branch, used esp. in Sokoto 
district ; cf. reshe. 

rSga, pi. rtguna, rags, old 

rSga (S.), to peep into; cf. leka. 

rSge (S.), to allow muddy water 
to settle, to filter; see rere, 

regi, r&gi, rftge, tr. and intr. 
to diminish, to decrease, to 
remain over, ya r&gi it is left 
or there remains, mi ya rdge 
what is left ? ya rdge ashirin 
there remains twenty; ya 
rdge gari da kwana a\ria he 
was within one march of the 
town ; rdgu, intr. and pass, 
to decrease ; rana ta rdgu the 
day is on the wane; rdgua 
diminishing, decrease. 





r6gO (S.), pi. regogi, reguna, n. 
peering into. 

r§ke, r&ke, like, a large variety 
of sugar-cane also called kdran 
sarki ; see rike, 

rekua, rakua, small black bee. 

reme, rema, pi. remade, a large 
species of tailless rat living 
in rocky ground ; probably a 
species of jerboa (kurege). 

rSna, 1. to slight, neglect, dis- 
regard, e.g. 8hina rena abo- 
kinsa he despises his friend ; 
rena ma want wayo to treat 
someone with disrespect ; part, 
form renawa despising ; 2. to 
refuse, renane, fern, renana, 
pi. renanu, despised, despic- 
able; cf. raina. 

rene, to lull, nurse, bring up, 

reni, n. despising ; renin wayo 
contempt of advice. 

reno, n. nursing, educating; 
suka yi renona har na girma 
theybroughtmeup; maireno, 
pi. masurenoy nurse, tutor. 

reran, reren, ' all of a heap ' ; 
nafadi reran I collapsed; cf. 
wata reran. 

rere, sand ; see rairai. 

rGre (K.), to filter; see rare, 
rereya, rira; cf. rege. 

rerebi, to distinguish two 
things that are much alike; 
cf. raraba, rdba. 

rereffe, to crawl ; see rarafe. 

rerereu, a shout or chant of 
joy, it implies ka zo ka ji 
come and hear! 

rereya, rairaia, leleya, a sieve 
or fan for sifting ; see raria. 

rero, rairo, the hair and beard 
of a goat or sheep ; mairero 

reshe, n., pi. rSsa, r&sa, branch, 

reshi, loss ; see rdsa. 

reta, to shake to and fro, to 
swing, to swing the arms. 

reto, swinging, hanging; yaya 
suna reto the fruit hangs 
down ; cf. M. H. p. 103 suna 
reto da shi they shake him 
backwards and forwards. 

ria (Ar. ^tj), pretence, story- 
telling, dissimulation. 

riali, liar, Spanish dollar, oc- 
casionally used by Hausas in 
N. Africa; cf. M. H. p. 216. 

riawa (S.), a false story. 

riba, to multiply, to increase ; 
na riba shi goma I multiplied 
it by ten, or I increased it 

riba, pi. rtbobi (Ar. *-tj), 1. pro- 
fit, esp. unlawful gain ; kin 
riba to hate covetousness or 
unlawful profit, chin riba to 
gain such profit, V 17 ka tuba 
ka ber riba repent, cease from 




unlawful gain, F 201 masuriba 
those who make unlawful pro- 
fits ; riba is also used of any 
advantage, na blsa ya fi na 
kasa riba the one above has 


an advantage over the one 
below ; 2. to make unlawful 

riba, to go bad ; see ruba. 

ribadi (Ar. la^j), reserve, sup- 
port (in war) ; cf. riba. 

ribbi* (Ar. ,wj), 1. num. 

myriad ; D 59 ribbi da ribbi 
antaru myriads and myriads 
of them shall be collected, 
D 64 ribbi saba'in seventy 
thousandfold ; 2. used as a 
verb, to repeat ten thousand 
times, e.g. D 44 su Jean ribbi 
sanduna maimai kaman du- 
atsu they pile up blows many 
in number as stones. 

ribda-chlki, prone; seerubda. 

ribde, rifde, rubde, to strike 
violently, to smash up, e.g. 
to beat corn in mortar : used 
in Sokoto for d&ka. 

ribdi, rubudi, pounded flour. 

rlbe, rlbi, rubi, a double thick- 
ness, e.g. of cloth ; also used 
of a strand of rope, or of 
anything folded; cf. palle. 

ribe, rube, to twist strands 
into a rope. 

rlbi*, half ; see rdbi. 

rlbiye, n. folding up, placing 
one thing upon another. 

rida, flaying (e.g. of a goat). 

rida, to seize, to snatch at in 
order to eat ; C 33 to ridasa 
gun wuya she seizes him by 
the neck; masurida gluttons. 

ridi, Sesamum Indicum, Peda- 
liaceae ; see lidi. 

ridi, a native cloth of a black 
or blue colour, with silk 
woven into it. 

ridimi, ridimin abu a big thing, 
pi. ridi-ridi 

rifde, to smash, strike violently ; 
see ribde. 

rife, to cover, a form of rufe y 

riga, pi. riguna, tobe, gown, 
shirt, and gen. garment; 8a 
riguna to put on clothes, riga 
saki a dress with small blue 
and black squares, rigatsamia 
a dress consisting in part of 
yellowish brown silk; rigan 
giwa dark blue shiny tobe, 
so called from its toughness, 
not from its size ; rigan rua 
a water-proof cape ; rigan 
gaba a jacket; rigan haifua 
caul ; cf . prov. dere rigan 
mugu night is a cloak for the 
evil man ; cf . also rigan domain 
on account of another, riga 
is used metaphorically for 
greatness or power; yashiga 




rigor sarki he has the king's 
protection ; rigor domin some 
one's good offices. The tobe 
(riga) is the characteristic 
dres8oftheHausas. Immense 
quantities are manufactured 
in Kano. Its shape is that 
of a loose surplice with a large 
embroidered pocket in front. 
They are made in blue, red 
and white cloth. 

riga, n. filtering by allowing 
water to settle ; abin riga a 
filter, see rege. 


rlgaya, riga, to get in advance 
of, to outrun ; shi ya rtgamu 
he got in front of us ; kdda 
ka rlgaya lokachinka do not 
come before your time, ya 
rlgaya ya tafi he is gone al- 
ready; wane ya rigayamu 
gidan gaskia so and so is 
dead ; ya riga ta gona he 
was at the farm before her. 

rtg e > n - going before another ; 
see rigaya. 

rigi*, a vegetable used in mak- 
ing soup ; it has a mint-like 
leaf, and purple flower. 

rigigi (S. ), a red bead ; cf . rikiki. 

rigima, confusion, tumult, ru- 
mour ; ana ta rigimar gobara 
there was a cry of fire ; suke 
ma mutane rigima they are 
disturbing people. 

rigingini, rigingint, n. 1. ly- 
ing on the back with the legs 
up ; suka/adi rigmgine they 
fell backwards; 2. deceit; ya 
yi magana rigingini he ut- 
tered deceitful words; mairi- 
gingini deceitful. 

rijia, lijiya, pi. riycji, rifiyoyi 

(cf. Ar. l»»j, coping stone of 
a well), used both as masc. 
and fern., well, cistern, spring ; 
rijia da zurifi a deep well ; 
gina (or tona) rijia to dig a 

rika, to begin, used in Sokoto 
for fara (to be distinguished 
from rika) ; ya rtka maker- 
keta he began to quiver with 

rika, rike, riki, 1. to hold, 
keep, retain, cleave to, select ; 
2. to hold fast in the mind, 
to keep, observe, e.g. the com- 
mandments of God ; 3. used 
of a woman, to betroth, to 
hold betrothed; 4. to keep 
on doing a thing, thus zan 
rika tafia I shall keep on 
going ; kulum ka rika ba shi 
rua give him water everyday ; 
rike da (dawaki) to lead 
(horses) ; rikawa holding fast, 
cleaving to; rikake y fem. rika- 
kia, pi. rikaku,he\d, retained, 
also full grown. The follow- 
ing are apparently strength- 




ened forms of rike: risks, riski, 
ruska to hold, detain, obtain; 
B 144 ta kcm yi lalaba da ta 
riskeka it (the world) would 
fondle and detain you ; see 

like, a variety of sugar-cane 
(Saceharum officinarum, Gra- 
mineae) grown only near 
streams and reaped about the 
same time as guinea-corn; cf. 

riki, to hold, select; see rike. 

rikichewa, a mistake; see 

rikichi, pi. rikita, deceit, fraud, 
quarrel, double dealing ; also 
used of a chain getting into 
a tangle, rikiche, v. to be 
confused, intr. to act deceit- 
fully, tr. to treat deceitfully; 
B 100, kdda ka rikiche ka 
hi shashasha do not make 
a mistake nor follow a fool ; 
cf . rikida. 

rikida, to change oneself, to 
be transformed, e.g. as a cha- 
meleon is, to change oneself 
into or become something dif- 
ferent, e.g. na rikida tsuntsua 
I transformed myself into a 
bird ; also tr. to change one 
thing into another, rikidade, 
fern, rikidadia, pi. rikidadu, 
changed, transformed ; cf. ri- 

rikiki, a small red bead. 

rikirkida, the power of chang- 
ing one's shape, conjuring; 
cf . rikida. 

rikita, to confuse ; cf . rikiche to 
be confused ; cf . ba na rikitua 
I am not to be deceived. 

riko, n., 1. detention, holding 
on to anything ; B 18 ba riko 
ba bimbini he does not de- 
tain him or make a long 
examination ; 2. a stake in 
gambling; mariko a custo- 
dian ; 3. betrothal ; anyi masa 
rikanta he was betrothed. 

rikumbu*, likimbu*, abund- 
ance, e.g. kaya rikumbu. 

rima, pi. rimomi, rimaimai, 
mildew, damp, moisture. 

rima fada, ruma fada, a com- 
mon herb with small white 
flowers (Scoparia dulcis, Scro- 

rimana, rumana, a wild 
gladiolus with edible bulb 
(Gladiolus spicata, Amaryl- 

rimdi, a broad road or track. 

rimi, used to describe the posi- 
tion of standing on the head. 

rimi, rini*, the silk-cotton 
tree (Eriodendron anf ractuo- 
sum, Malvaceae), a large 
spreading tree greatfy valued 
for the shade whieh it affords, 
also for the cotton obtained 




from it. Its seeds are en- 
veloped in long silken hairs 
closely resembling the true 
cotton, but owing to lack of 

• adhesion between the hairs 
they cannot be manufactured, 
but are used for stuffing 
cushions ; cf . ' Hausaland,' 

- p. 159. Used in making ar- 
mour ; cf. lifidi. rimi isamri 
a grass, the leaves of which 
when beaten up make a 
pleasant drink. 

rimin-samari, a common pink- 
flowered herb (Oldenlandia 
grand iflora, Rubiaceae). 

rimmani, pomegranate ; see 

rimtsi, to grasp ; see rumchi. 

rina, pi. rinoni, rinainai, a 

. hornet. 

rina, to dye; rinene, rinena y 
pi. rinenUy dyed, tinged, ri- 
nanta dyeing, ba ta rinuwa 
it cannot be dyed ; see rini. 

rinda, to fall back from Islam 
to paganism. 

rinfa, a mat-shed, a Kano form 
of rumfa. 

ringa, 1. (Z.) a stone wall; 2. 
(K.).a climbing plant. 

ringi* (K.), the rest, what re- 
mains over ; cf. kingi, rdgua. 

ringinghie, on the back ; see 

rini, n. dye, esp. indigo dye. 

marini a dyer, ma/rina a dye- 
pit ; see Hna. 
rinj&ya, rinj&ye, rinj&yi (cf. 

Ar. m^j, outweighed and 

9*^.j, preferred), to prevail 
over, to overcome, na rinjayi 
mutum = nafi karifinsa, B 38 
ski wonda zuchiata rinjayi 
he who overcomes his own 
heart ; cf . zuchiata ta fi rin- 
jaya wanan da wanchan I 
prefer this to that, ya fi 
rinjaya l he takes to ' is some- 
times used as a paraphrase 
for 'often.' rinjaya is also 
used for ' to convince. ' 

rilljijia (S.),teal; cf. kirinjijia. 

rino, 1. an iron fork for toast- 
ing meat at a fire ; 2. a stake. 

rinta, to cheat. 

rillto, cheating, a false accusa- 

rinu, a fork ; see rino. 

rinzami* (K.), bridle; see 

lira, n. filtering ; see rere. 

risbawa (cf. Ar. v*-y), desola- 
tion, B 92. 

risga, pi. risgogi, risguna, a 
small species of yam (dio- 
scorea) with a sage-like leaf, 
its root is eaten like the sweet 
potato, or ground up. 

risgar kurege, asclepias lenio- 
lata, a shrub with milky 




juice and purple flowers. 

The spindle-shaped tubers are 

used medicinally, also called 

rlshe, a twig ; see reshe. 
rishi, n. trotting. 
riske, riski, ruska, to hold, 

to reach, obtain ; cf . rika. 
ritse, ratse, to guard, hold (as 

of a door), possibly rize* is 

another form of this word, 
riwaya (S.), a true story. Ar. 

riya, dissimulation ; see ria. 
riyaya, the telling of a story, 
rizbe, ruzbe, to break down ; 
cf. risbawa. 

rize, ruze (Ar. jjj), 1. to 
capture, also to encompass a 
town and capture it; 2. to 
detect, overtake in a fault. ri~ 
zewa capturing, etc. ; cf . rusa, 

rizuma, risma (cf. Ar. j*jj), 

a pack tied up, a packet of 

roba, pL robobi, robuna, a kind 

of grass, sometimes used for 

filling cushions, 
rodi, pi. rode-rode, speckles, 

spots. mairodi speckled, 

roga (S.), a horse-feed, dried 

leaves of wake or g$da. 
rogalla-gandi or zogalla- 

gandi, horse-radish tree 

(Meringa pterygosperma, Le- 

rogo (Fulah ragohi), manihot 
utilissima, a tuber like dan- 
kali, edible, with milky juice. 

rogon-daji, the name of a 
poison used for smearing 

roka, conversation, used in 
Zaria for fira. 

roka or roko, Kanuri logo (cf. 

Ar. £}£=>j from %£&y to bend 

in prayer), 1. to ask, beg, 

pray ; 2. to beg of, ask of. 

maroki, fern, marokia, beggar. 

marokachi begging. 
roko, n. begging ; yin roko to 

roma, to escort. 
romache (S.), a mixture of 

rama leaves and dusa\ see 


romua (S.), rumua, romo 

(K.), 1. broth, soup; romon 
8ariki a feast held by the 
heathen in Hausaland; fig. 
romon. kune, lit. ear-broth, 
pleasant words; 2. a small 
extra payment or present; cf. 
prov. alhaki da romo shiga 
iyakin wuya the proper wage 
with a slight addition brings 
a difficulty to a speedy end. 

rongoda, a swaggering walk. 

rongomi, rangomi, 1. a better 




state of health, convalescence, 
recovery; shina da rongomi 
he is getting better, yin ron- 
gomi to recover ; jin rongomi 
to feel better ; 2. an amount 
deducted from the price paid 
for any article ; ka yi ron- 
gomi grant a reduction, ena 
rongomiwh&t discount do you 
allow ? cf. gara ; 3. mercy, 
discretion as to punishment, 
rongonta ma to let off. ku 
yi rongomi (addressed to a 
crowd) get back a little. 

rorami, a crooked stick used 
for pulling down fruit from 
a tree ; cf . wurami. 

rore, to glean ; cf . roro, 

roro, v. n. gleaning, esp. of 
beans and ground nuts. 

roahe, roche, rosa, to break 
down, destroy; cf. rotsa. 

roshi, a council, consultation, 
talk, gossip, suna yin roshi = 
suna yin shawora they con- 

roshi, rabahi (q.v.), finely 
ground, e.g. alkama ina da 
roshi the corn is ground 

rotel* (Ar. JJpj), a pound 
of twelve ounces, sometimes 
pronounced roili. The word 
is little used except by Hausas 
in constant intercourse with 

rotsa, to strike a blow ; cf. roshe. 

rotse, a blow, esp. on the head, 
such as causes a wound or 
swelling, e.g. na yi masa rotse 
I gave him a hard blow. 

rowa, stinginess, miserliness; 
in A 37 rowa is used as an 
adjective, wanda ya ke rowa 
yana murna nata whoever is 
stingy and rejoices in being 
so, yin rowa to be greedy, 
da rowa stingy, mairowa one 
who is miserly. 

rozo, a species of spider. 

rua, pi. ruaye, ruwaiwai, mas- 
culine, 1. water; man demi 
hot water, man kasa, lit. 
earth water, water as in a 
river, man sha drinking 
water, da rua watery, na 
iya rua I can swim ; fig. ya 
sha rua a dunia he has 
enjoyed prosperity in this 
world, man ido watery eye, 
i.e. longing eye ; man noma 
soup, man tsami vinegar ; 
2. man sama (lit. sky water) 
and man allah rain, ana rua 
and yana rua it rains, rua 
yana dama the rain is leav- 
ing off, man kankara and 
rua da kankara hail; kuna 
rua pure water ; man gainye 
drippings from trees after 
rain, man rua the water left 
in the leaves after rain : in 




Sokoto rua is regularly used 
as a pi. word, e.g. rua sun 
zo. rigan rua a water-proof 
cape, mairua a maxim gun 
(so called because it shoots 
continuously) ; 3. care, atten- 
tion, thought, business, con- 
cern, e.g. ba ruana it does 
not concern me, babu ruana 
gareka I have nothing to do 
with thee, ena ruanka what 
does it matter to thee 1 babu 
komi sai ruan alloh it is 
God's concern alone, A 5 kulu 
musilmi ba rua alkafiri all 
the Mussulmans, I care not 
for the heathen. 
ruba, pi. rubobiy empty threat 
(kuri in Sokoto) : a false state- 
ment which causes alarm, yin 
ruba to alarm, to frighten 


riiba, riba, rubba, to go bad, 
as meat or fruit; also to 
be' worn out or rotten, of 
material, etc. rubabe, pi. 
rubabu, decayed; cf. prov. 
rubaben hakori ya fi bahi 
wqfi spoilt teeth are better 
than an empty mouth, i.e. 
an indifferent thing is better 
than nothing at all. 

rubachi, to spoil or render 
bad; see ruba. 

rubda* (cf. Ar. c^>> to 
crouch), rubda chiki or rufda 

chiki to crawl, or be pros- 
trate, F 192 rubda chiki also 
to sleep face downwards ; ya 
fada rubda chiki he fell flat 
on his face. 

rubde, to strike, thrust, pound; 
see ribde. 

riibe, rlbe, to twist strands 
into a rope. 

rubsa or rufsa, used with kuka, 
to utter a cry ; cf. rapsa. 

rubshi, hot ashes ; cf rufushi. 

rubuche, to write ; see rubuta. 

rubuchi, writing of any kind ; 
cf . rubuta. 

rubudi, n. a blow, pounding; 
see ribdi. 

« »j 

rubui* (Ar. *jj), a quarter. 

rubushi, to lose; B 141 kdda 
ka bita ku rubushi gobe follow 
it (the world) not lest you 
lose on the last day. 

rubuta (cf. Ar. clJJ, to 

educate children), to write. 

rubuchi anything written. 

marubuchi, pi. marubuta, 

rubutu, n. writing, anything 

written, a document, 
ruchi, to strike a blow ; see 

ruda, to stir. 

rudade, deceived ; see rude. 
rude*, soup, the liquid basis 

of tuo. 




rude, rudi, ruda, to deceive, 
perplex, to be perplexed, ya 
rude he is perplexed or be- 
wildered, abu duka ya taru 
ya rude the matter is all 
mixed up and confused ; mat- 
rude, pi. mamrude, deceiver ; 
rudi also to fail to under- 
stand what is said, rudade, 
fern, rudada, pi. rudadu, de- 
ceived, misled. 

rudi, n. deceit, deceiving; cf. 


rudu, a light hut raised on four 
poles, with thatched roof. 

rududuge, rotten. 

rufa, a dress or cloth used as 
a covering; abin rufa clothes, 
an expression used by a 
beggar; cf. rufe. 

rufda-chlki, to crawl; see 

rufe, rufa, rufi, rife, to cover, 
to conceal, to keep secret; 
pass. D 93 kdda arufe kofa 
beware lest the door be closed. 
ya rufa bald he kept quiet. 
rufi to put on a roof, to cover 
in, also verb. n. rufi, mun yi 
rufinsa. mu rufa ma hanmu 
asiri we mustn't give our- 
selves away, marufi cover- 
ing; yin rufi to hide the 
truth, hence to flatter, rufu 
intr., cf. asiri ya rufu ; intens. 
form rurrufe idanunsa ya 

rurrufu his eyes were quite 
closed up. mairufe, pi. ma~ 
surufe, one who conceals, 
e.g. the truth, rufafe, fern. 
rufafa, pL rufafu, covered, 

rufewa (S.), in Kano rafonia, 
a large jar or receptacle made 
of mud for keeping grain, 
etc. inside a house. 

rufogo, abundance, a place for 
storing corn, a corn bin. 

rufushi, rubshi, rabchi* hot 
ashes, a fire which has burnt 

ruga, rugga, a Fulani cattle 

ruga* rauga, 1. to make to 
flee ; 2. to flee ; ruga or rugo 
(according as the motion is 
from or towards), used with 
gudu, ya ruga da gudu he 
ran hard. 

rugba, to become rotten, used 
of fruit, a form of ruba, q.v. 

rugU*, quickly; cf. ruga. 

rugunguza* to break in 
pieces, to smash. 

ruhu* (Ar.), spirit. 

rujia* an edible root like the 
sweet potato dankali but 
larger and with watery sub- 
stance inside. 

rukaso, to pursue ; see rakaso. 

ruku ruku, a pi. n. big = main- 
ya mainya ; cf . ridimi. 





rukuke, a wand or stick carried 
by officials.. 

rukuki, wood, forest. 

rukuu (Ar.), the stooping posi- 
tion of prayer with hands on 
knees ; see rakuu. 

rttma* (S.), to be quiet or still. 

ruma fada, rima fada, a herb ; 
see rima fada. 

rumache, romache, a mixture 
of onions, flour and water or 
of rama leaves and dusa ; cf . 

ruman, pi. i*ummanina, rum- 

manax (Ar. 0^°j)> pome- 

rumana, rimana, a wild gla- 
diolus ; see rimana. 

rumania, a furrow. 

rumbu, 1. a barn, storehouse, 
corn bin ; cf. rufogo ; 2. shed, 
stall in the market ; cf . 

rumbua*, wheel, circlet; cf. 

rumchi, rumtse, runtse, 
rimtsi, 1. to grasp, squeeze 
in the hand ; 2. to screw up 
the eyes ; cf . rumtsi. 

rumji, rumdawa, a name 
given to Fulani slaves. 

rumpa, runpa, rumfa, pi. 
rumfuna, plank, table, shed, 

[j booth; stand on which things 
are exposed for sale, cover 
of a canoe; cf. rumbu. 

rumtsi, n. tightness, straitness. 
wuri ya yi rumtsi the place 
is crowded, rubutunka ya yi , 
rumtsi your writing is crab- 
bed ; cf . rumchi. 

romua, broth ; see romua. 

rumuya, a grass used in mak- 
ing ropes ; (?) see ramma. 

runduna, a crowd. 

runfuki, n. garden. 

rungfima, rungfime, bef . pron. 
obj., to embrace, to be fixed 
in (of a stick in a tree). 

rung&me, n. holding in or 
under the arms, shina run- 
gume da haja he was holding 
articles for sale under his 

runhu, cassia goratensis, legu- 
minosae, a bunch of its leaves 
is used for splashing hot 
water in washing a woman 
after childbirth. 

runsa (S.), to blink; cf. 
rumchi 2. 

runsuna, rusuna, to fall down 
before one, to do obeisance. 

rupkarupki, the sound of the 
pounding of food in a mortar. 

rupta,* rupto, to snatch with 
violence; cf. seq. 

rupta, quickly; cf. prec. 

rura, a common shrub (Pari- 
narium curatellaefolium, Ro- 
saceae) from which a red dye 
is made. 



rura*, cf. ina da rura I am 

. ruri, to roar, to bellow, used 
of camel, ox, donkey, men, 
A 4; lire, D 72. 
rurimi*, used in phr. mutum 
ya yi rurimi he is ill or 

rurugi * a redupL form of rudi, 
e.g. B 147 tana da rurudi 
don ta yi zamba it practises 
deceit in order that it may 
commit a crime. 

rusa, to give way, break (con- 
nected with rushi), daki ya 
rusa da ski the roof gave 
way under him, rusad-da tr. 
to break up ; cf . roshe. 

rushe (K.), to eat greedily, to 

rushi, to fall into ruin, as a 
house, rushiwa falling into 

rushua* (Ar. 5^LJ), a bribe 
given to a judge. 

ruska, to comprehend, to ob- 
tain; cf. abin da na ruska, 
B 64; see riske. 

ruski, to catch; C 2 zambata 
da ta ruski masuguctu nata 
the evil which catches even 
its swift runners ; see riska. 

rusuma, to bow ; see runsuna. 

rutsa, to measure with the 
thumb and middle finger. 

rutsa, to vanish ; cf. ruza. 

rutse, to shut in, keep from 

going out, e.g. by blocking 

the door, 
rututu (Zanf.), many, much, 
rasa, to rush, e*g. out of a 

crowd = rutsa, q.v. 
razbe, to break down; see 

ruzu* a net bag. 

u* and ^jo are used by the 
Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English s. 

sa, pronominal suffix 3rd pers. 
masc. sing., 1. sa or -nsa used 
as inseparable possessive pro- 
noun when the object pos- 
sessed is masculine and the 
possessor is masculine, e.g. 
ubansa his father, mutanensa 
his men, gidansa his house 
(this latter would be in Zaria 
gidanshi, in Sokoto gidanshd 
or gidanai); the forms 4sa 
and -rsa are used instead of 
-nsa where the word to which 
they are attached is feminine, 
thus tafiarsa or tafialsa his 
journey ; 2. as objective pro- 
noun esp. when preceded by 
the prepositions ma and gore, 
e.g. masa or garesa* to him. 
sa, 1. to lay, put, place, ya sashi 
chikin sanfo he placed it. in 
the basket; to put on, to 



wear, used of clothes, etc. ; 
to lay aside, B 83 mu bada 
gaskia mu sa kankcmche let 
us give credence, let us put 
aside quarrelling, sa rana to 
fix a day for starting on a 
march or for a marriage, etc., 
kurdin sa kurdi a present 
brought by a prospective 
bridegroom to the bride's 
parents at the time of his 
requesting the fixing of the 
wedding day ; cf. prov. abin 
sawa chlkin daki ya fi daki 
wiya the things for placing in 
a house exceed the house in 
difficulty, i.e. it is of no use 
having built a fine house, if 
you have nothing to put in- 
side it ; 2. to cause, to make 
do, e.g. shi ya sa na tashi 
it was the cause of my start- 
ing; 3. also to send to do, 
ta sa barorinta she sent her 
servants, sawo id. with refer- 
ence to the speaker, ta sawo 
yayan yaki she sent soldiers 
against us. asawo akasheshi 
let them send to kill him; 
aUali shi sa ' may God grant 
it' is used in answer to the 
wish sauka lajia. saawa the 
placing of a thing. 

sa, bull, f . sanid, cow, pi. shdnu, 
cattle ; cf. sakaza a drake. 

8ft, a contraction of sua, a pre- 

fix to denote the third person 
pi. of the future tense, cf . Gr. 
p. 33. 
saa*, friend. 

saa, pi. sddi (Ar. fel*), 1. time, 
season ; also used for time- 
piece, watch, clock ; saa ta 
yi the appointed time has 
come, allah ya baka saa God 
give thee a favourable oppor- 
tunity; 2. used adverbially 
with nan and da y saanan at 
that time, then; saanda at 
the time that, when; wane 
saa when ? 

saada* (Ar. oU-*), happiness, 

saanan, then ; see saa. 

saanda, when ; see saa, 

saati, foot-soldiers, an expedi- 
tion, raid. 

saawa, placing of a thing ; see 

saba, to be accustomed to, na 
saba da wanan I am accus- 
tomed to or practised in this ; 
ya saba da wuri he frequents 
the place ; cf . sabo. 

sftba, sftbi, to invoke, swear 
by, to place the hand on the 
Koran in taking an oath. 

sftba, quarrelling ; see suaba. 

sftba, 1. to throw cowries in the 
game of chacha, cf . sibi ; 2. to 
slinga thing over the shoulder ; 
asabo lajia a salutation to a 




; man going out for a ride = 
homo lafia. 

S&ba, to rub. 

s&ba the cast skin of a serpent; 
see 8uaba. 

sab&a, seb&a (Ar.), seven thou- 
sand, cf. Gr. p. 67. 

sab&bi, sub&bi, pi. sabtiba, 

sabdbai (Ar. *****), 1. reason, 
cause, babu sabdbi without 
cause; 2. violent dispute, 
angry words; 3. accident, 
misfortune, e.g. sabdbi ya sa- 
meshi an accident happened 
to him ; kdda ka jawo mani 
sabdbi don't get me into 
trouble; 4. a fight, mortal 
struggle, suka kama sabdbi ; 
mawababi, pi. masnsabdbi 
mischief-maker ; yin sabdbi to 
do mischief, 
sab&da, 1. pod of the locust 
tree (doriwa) ; 2. double 
thickness of cloth, e.g. in a 
tobe ; so called from the like- 
ness to the two sides of the 

s&bada,sabbadaor sabbado* 

s * 
sabboda* (Ar. *****); 1. be- 
cause of, sabboda toanan for 
this reason ; 2. in exchange 
sabagi (S.), broken potash, 
sabain, Ar., seventy; see sebain, 
sabani, a plant with a long 
narrow leaf. 

sabani, disagreement, breaking 
up of friendship, difference, 
opposition ; sabanin rana 

s&bara (cf. (?) Ar. jl^i), 1. a 
small thorny palm ; 2. pliant 
sticks used in roofing; cf. 

sabara, sabura (Ar. j$j+*\ a 
place with no trees or houses, 
but grass only, an abandoned 

sabba, a shortened form of 
sabboda, q.v. 

sabbinani, sabbinane, a Ful- 
ani salutation in common use 
in Sokoto ; allah ya sabbinani 
God give you long life — the 
answer is ungwaiya. 

sabche, to smooth ; see sabta. 

s&be* (Ar. 4*-), to revile, F34. 

sabe, saba, to project, e.g. of 
a single man in a row. 

s&be, to affect (from a distance), 
wuta ta sabeta the heat of the 
fire affected her; iskad doki 
ta sabe mutum the rush of air 
made by the horse affected 
him ; cf. sdba to rub. 

sabe*, to choose ; see zabe, 

sabe, of irregular lengths; used 
also of paper arranged with 
irregular edges ; cf. sasabe. 

s&bero, s&bro, sauro, samro, 

pi. sabruna, sabraye, a mos- 




6&bi, throw cowries ; cf. sdba. 
sdbi to take an oath before 
a judge ; cf. saba. 

s&bi, to clean or prepare raw 
cotton by drawing it out on 
the mastibi, q.v.; 2. raw cot- 
ton; cf. s8bi. 

sabili (At. ), cause, origin,reason 
(cf. dalili); sabili da because 
of; enna sabili what is the 
reason? sabilin mi why? 
sabili da shi for his sake. 

sabira, zabira, saddle-bag, M. 
H. p. 217, wallet. 

sabka, sapka, safka, sauka, 
sauki, 1. to let down, to 
lower, to unload camels; 
hence, 2. to alight at a place, 
to lodge; masabki or gidan 
sabka a place at which to 
stop; maimasabki innkeeper, 
host ; sabkas, saukad with da 
to let down; na sabkas da 
kaya or na sabka kaya I laid 
down the load, sabkeke let 
down, laid down ; sabko, safko 
or sapko to start, to set out ; 
sabko lafia may you finish 
your journey well ! sabka and 
sapka are more commonly used 
in Daura, sauka and soka in 
Sokoto, and safka in Kano. 

sabko, safko, n. start, esp. 

used of an early start; yin 
sabko to start early. 

s&bo, fern, sdbua, pi. sabui, sa- 

R. H. D. 

babi 9 sabobi, new, fresh, young 
(possibly from Ar. , : r \ 
young) ; sabon wata new 
moon; na sabo again, D 18 
maituba ba shi korao ga aiki 
nai na sabo he who repents, 
returns not to his work again. 

sabo, evil; seesuabo. 

s&bo* (K.), because, in order 
that; cf. seq. 

sabo, habit, practice, custom; 
cf. sabo turiken wawa\ cf. 

S&boda, because ; see sabada. 

sabra, an abandoned farm; 
see sabara, 

sabro, mosquito ; see sdbero, 

sabta, sabche, sanche, to 
make smooth; ka sabta masu 
f&da stop their quarrelling; 
sabtUy sautu to become smooth. 

sabta, cleanliness, smartness; 
cf. tsabta. 

sabtu, saptu, sotu, sautu 

^ /t • 

(cf . Ar. 9^ and Pers. aJkw), 

1. a trust, yin sabtu to entrust, 
e.g. na yi sabtu masa kurdi I 
entrusted the money to him; 

2. a commission to purchase 
or to give something. 

sabua, a term used in chacha 
for money not yet staked ; 
cf. sdba. 

s&bua, new, a feminine form of 
sabo, q.v. 





sabua, guinea-fowl, a feminine 

form of zabo, q.v. 
sabua, sabuwa, fighting, 
sabule, to draw out. 
sabunchi (K.), renewing ; cf. 

sabuntaka (S.). 
sabuni (S.), sabulo (K.) (Ar. 

^j^lo, Gr. o-dtTCDv), soap, so- 
bunin sdlo a superior soap, 
e.g. that imported via the 
Nupe country, used for wash- 
ing the face. 

s&bunta, to renew, restore. 

sabuntaka (S.), renewing; cf. 
8abunchi (K.). 

sabura, a place with no trees ; 
see sohara. 

sache, to steal ; see sata. 

Sftda (Ar.), to close, to shut up, 
to put an end to a quarrel 
between two men; sddu, 1. 
to agree with a person ; 2. to 
meet on the road, to meet 
with, E 49 chikin dadi mu 
sadu da larabawa with joy 
we shall meet with the Arabs. 
sddua, particip. form, 1. con- 
cord ; 2. meeting with. 

s&daberu, magic. 

• * * * 

sadaka (Ar. iijuc), alms, alms- 
giving, A 83 sadaka da baiwa 
du ya bai almajirai he gave 
all offerings and gifts to his 

sadaka (in western districts of 
Hausaland), a gaol ; dan sa- 

daka a convict, bi dan sadaka 
to escort a convict. 

sadaka, pi. saddku (from sa 
and daki), a female slave, a 

sadaka, sadauka, v. to give 
alms, e.g. A 46 wanan da ke 
sadaka da baiwa maiyatoa 
one of these gave alms and 
showed much generosity ; 
kurdin sadaka the sum paid 
by a bridegroom to the 
parents of the bride. 

sada-kai, to bow or lower the 

sadaki, a gift given by a bride- 
groom to a bride. 

sadare (Ar. jju»), to be con- 
founded, A 8 ; cf . sandare. 
sadauki, invincible warrior 

(Ar. ^£>jjuf, to be daunt- 

s&du, to arrive ; see sada. 

s&dua, conciliation ; see soda. 

saduda, confidence, etc.; cf. 

safa*, spring onions. 

s&fa (S.), to cheat, defraud. 

safa, quilted mail worn on the 

s&fa*, to increase, used with 
arziki, D 35 ; cf. sH/a. 

safage*, one who scatters his 
enemies in war. 

safara (S.), employment, oc- 




cupation; yin safara to be 


s * 
safe, safia (Ar. vj^o) (safe is 

used as fern., A 11), early 
' morning ; safe ya yi morning 
came ; da safe in the morning ; 
sanu da safe good morning ! 
sai da safe good night! ko- 
wache safia every morning; 
safia is used adverbially in 
B 103 en ha ga safia rana if 
thou beholdest the sun in the 
dawn ; sasafe very early in 
the morning. 

safe, 1. a long leathern boot 
reaching about ten inohes up 
the leg; 2. a long leather 
sheath or bag. 

8&fi, a horse ; see safe. 

safi, safe ( Ar. [ yyc) 9 unalloyed, 

pure, used of metals, e.g. of 

8&fi, s&fe, fern, sdfia, a young 

safia, morning ; see safe. 
safirchi*, an oath, invocation 

of God. 
safko, n. starting ; see sabko. 
safbu, commission to purchase ; 

see sautu. 

safu, saffu (Ar. h**), 1. a line 
or row, e.g. as formed for 
prayer, yin saffu to form 
a line; F 92 atsaida saffu 
assaUashe a line is formed, 

prayer is said; 2. line of 

sagagi, a small bird which runs 

on the top of water vegetation 

(jacana ?). 
sagara, a young virgin. 
s&ge, to become stiff or cramped, 

e.g. with cold, 
sage, to catch or get caught in 

falling (e.g. in branch of a 

sage*, to reproach ; see zage. 
sago, a medicine which when 

drunk is supposed to ward 

off the blows of an enemy, 
sago, male white ant ; see zdgo. 
sago, a large black snake. 
sahibi* (Ar.), friend, 
sahur, suhur, safur* a meal 

just before the morning dur- 

ing fast month, Ar. jjm t ; 

cf . bade baki. 
sai, 1. only, except, unless, but, 
e.g. sai wanan only this ; 2. 
until, e.g. sai ha tsofi, B 115 
(wait) until you grow old; 
cf. sai ambideha (wait) till 
you are sought for ; sai gobe 
until to-morrow ; 3. sai tvota 
rana farewell till another 
day ! sai anjima good-bye for 
the present; 3. conjunctively, 
e.g. daga wanan sai wanan — 
both of them ; 4. quite, used 
with lafia y e.g. sai lafia quite 





well or hail ! cf . saida, saidai, 

aaida, except; cf. saidai. 

saida, to sell ; see say a. 

saidaba*, to refuse, to with- 

saidai, only, merely, though. 

saifa, sefa, pi. saifofi, spleen ; 
see D 67 chiwon saifa a 
swollen spleen. 

saiko, 1. nevertheless ; A 3 
saiko ka che nevertheless thou 
sayest; 2. unless, except; 
A 49 saiko da tuba zayi sha 
alkauchara only by repent- 
ance shall he drink of the 
water of heaven. 

saiko, sticks used in a roof; 
see t saiko. 

saiko (S.), sanko (K.), bald- 
ness, maisaiko or maisanko 
a bald man. 

saflinuil*, used for saanan, 

sainya, securidaca longipedun- 
culata, polygalaceae, a shrub 
with purple flowers. It has 
medicinal uses and in some 
districts is said /to form an 
ingredient in arrow poison = 
uwar magunguna or woma- 

sainya, sanya, a lengthened 
form of sa, q.v., to put, to 
place, to cause a thing to be 
done, to send a message. 

sainya, shainya, ahanya, 1. 

to cool, e.g. ina sainya man 
' zafi en ska I cool the hot 

water, so that I may drink 

it ; 2. to dry, hang up to dry. 

sainyato to put out to dry. 

sainyaye, shainyaye, fern. 

sainyaya, pi. sainyayu, dried,. 

aired, also applied to a man 

with a withered arm. 
sainyaya, to calm, comfort, 

allah shi sainyaya zuchia- 
may God comfort you. 

sainyi, sanyi, cold, dampness, 
a cold, cold in the head, e.g. 
sainyi ya kamani (lit. a cold 
has caught me) I have caught 
cold; chiwon sainyi, gonor- 
rhoea; metaph. coolness of 
mind, jin sainyi to be com- 
forted, resigned, ha fay e dau- 
kan sainyi you are very cool 
(i.e. impudent), sainyin zu- 
chia comfort, consolation. 
sainyin jiki want of zeal, 
slackness, yaro maisainyin 
jiki a boy with no go in him. 
sainyin halt coolheadedness, 

sai&he, to sell ; see sayes. 

saisuwa, n. selling ; see saya. 

saiwa, saiwo, soiya* a root. 

saiya, to buy ; see saya. 

saiyi, pi. saiyoyi, a temporary 
booth or covering for the 




+ +• + 

sajada (Ar. »»%■■»>), bowing so 
as to touch the ground with 
the forehead ; D 34 yin sa- 
jada to do obeisance to ; see 
rdka; cf. sujuda. 

saje, pi. sajoji, hair on the 
cheeks, whiskers. 

saje, to flow together, inter- 
mingle, join together. 

saji, serjeant (adopted from the 

s&ka, to weave, net, make nets ; 
masdka weaver, also used for 
a shuttle, sakake, fern, so- 
kakia, pi. sakaku, woven. 

S&ka, n. plaiting, weaving, 
netting, sakar zdna plaiting 
of mats. 

s&ka, to avenge, retaliate on; 
cf. 8dkamako. 

s&ka, saki, sake, to let go, 
give up, release, drop, sdki 
fuska to show an open, smil- 
ing face, sdka tuo to take 
the food out of the cooking 
pot, to serve food. v. n. sdka 
putting ; ya sake sdka faza 
he threw the hook again. 
sdki jikinka make yourself 
easy, ya sdki alkaueli he 
broke his promise, sdke is 
sometimes used intransitive- 
ly, to be at peace, akwia ta 
sand sdki the goat got loose. 
akwana sdke spending the 
night at large, sou is perhaps 

a contracted form of sdka ; 

ya saushi he let him go. 
s&ka-mako, n. retaliation or 

return of kindness done ; see 

sakache, to draw out; cf. 

sakafchi, 1. forgetf ulness ; 2. 

sakai, light, i.e. not heavy. 
sakaina, the fragments of a 

broken pot. 
s&kake, woven ; see sdka. 
s&kake, changed ; see sake. 

sakankanche (Ar. t>£*), to 
trust in, to be quite sure of 
anything ; cf . masakanche. 
sakankanehewa reality. 

sakaraftu, n. trotting. 

sakata, window, a word used 
in Zaria, etc.; in Kano toga 
is used. 

sakata, sakatta, sakache, to 
draw or pull out, sakatta ha- 
kori to pick the teeth; cf. 

sakatubu, a written charm ; 
the water with which it is 
washed off the writing board 
is drunk. 

sakaye or saye*, to hide. 

sakaza, drake; from sa bull 
and -tea fowl; cf. Eng. bull- 
seal, bull-walrus, etc. 

sake (S.), alike ; see sakke. 




s&ke, s&ki, to change, to alter, 
to do over again, kasaketafi 
go again, ya sake yin chara 
he crowed again, ka sake 
tashi get up again ! ku sake 
tell another story (said by 
one to whom an impossible 
story has been told), gari 
ya sake mini I don't recognise 
the town. . sakiwa changing, 
D 54 ku nema shini Itakika 
da gaskia ku ber sakiwa seek 
after true and correct know- 
ledge, leave off changing, sa- 
kahe, fern, sakakia, pi. sakaku, 

s&ki, to let go ; see sdka. 

S&ki, n. freedom, yin sdJd to 
set free. 

saki, coarse flour ; see tsSki. 

saki, soki, soaki, greyish blue, 
pepper-and-salt cloth ; cf . Gr. 
p. 139, 1. 43, chan/a/untu 
ya yi saki there the naked 
found fine cloth, danda sa- 
ki a roan horsa saki-saki 

• • • 

striped, fula saki black or 
blue cap, rigan saki a tobe 
of a similar colour. 

sakia, piercing, e.g. of the skin, 
by an arrow; yin sakia to 
pierce ; also used of probing 
the skin with a hot needle. 

sakiwa, changing, divorce ; cf . 

sakke (S.), alike, equally. 

8&ko, n. putting down, loose- 
ness; D 11 bai sdko ba it 
puts it not down; cf. sdka. 

S&ko, to fall, kamin rua ya 
sdko before the rainfall. 

sako, message, also a commis- 
sion, to purchase or give; 
cf. safiuy sautu. 

sako, a hiding place, a blocked 
or narrow place. 

s&ko-s&ko, softly, gently; cf. 
lako lako. 

sakoikoiwa, the name of a 

sakot, light of weight. 

S&labi, saliva; yin salabi to 

s&lache, to jump; see tsdlache. 

saladaka*, to fall headlong. 

salaha (Ar. *JLf), a gown. 

salala, thin gruel (kunu) mixed 
with water. 

9 * * 

salam, sal&ma (Ar. ji%S), 
peace, chiefly used in the 
form of the salutation salam 
alaik peace be upon thee, to 
which the answer is alaikum 
salam upon you be peace. 
salmawa particip. greeting, 
F 4 muna salmawa we greet. 

s&l&ma, n. price, M. H. p. 204, 
suna salama alif alif they 
are selling it at a thousand 

s&lame (Ar. ^L» n), to give 




up, to let go, ya salame rainsa 
he gave up his spirit; the 
passive is often used in selling 
anything, e.g. asalameshi you 
can take it, it is yours, na 

, 8alama I leave it, i.e. I will 
not buy on the terms offered. 

salanga (Zanf.), dung-hole ; cf. 

s&las&da (S.), to circumcise. 

salashe*, sallashe*, to pray 
for a person or thing ; F 92 
atsaida soffit assaUasheka a 

. line is formed, prayer is said 
for thee. 

salasuwa (S.), circumcision. 

sale, soale (cf. Ar. rt ^Jl*), 
to peel off, to blister as skin 
when burnt ; cf . tsali. 

saiga, pi. salgagi, 1. cesspit, 
B 105; 2. dung-hole, bay an 
gida is used similarly. 

aali, soali, n. blistering. 

+ * * 
salihi*, pi. 8alihai (Ar. 9JL0), 

good, true, faithful, e.g. B 8 
shi sashi salihi ba mugu ba 
may He make it good, not 
saliM*, king, for sariki, q.v. 

salka, pi. salkuna (Ar. »JLf), a 

bag or bottle made of skin. 
salka, chains, prison; see sarka. 

salla (Ar. t5U*), 1. prayer; 2. 
divine worship and so, a 

service, feast, e.g. babbar 
salla the great Mohammedan 
feast; sallan laya the feast 
corresponding to the Jewish 
passover; tana reshin salla 
used of a woman during men- 
struation; 3. yin salla to 
pray, D 22 kuna azumi da 
salla keep the fast and pray. 
sallata festival; ranan sal- 
lata, id. sallati, 1. prayer ; 
2. salutation, blessing, F 3 
muna kuma yin sallati bisa 
muhammad we further salute, 
Mohammed, maisallati one 
who habitually prays, sal- 
latu salutation, greeting, C 
50; cf. sallashe. 

sall&ma, title of a royal atten- 

sallama, trade agreement ; see 

sallata, festival ; see salla. 
sallati, prayer ; see salla. 
sallata, salutation ; see salla. 
salmanda* mud. 
salmawa, greeting ; see salam. 
S&lo, cf . sabunin sdlo a superior 

kind of soap. 
S&ma, pi. samania y samomi ( Ar. 

?lo~/), sky, heaven ; maisama 
a title given to God ; A 2 da 
yerdan maisama with the 
approval of Him who dwells 
in heaven. 




sama*, to befall a person ; see 


S&ma, to become ; see zama. 

s&ma, sirna, possibly an ad- 
verbial use of zama to be- 
come, usually found in re- 
duplicated form 8amma sam- 
ma a little, e.g. ban ji ba sax 
sama sama I heard only a 
little; cf. zama zama after 
some time. 

samachi, a tall plant with pink 
flowers (Tephrosia elongata). 

samagi*, a royal warrior. 

samako, n. an early start ; cf . 
prov. kowa ya yi samako yd 
futa da rana he who starts 
very early must rest at mid- 
day; hay an samako da ma- 
reche akandamreshi the load 
for an early morning start 
should be tied up over-night. 

samame, a slave-raiding ex- 
pedition by foot-soldiers; if 
horsemen were employed it 
would be called hari\ for 
description of a slave-raid, 
cf. M. H. p. 195 sqq. ; cf. 
same to catch. 

samame*, supreme, an epithet 
applied to God, M. H. p. 227 ; 
cf. s&md heaven. 

samari, youths; plural of sam- 
rai, q.v. 

samasadowa, white cotton 
brocade of various patterns. 

s&mata, to poison. 

samba*, a pagan form of oath 
or divination. 

sambache*, sandals ; see sam- 

sambachl, to boast; cf. ma* 
zambachi a rogue. 

sambani, trader, shopkeeper. 

sambazai, sandals with red 
leather tops, especially used 
in N. Africa, possibly from 
French savate. 

Samberu, a tree, the leaves of 
which are poisonous to ani- 

samche, slipperiness ; see 

same, to obtain ; see samu. 

samfalwa, a blue cylindrical 

bead ; (?) = Ar. j*f*, Eng. 

sammu, sammo (Ar.^1), 1. 

a charm written with intent 

to injure someone ; 2. poison 

given in food, 
samna* for zamna, to sit 

down ; cf . M. H. p. 209. 
samo, to find and bring; see 

samrai, sarmayi, samrayi, 

saurayi, pi. samari, a youth 

from fourteen to twentyyears 

of age (cf. Ar. j^oj), the pi. 
form is used as a vocative 




sing, when speaking to a boy 
whose name is not known, 
e.g. yaka samari. 

samri, haste ; see sauri. 

samro, mosquito ; see sdbero. 

samsam ( Ar. ^..^n), sesame, 

a herb from two to four feet 
high ; an oil is obtained from 
its seeds which is esp. valued 
by the Hausas on account of 
its providing a medicine or 
ointment for the eyes; cf. 

• Pliny xxii. 25 'hoc (i.e se- 
sama) amplius oculis impo- 
nitur decocta in vino.' 

samtse, to slip. 

samtsi, santsi, samche, 1. 
smoothness, slipperiness ; ha- 
inya ta yi samche the road is 
slippery, F 144 da kaifi kua 
da samtsi duk za soka and its 
sharp edge and slipperiness 
shall pierce them ; 2. a slip ; 
yin samtsi to make a slip; 
kada samtsi ya sameka take 
care that thou slip not ; kada 
doki ya yi samche do not let 
the horse slip. 

samu, n. obtaining, possessing, 
possession, B 106 na duba 
dunia hal samunta I have 
considered the world and its 

samu, sami, sama, samo, 
same (bef. pron. obj.), to 

get, to find, to meet with and 
hence to happen to, e.g. mi 
ya sameka what has happened 
to you? i.e. what is the matter 
with you ? A 48 komi ya 
samasa whatever befalls him; 
also na sami kasua I had no 
difficulty in selling my wares, 
lit. I found a market, sami 
is also used of pulling a person 
out of a well; used intr. thus, 
hainya ta samu the road 
is obtained, i.e. there is a 
road. Cf. M. H. p. 204, an- 
sami d&mi nawa? how many 
bundles (have you) got? sa- 
muwa participial form, B 156 
yala ta samu ko ba ta samu- 
wa ba whether it be obtained 
or cannot be obtained ; samu 
is often used as equivalent to 
iya, e.g. ba ya samu ya shiga 
he could not enter; it also 
denotes spending time, e.g. 
ya samu wata guda he spent 
one month; samu dama or 
samu rongomi to get better ; 
samu sauki to obtain help; 
samo to arise, spring, result 
from : also trans, to find some- 
thing at a distance or hard 
to come by, to achieve; ya 
samo suna he achieved a 
sail, used as a contraction of 
samvi to know„ 




san, to love ; see so. 
sanaa (Ar.), occupation, trade, 
sanada, to trouble, molest. 
sanadi, vexation, trouble. 
sanadi, a poisonous snake, 
sanadi, reason, cause (cf. Ar. 

jj->, support, authority). 

sananche, to harass, trouble, 
distress ; cf. sananta. 

sananda, to inform ; cf . sanas. 

sananta, trouble. 

sanas, to learn ; see sdni. 

sanasda, sannasda, sanarda, 
sannarda, sannashe (bef. 
pron. obj.), to inform, ac- 

sanbazai, sandals; see sam- 

sanche, samche, slipperiness ; 
see samtsi. 

sanda, pi. sanduna, stick, staff; 
then fig. blow, stripe, D 44 
su kan ribi sanduna maimai 
kaman duatsu they pile up 
blows many in number as 
stones : it is sometimes used 
as a measure of length, i.e. 
about a yard ; dan sanda a 
native policeman. 

sanda*, to teach ; see sanasda. 

sanda, n. stealthy walk as of 
a thief, ya yi sanda he went 
by stealth ; cf. sandua. 

sandalu, a white hanunrua nut. 

sandare, to feel cold, be stiff. 

sandua, sanda, to creep or 

walk as on tiptoe silently. 
sanduki, pi. sandukai (Ar. 

\**}jJ~o), box, drawer. It 
denotes usually a small box, 
e.g. of leather, etc. 

s&ne, suane, stealing, pocket- 
picking, pretence, malinger- 
ing > y a yi 8ane he made 
excuse; maisane crafty; cf. 
prov. tsofon doki maisane. 
yan sane pick-pockets. 

sanfalwa,abead; seesamfalwa* 

sanfo, samfo, pi. sanfuna 9 a 
large basket with handles : 
esp. one made of kaba leaves, 

sangache, reaped corn tied up 
in bundles ; see sankache. 

sangarnia*, ears of corn ; see 

sangaya, a rough grass shelter. 

sango, iron-tipped harpoon 
fired from a gun. 

s&ni (cf. Ar. &«*, knowledge), 
to know; the final i is fre- 
quently omitted, e.g. allah ya 
san komi God knows every- 
thing; this is regularly so 
before pron. suffixes, e.g. ban 
sanshi ba I did not know it, 
ansanshi it is known; l da 
na sani' remorse, allah ya 
tsaremuda aikin i danasani > 
may God keep us from acts 
which will bring remorse; 




pass. part, sanane, fern, son- 
anya, pi. sananu, known ; ba 
tasanuwait cannot be known. 
Another form of this word is 
sMna, e. g. na shina = na s&ni ; 
sansanche to understand well; 
sanas to learn; sanasda to 

s&ni, ahlni, ahlna, n. know- 
ledge, D 54: ku nema ahlni 
hakika da gaskia seek after 
true and correct knowledge. 

sftnia, s&niya, cow ; cf . sa bull. 

saniya*, talkativeness, ka 
chlka saniya you are talking 
too much. 

sanji, a heavy load. 

sankache, sangache, reaped 
corn, corn laid in rows before 
the head is cut off. 

sankara, an insect found in 
kola nuts. 

sankare, tr. v. to stiffen, used 
of cold or sickness. 

sanko, baldness on the top of 
the forehead ; see saiko. 

sankuja (K.), a kind of fish- 

sankurmi, the sarikin kasua 
or officer of the market, whose 
right it is to lay hands on 
offenders and to settle trade 
disputes in the market; cf. 

sansama, a mixture of fura 
and sour milk. 

sansambi, a meal for a bride- 
groom and his friends. 

sans&mi, stereospermum kun- 
thianum, Bignoniaceae, a tree 
with pink flowers, also called 
jiri, q.v. 

sans&mi, leaves. 

sansamtsa* smoothly, an in- 
tensive form of saratsi. 

sansana*, dried wood or leaves,. 
M. H. p. 184. 

sansana, to smell; see sun- 

sansanche, to understand 
well; cf. sdni. 

sansani, 1. camp, circular 
entrenchment, sometimes ap- 
plied to an army; cf. Gr. 
p. 139, 1. 40, sunka kore san- 
8aninku; 2. camp, encamp- 
ment, esp. applied to a war 

sansanya, cold. 

sansari, santali, a cane used 
for making arrows. 

sansarifa, sasarifa, the stum- 
bling of a horse. 

sanshera, rice before it is 

sanso, remains of food, e.g. in 
a dirty calabash. 

santsi, smoothness ; see samtsi. 

sanu, 1. slowly, gently; sanu 
sanu very slowly or very 
quietly; Hausa proverb tafi 
sanu ko hainya da nesa go 




- slowly though the way be 
long; 2. sanu is most fre- 

- quently used in salutations = 
hail ! It is often repeated a 
dozen or more times in order 
to add emphasis to the greet- 
ing. Its meaning varies 
according to the word with 
which it is used, e.g. sanu da 

• rana good morning, sanu da 
dere good night, sanu da aiki 
may you be happy over your 
work, sanu da gajia (lit. 
greetings to weariness) may 
you not be overtired: If a 
man meets another when it 
is raining he will say sanu 
da rua welcome to you amidst' 
the rain ! sanu da hevoa greet- 
ings to you in your loneliness, 
sanu kadai greetings to you 
(used only in response to 
another greeting), sanu da 
kwana bin a greeting after a 
prolonged absence (lit. greet- 
ings for two days), sanu is 
sometimes used as an expres- 
sion of sympathy = I hope 
that you are not hurt. It is 
joined on to the 2nd personal 
pronouns, sanuku or sanunku 

, greetings to you, sanuki or 
sanunki hail lady ! 

sanya, to dry ; see sainya. 

sanya, to place; see sainya. 

sanya, a shrub ; see sainya. 

sanyi, n. cold ; see sainyi. 

sapka, to let down ; see sabka. 

sara* a saying, song, proverb, 
akadauki sara a saying was 
made, i.e. it became a pro- 
verb, halinta ya zama sara 
her character became a by- 
word ; also used of the drum- 
ming and singing at a king's 

s&ra, n. a hole cut in the 
ground, e.g. one made with 
a dig of a hoe for purpose of 
sowing seed, the hole of a 
snake, yin sara to cut crops, 
to reap ; magirbin sdran ya~ 
kua the sickle for reaping 
yakua. sdran bisa lopping, 
cutting off branches. 

s&ra, to sting, wound, bite, esp. 
used of reptiles ; cf. sari. 

s&ra, to cut in pieces; see 

s&ra, sarra, loin. 

saraba*, a gift given to a 
superior to conciliate him. 

sarafa* (Ar. sV*)* to rain for 

a long time, 
s&rafa, sarrafa, to barter 

s&rafi, sarrafi, n. exchanging 

or bartering goods, 
s&rai, 1. clear, clean; then, 

exact; 2. clearly, carefully; 

kilga sarai to countcorrectly, 

B 28 duba sarai sarai look 




carefully, na ji sarai I quite 

sarakua, sariika, mother-in- 
law ; cf. surki father-in-law. 

saranwaga, a second quality 
of kola nuts, where both 
large and small are included ; 
cf . marsa and minu. 

sftrare, cut ; see save. 

s&r&ri (cf. Ar. jj***e), 1. open 
space, plain, meadow without 
trees; B 76 wa ya yi tasu 
nan sararin sudan what was 
like unto it in the regions of 
the Sudan? A place where 
people assemble ; fUo sarari 
come out into the open, 
i.e. show yourself; 2. space, 
room ; daki nan yafi wanan 
da sarari this room is larger 
than that, maisarari spa- 
cious; gari ya sarari the 
sky is clear; cf. gari yai 
shirin sarari the sky looks 
like clearing, asarari openly. 
3. chance, opportunity, ba 
ni da sararin zua I have 
not had a chance to come, 
idan na samu sarari if I get 
an opportunity. 

sarasara, yin sarasara to let 
in light, lighten. 

saraunia, queen, wife of a 
king; cf. sarkanya. 

sarauta, sarota, kingdom ; 
chin sarauta to gain posses- 

sion of a kingdom or to be- 
come a king ; kurdin sarauta 
fees paid by Hausas on ad- 
mission to native offices. 

saray a, a fall ; yin saraya = to 

sarbe, to pick up, catch. 

sare, sara, zara*, to accuse, 
to report or inform against ; 

- maisara, pL mastisara, ac- 
cuser, informer. 

sare, sari, sara, to cut, to 
cut down (da takobi) with a 
sword ; used of cutting down 
wood or trees ; cf . prov. mu- 
gun gatarinka ya fi sari ka 
ba ni a tool that is your own, 
even if it be bad, will cut 
better than a borrowed one ; 
sarare, fern. sararia y pi. sara- 
ru, cut; in tens, form sasare. 

sarewa, a kind of wind-instru- 
ment, a flute, or reed pipe. 

s&ri, a small beetle which de- 
stroys skins and eats grain. 

sari, maisari a man who sells 
a thing a second time at a 

. profit. 

sari, a bay or dun horse. 

S&ri, n. bite, sdrim machiji bite 
of snake; .cf. M. H. p. 185. 

sari-kutub, a small, tree-dwel- 
ling, nocturnal, poisonous 
lizard, like damatsiri but 
black instead of striped yel- 
low and black. 




saria, a head shaven in two 
longitudinal lines, an inch 
wide from front to rear, each 
side of the crown. 

sariki*, to seize ; of. sarkafe. 

sarita, a small leather or grass 
bag, carried on the back. 

sarga, dung-hole, for saiga, q.v. 

sargafe, to hang up, e.g. on a 
stick or forked tree ; cf . sar- 

sarka, salka, surka, sirka, pi. 

* w - 

sarkuna, sarkoki (Ar. &jLr), 

chain, irons, imprisonment, 
prison; dan sarka prisoner, 
gidan sarka a prison. 

sarkafe, to bind, tie, inter- 
twine; sarkafewa binding. 

sarkakia, a thorny bush, thick- 
et, probably derived from 
sarke to entangle. 

sarkanya, queen, usually ap- 
plied to a queen who reigns 
in her own right; cLsaraunia 
the wife of a king. 

sarke, to become entangled, 
applied to string in a knot, 
or to trees in a forest; cf. 
sarka chain. 

sarki, sariki, ' pi. sarakuna, 
sarakai, sardki, king, chief. 
In Hausaland every town 
and village has its king. The 
title sarki is given not only 
to these but to many of their 
sons and to anyone who pre- 

sides over any special work ; 
B 3 jabaru toahidi sarki allah 
God the one all powerful 
king; the title sarkin mustd- 
mi is applied to the sultan 
of Sokoto, sarkin sudan (lit. 
king of the Sudan) to the 
king of Birnin Gwari, sarkin 
dunia is used in N. Africa 
for the sultan of Turkey, 
sarkin dawaki master of the 
horse, sarkin kirrna a leader 
of infantry, sarkin kasua 
president of the market, sar- 
kin kofa door-keeper, sarkin 
rua ferryman, sarkin touta 
cook. In Kano the blind, 
lepers, beggars, etc. each 
have their king (sarki) ; the 
expression ba-sarakin sariki 
is used to denote the officers 
or counsellors of the king's 
court, pi. saraktman sariki. 
sarki maichi the reigning 
king, fitachen sarki the de- 
posed king, sardki is some- 
times used as a sing, word = 
prince, ski sardki ne. 

sarmadawa, large common 
cowry shell. 

sarmayi, a youth ; see samrai. 

sarota, kingdom ; see sarauta. 

sarr, used of smooth or quick 
motion, e.g.jirigi ya tqfi sarr 
the canoe slid along. 

sarrafa, to barter ; see s&rafa. 




sarsari, manacles ; see sasdri. 

sartse, a splinter, e.g. in the 
skin; see ftdorsartse. 

saruka, mother-in-law ; see sa- 

sarom, an idiot. 

saruru, a fool ; cf. Gr. p. 137, 
1. 10. 

s&sa, sassa, direction, side, 
8a88an nan da sassa chart on 
this side and that, sassa fudu 
the four sides. 

sasabda, sasafba, sasapta, to 
tie loosely, to loosen. 

s&sabe, 1. to clear ground be- 
fore ploughing ; 2. to cut up 
into small pieces ; cf . sabe, 

sasafe, very early in the morn- 
ing ; see safe. 

sasago*, a saw. 

s&saka, sassaka, to smooth or 
prepare wood, masasaki car- 
penter, niasaka a carpenter's 
shop. sasakan itache the 
stripped bark of a tree. 

sas&ri (cf. Ar. 3JL»JL>), chains ; 

F 186 asa masu sasari na 

tvuta da malwa fetters and 

leg-irons of fire are to be 

placed on them, 
sasasara, a basket used for 

catching fish = tsatsara, q.v. 
sasayi, saisaiyi, seseyi, to 

make a purchase ; cf . M. H. 

p. 203 ; see saya. 

sashe, half ; see shashi. 

sassaka, jog, of a donkey, trot. 

sassarifa, stumbling; aeesan- 

sata, open thieving, theft; cf. 
sane, yin sata to steal, mai- 
sata a thief, sache, sachi, to 
steal ; B 58 to rabika ta sache 
rai it will part you (from 
this world) it will steal thy 
life. sachiar duka stolen 
goods or the stealing of 
goods, sachi jiki to go off 
by stealth, sato to steal and 
bring home, sachdche, fern. 
sash&chia, stolen. 

sau, so, prefixed to cardinal 
numerals to form numeral 
adverbs, e.g. sau data once, 
sau biu twice, sau fudu four 
times, sau tare often. 

sail*, to leave or quit, used of 
a path, e.g. sau hainya to 
leave the track, A„19 sun 
sau tafarki they left the right 
path; cf. sdka. 

sau, sauwaiwai, pi. sauiouna, 
1. the sole of the foot ; ijian 
sau ankle; 2. a foot-print; 
kdda ya hi saunsa na da let 
him not go back on his tracks. 

sauka, a present made to a 
person on his arrival. 

sauka, soka, a modified form 
of sabka y q.v., to alight, 
settle down, stay; F 252 




gidan kua dan bazo anasoka 
ni kua in the house of the 
son of Bazo will I stay, sau- 
keni help me down, or help 
me to put my load down. 

sauki, 1. quick; sauki mutua 
sudden death; 2. used with 
da as adverb, da sauki easily; 
yafi sauki that is easier, abu 
maisauki an easy matter; 
gajia da sauki I am feeling 
less tired ; cf. seq. 

sauki, 1. help, assistance, e.g. 
allah ya koro muna sauki 

. may God give us help; 2. 
health, e.g. na samu sauki I 

sauki, sauwaka, sauwake, to 

help; aUah shi sauwaka may 
God help, allah shi sauwaka 
dere may God lighten our 
darkness, B 64 kai dai aia- 
wake dayawan guri thou ob- 
tainest much of thy desire. 
sauki karatu to master or 
succeed in reading. 

saulo, sttbolo (cf . (?) Ar. J^C), 
a large bag for holding rice, 
saumako, early morning; see 

sauna, pity, compassion, 
sauni* for tsauni, a hill ; cf. 

M. H. p. 61. 
saura, v. to be over, abin da ya 

saura that which remained. 
saura*, a place to sleep in, e.g. 

in a tree, for fear of wild 

saura, shaura (Ar. Jli), 1. re- 
mainder, gleanings in a field ; 
yin saura to glean, ya yi 
saura kadan there is little 
left; cf. na bashi arbaa shaura 
data I gave him four thou- 
sand less one (thousand) ; 2. 
fallow land, a disused farm. 

saurara, sorara, saurare, ju- 
rare*, to wonder, to listen 
attentively, e.g. B 22 ku yan 
uwa kujini ku saurara you, 
my brethren, listen to me 
and pay attention; cf. seq. 

sauraro, n. attentive listen- 

saurayi, a youth ; see samrai, 

sauri, samri (Ar. jy*, haste), 
e.g. F 29 ka ber saurin fushi 
give up being hastily angry ; 
da sauri hastily, masaurin 
magana a quick talker. 

sauro, mosquito ; see sdbero. 

sausauchi, sosochi, idleness, 
unwillingness to work. 

sautare, often ; = sau tare, 

sautu, commission, to purchase 
or give ; cf . sako. 

sauuwa, saleableness; see say a. 

sauwaka, to help ; see sauki, 

sauwi (Ar. ^>^), equality, a 




sauya, sawaya, sawoya, 1. 

to change, transform ; 2. to 
be changed, e.g. na sauya da 
arna musulmi I changed from 
a heathen to a Mussulmau. 
sauyaye, fern, sauyaya, pi. 
sauyayu, altered, translated. 

sauyi, n. changing, alteration, 
yin sauyi to change. 

sawa, placing ; see sa. 

sawaba, sawabe (Ar. ^>\yo), 
that which is fitting, proper ; 
D 4 mu yi aiki sawaba that 
we may work successfully, 
yin sawabe to work well or 

sawaila, a long-barrelled Arab 
gun; cf. adakka. 

sawani, n. freedom, setting 
free (slaves). 

sawanta, to set free. 

sawarwara, to trouble, annoy. 

sawarwari, 1. trouble, annoy- 
ance ; 2. anything sold in the 
market and returned to the 
seller injured. 

sawo, to sell ; see saya. 

sawo* = tsawo, q.v., F 145 
hawa nasa har sawo nasababu 
wawa its height and its length 
are the same without doubt. 

sawoya, to become ; see sauya. 

saya, v. to do a thing incom- 
pletely, saya kqfa to put a 
door ajar. 

saya, seye, saiya (or before a 

R. H. D. 

personal pronoun saye or 
saiye) ; sayi, saiyi, sai, to 

buy : the form sayi is com- 
monly used when followed 
by an object, e.g. na sayi 
doki I bought a horse, but 
ka saya did you buy one ? 
sayu or saiyu to be bought, 
ya saiyu kurdi kaza it was 
bought for (or was worth) so 
much, sa saye, q.v., to make a 
few purchases, sayes, saiyes, 
saiyar, when followed by 
an object saiyes da, saiyev 
da, saida, sayeshe, or before a 
personal pronoun saishe, to 
sell, sasaiya, saisaya a v. of 
multitude ; cf. suka saisaiya 
each of them bought, sawo 
to sell; intrans. to be sold. 
sauutua saleableness, ya ki 
sawo or ya ki sauuwa it is 

sayaya, purchasing, marketing. 
saiyerua or sayerwa on sale, 
saisuwa selling. There is no 
verbal substantive formed 
from saya, thus saya da sa- 
yerua (or sayeswa) buying 
and selling, sayo to buy 
and bring back. 

saye (S.), pi. sayu, root; cf. 

sayes, to sell ; see saya. 

sayi (S.), 1. an old cow, the 
mother of the herd; 2. a 





rank at Zaria, the chief col- 
lector of the cattle tax. 

sayi, an enclosure. 

sayi, n. buying ; cf . muna sai- 
yin kaji we are buying fowls. 

seb&a, sab&a, seven thousand ; 
see Gr. p. 67. 

sebain, sabain (Ar. y^+juS), 

seventy ; D 64 nasabain, fem. 

tasaba'in, seventieth. 
sebi, cotton after it is carded. 
8§bi, to clean cotton ; see sdbi. 
8§bi, used of the snap of the 

fingers against the hand after 

the cowries are thrown in 

chacha ; see sdbi. 
sefa, spleen ; see saifa. 

sgfi (cf. (?) Ar. w£l, to plait), 
to comb the hair; cf. tsefe, 

seki, coarse flour ; see tseki. 

selbi, a crested bird which 
catches snakes (dryotrior- 
chis ]) ; cf. selbi maikazaman 
chima the selbi is a dirty 

sele, clitoris. 

semiya, a skin disease in 

semu (S.), used up, exhausted 

senaa, occupation ; see sanaa. 

senya, a shrub ; see sainya. 

serkafewa, binding; see sar- 

serre, a plant used in tanning. 

sStin, sltin (Ar. o~£-i\ nu- 

meral sixty; nasettin, fem. 
tasettin ord. num. sixtieth. 

sewa, root ; see saitva. 

sha, to drink, e.g. bani en sha 
give me to drink; to drink 
in, e.g. shan hiska to drink the 
air, i.e. to take an airing or 
to take a walk, cf. similar 
Arabic idiom ; used of earth, 
to absorb ; shan taba to smoke ; 
sha daia to take one sip ; 
shada to give to drink ; sha- 
yasda to irrigate (a farm) ; 
mashaya* water-side, place 
of intoxicating drink, E 17 ; 
mashan rua, lit. water-drink- 
er, rainbow; sha lemu to suck 
a lime or lemon ; sha nono 
(used of a child) to suck; 
trop. uses, e.g. A 12 kamin 
ka zona zaka sha dadi nata 
when thou sittest down thou 
shalt taste of its sweetness; 
sha woh&la to suffer or ex- 
perience trouble, to enjoy; 
sai anshan tuiya akantuna 
all ah only when trouble comes 
is God remembered ; D 75 
mu sha enua we enjoy the 
shade ; ya sha kansa he was 
confused, ya sha kaina he 
caused me distress; rua ya 
sha kansa he got out of his 




depth ; ya sha rua he was 
drowned ; ya sha kansa he 
got more than he bargained 
for ; ya ki shainwa it cannot 
be drunk ; tafia ta sha rua 
the journey is off; slia wuri 
to mark out the site for a 
camp or house ; sha bambam 
to fall out with ; sha bauji 
used of one who carries every- 
thing in his girdle, i.e. a 
warrior ; sha kuskure to miss, 
sha bara to miss fire, to miss 
the mark, the name of a 
charm drunk in order to ward 
off arrows; shangia, lit. drink- 
ing gia, intoxication ; cf . sha- 
yada, shankumbu, sha-jini, 
sha-nika-shani, sha-zumani. 

sha, pi. shaye s1taye i n., 1. drink- 
ing; 2. cutting; 3. circum- 

sha, a prefix used in forming 
the numerals eleven to nine- 
teen, e.g. goma sha data eleven, 
goma sha bin twelve; the 
word goma may be omitted, 
e.g. shabokoi seventeen ; bay an 
kwana goma sha between 10 
and 20 days. 

shaair* (Ar. j**-*), barley. 

shaani (Ar.), the minding of 
one's own business; ni ta 
shaanina ni he yil mind my 
business ; shiga shaanvnka 

mind your business: also used 
of a hidden affection, shina 
shaani da ita he secretly 
loves her. 


shaawa (Ar. *£f£), desire of 
the eyes, prettiness ; fare da 
ban shaawa yi ke this flower 
is (lit. with the giving) pretty. 

shache, to comb, to brush ; cf. 

sh&da, to water, give to drink ; 
see sha. 

sh&da, shSda, chamber-pot, 
latrine; cf. M. H. p. 205. 

shad&ra, a line of writing. 

sh&dawa, n. watering, giving 
to drink. 

ahaduda, saduda (cf. (?) Ar. 

ji&, to strengthen one s reso- 
lution), 1. confidence, freedom 
from fear, trust in a person ; 
2. to trust or rely upon a 

sh&fk, n. anointing; yin shafa 
to anoint. 

sh&fa, sh&fe, to rub out, erase 

( Ar. s*^)> to smear or anoint 
with oil, also with water; 
yana shqfewa it is all gone, 
used of ceremonial ablutions, 
fig. of anointing the face with 
darkness, A 67 ; shafa gashi 
to brush back the hair ; shafa 
masa bay a 'scratch his back/ 
i.e. wheedle him. 





sh&fe, to rub out ; see shafa. 
shafi, shafe, pi. shafofi, shafe 

shafe, 1. seam, hem; cf. M. 

H. p. 206; a turu in at the 

edge of a garment, a patch 

on clothes ; 2. the page of a 

shaft), kite, hawk, falcon; cf. 

sh&gala, 8hagcda da to forget ; 

see shagali. 

8h&gali,shSgeli, shftgeli, she- 

galla, pi. shugula, shugulgula, 

8hagaloli (Ar. Jdt&), work, 

object of desire, business, 

trade, management, diversion, 

distraction, amusement; na 

yi 8hegatta har na manta da 

wanan I was so busy that I 

forgot this; B 50 hi yan 

uwa ku ber shdgalin dunia 

you, my brethren, abandon 

the business of this world ; 

yin 8hdgali to do business; 

ina shdgali I am busy; shi- 

gan shdgali meddlesomeness ; 

shagalichi* to be so occupied 

with one thing as to forget 

another, to act carelessly, i.e. 

through absence of mind. 

shagalichi, to act carelessly; 

see prec. 

i , 
shagi* sagi* (Ar. .jk), to 

feel pain, esp. that arising 
from sickness. 

shagiri, pi. shagirai, a beard- 
less person. 

shah&da ( Ar.), martyrdom ; see 

sh&hada* (Ar. jJkli), a man 

killed in a war (for religion), 

snanawa (Ar. *>*-*), to covet, 
desire; also to love, e.g. na 
8hahawa abokina I love my 
friend ; cf . shawa. 

shahu (cf. Ar. iI*U>), a kite, 

hawk, falcon ; cf. shafo, id. 
shaida, pi. shaidu and shaidodi 

(Ar. Jty&), naasc. and fern.; 

1. witness, testimony, shaidan 
ido eye- witness; maishaida y 
pi. masushaida, a witness ; 2. 
a mark or sign, as e.g. that 
of a witness who cannot write, 
a mark put on animals, also 
a mark on trees to show the 
way; shaidan zur false wit- 

shaida, to bear witness, to 
mark, e.g. mun shaida tuma- 
kinmu we marked our sheep; 
ya shaida he bore witness, also 
kai and kawo shaida, id. ka 
sfiaida you certain? shai- 
dade, fern, shaidada, pi. shai- 
dadu, attested, certified. 

shaidane, pi. shaidanu, evil 
spirit ; see shaitan. 



sham ft kl 

shaidani, to know, to have a 
. clear knowledge of. 

shaihu (Ar. 2^£), Sheikh, 

shaii* fear (cf. Ar. *l£, to 

frighten) ; na ji shaii I was 

shainya, to dry ; see sainya. 
shainya, also v. n. hanging up 

to dry ; ' ya yi shainya it was 

hung up to dry. 
shainyaye, dried, aired ; see 

shainye, shainya, to drink up 

completely, see sha; cf. use 

of chainye. 
shair (Ar.), barley ; seeshaair. 
shaitan, shetan, shaitani, pi. 

shaitanai, shaitanu (Ar. 

ijUxw), Satan, the devil; 
B 132 turuba shaitani the 
path of the evil one. As pi. 
it is used in the sense of evil 
persons, seducers. The word 
shaitan is often used as syn- 
onymous for clever or crafty, 
e.g. shina sliaitan he is as 
clever as Satan. 

shajibi, a kind of tobe. 

sha-jini (blood drinker), a small 
plant the heart-shaped leaves 
of which are boiled in water 
to cure headache. 

shaka, to smell, sniff; see sheka. 

sh&ka (Ar. «*Lw), n. doubt; 

babu shdka or babu shak 

without doubt; yin shdka 

to doubt. 

shakali, fornicator, fern, sha- 

kalia, pi. sJiakalai, harlot, 

whore; shakalichi, shakalchi 

whoredom, fornication (cf. 

* «» * 
Ar. Jiw, to use amorous 


shake, sh&ki, to strangle; of 
water, to engulph; rua ya 
shaki mutum anan it is out 
of a man's depth here. 

sh&kira, hind quarters, anus, 
a term of abuse. 

sh&kiyi, shSkiyi (Ar, Jji), 

wicked, shameless, indecent. 
shakiyanchi shamelessness, 

sh&kua or chiwon shakua, n. 

shakup, 1. =sdkai light; 2. in 
phr. abinchi ya yi shakup the 
food is not nice. 

shaii, a kind of red cloth. 

shalla, an aquatic plant. 

shallali, slim, slow, lazy, awk- 

shalli, help ; yin shalli to help, 
give assistance. 

shalma, thin, lank. 

shaloga (K.), enquiry. 

sham (Ar.), prop. n. Palestine. 

shamache, to cause trouble to. 

sham&ki, pi. sfiamdkai, shama- 


- 326 


kokiy 1. a partition; 2. place 
for horses ; 3. a groom. 

shamata, v. to deceive, ridi- 

shamata, n. jealousy. 

ah ami*, netting-needle ; cf. 

ahanxo, ahamna, pi. shamuai, 
long-beaked black and white 
hornbill, it nests in towns. 

sh&muke, to disregard, neg- 

shangia, a compound of sha 
and gia, intoxication; see 

ahani, affair ; see shaani. 

aha-nika-ahani (pound me and 
drink me), the name of a 
medicinal plant. 

shankumbu, to cut round ; cf . 

aha-nono (drink milk), the 
name of a viper (echis cari- 

shanshando (S.), a spider's 

8hail8hani, pi. shanshanu, a 
long small-sized flat centipede 
with few legs; its bite is 
like that of a scorpion. Ac- 
cording to native report it 
only comes out at night and 
emits a light. * After the 
shanshani has walked over 
your hand, your hand emits 
electric light.' 

shall ah ere*, perhaps a parti- 
cipial form of shara, cleaned, 
an epithet applied to rice; 
cf. 8hinkafa. 

ahantali, a brass jug with nar- 
row neck ; see shintali. 

8hanto, a long, oblong kworia 
which is blown; maishanto a 

8hanu, cows, cattle; pi. of sa 

ahany a, to dry, shanyeya dried ; 
see sainya. 

shanye, to drink up; see 

shara, n. 1. sweeping; 2. the 
hundred cowries given on the 
10th of Muharram by a tau- 
bashi on the female side to 
his or her taubashi on the 
male side ; cf . taubashi. yin 
shara to sweep; cf. share. 

shara* (Ar. jit), evil, e.g. D 40 
en shara ka aika if thou hast 
done evil ; cf. shariri. 

sharaba, to embroider, to knit. 

sharaba, n. part of the em- 
broidery on a tobe. 

sharaba, the calf of the leg. 

sharadi, agreement; see she- 

8h5rafage (S.), a sandpiper. 

aharare, swept ; cf. share. 

sharatsa* (Ar. Lp), condi- 
tion, necessity; 6 92 tana da 




8ha/rat8an tana karewa it is 
subject to the necessity of 
coming to an end; cf. she- 

share, to sweep ; sharare, fem. 
sharara, pi. shararu, swept; 
mashari a rake, broom; cf. 
shara. - 

sharia, judgment ; see sheria. 

Sharif, a holy man ; see sherif. 

sharindo, sharundo, a small 
species of reddish, smooth- 
skinned lizard, smaller than 

« * 

shariri, n. (Ar. >^>w), evil. 

ya yi abin shariri he did a 

wicked thing ; cf . shara. 
shariri*, infant; for jariri, 

sharkaf^ used with jika to be 

very wet. 

sharo (cf . Ar. j^w, to brandish 

a sword), a fencing game 

played by the Fulahs with 

two sticks, 
sharnndo, lizard; see sharindo. 
shasanda* a long ridge of hair 

left by men in shaving their 

shashafe, a reduplicated form 

of shafe, to blot out. 
shashaka, a little cake made 

with honey. 
shashaki, to gasp for breath, 

D 1 5 ; see shesheka. 

shashaki, n. panting, esp. used 
of the gurgling sound made 
by a goat when its throat is 
cut ; cf. D 15, shina shashaki 
chikin azaba ; cf . shake. 

shashasha, a fool, a born idiot, 

shashe, to surpass a man at 
his trade or profession ; banza 
ta shasheka you have been 
Met in.' 

shashi, sashi* 1. half; 2. a 
part, a portion, i.e. one out 
of three or more portions. 

shata, 1. open-work cloth; 2. 
the circumference of a circle ; 
yin shata to draw a circle on 
the ground before building a 

shata, shache, 1. to comb, to 
brush, e.g. ta shata gashin 
kai she combed the hair of 
(her) head ; 2. (K.) to mark 
out a site. 

shatanni, a facial tribal mark. 

shats&ra, n. a line, e.g. of 
writing; cf. slietara. 

shaura, remainder; see sau- 


shaushauta, to cut tribal 
marks, to tattoo; cf. seq. 

shaushawa, marks cut in the 
face to denote the tribe or 
family to which a person be- 
longs ; cf . shaushauta. 

shawa, eager desire, generally 




in a bad sense, lust; see 

shaw&gi, n. hovering of a bird, 
also applied to a man who 
passes quickly, or furtively, 
by a place without stopping 
to talk. It is also used of 
the circling of a bird, esp. 
of the kite over its prey; 
cf. sura. 

shawarta, shawarche, to con- 
sult with ; cf . sliawora, 

shawo*, to draw out; a form 
of jawo, q.v. 

shawo, a form of sha, to drink, 
e.g. F 189 don su shawo ruan 
zafi that they may drink hot 

shawora, a disease of the eye. 

sh&wora, sh&wara, pi. shawo- 

rori, shawaruna (Ar. jli in), 
consideration, deliberation, 
consultation, D 25 ; yin sha- 
wora to deliberate, consult, 
saki shawara to change one's 
mind, yafi shawara da wane 
he relied mostly on so-and-so 
for advice, wurin shawora 
place of deliberation, court, 
hall of public audience ; chi- 
nikin shawora a sale on ap- 

shawul (S.), a white ass. 

shaya, a bird about the size of 
a starling, with bright blue- 
purple metallic colouring. 

shaya, a kind of shirt worn by 

shaya, to mark out, e.g. a 
path ; cf. sha. 

shayada, shayasda, to give 
to drink. 

shaye, a verb. n. from sAa, 

sha-zumami, a species of ant, 
semi-transparent, non-biting, 
black or reddish, which lives 
on honey. 

sheda, pi. shedodi, sigh, heavy 
breathing; yin sheda to sigh, 
breathe heavily, pant for 

sheda, witness ; see shaida. 

shSda, chamber-pot; see shada. 

shefe, the empty husks of rice. 

shegantaka, worthlessness, vil- 
lainy; cf. seq. 

shege, pi. shegu f 1. bastard, 
A 60, dan shege id., shegia 
fern, bastard; 2. villainy; cf. 
M. H. p. 220, babu shegen 
da ha fisheni by no villainy 
could you get me out. 

shegeli, business ; see shdgali. 

shegia, fern, of shege, a bastard 
girl, a profligate. 

sheglfa, a porch, or hut; see 

shehu, teacher ; see shaihu. 

sheji, fem. shejia, pi. shejoji, 
black and white, esp. applied 
to a horse. 




sheka, pi. shekuna, shekoki, a 

sheka, to spring up, run away 
quickly, sheka da gudu to 
run quickly; sheko to come 

sheka, to remember, think of. 

sheka, shaka, to sniff up or 
smell ; sheka hiska to snort ; 
cf. shesheka to pant, mai- 
shako (S.) a man with a cold 
in the head, sliekawa taking 

sheka, shika, sheke, to win- 
now, mashekia one who win- 

shekara, pi. shekaru, a year; 
shekara da shekaru for years 
and years, shekara shekara 
year after year, da want 
shekara a day or two after ; 
see shekaranjia ; with nume- 
rals the sing, is commonly 
found, e.g. shekarashi tokos 
da wata shida his time was 
eight years and six months ; 
used as a verb G 2, 1. 14 ya 
shekara uku chiki sarota zaria 
he lived three years in the 
kingdom of Zaria, shekarunka 
nawa or sliekara nawa kana 
da rai or shekara nawa tun 
haifuanka how old are you ? 

shekaranjia, the day before 
yesterday ; watan shekaranjia 
the month before last, wan 

shekaranjm three days ago. 
shekaranjia sometimes de- 
notes some time ago; in 
Sokoto and Gando the day 
before yesterday is often 
expressed by shekaranjia ba- 

shekare, to be dry; A 76 kam 
ba rua kwabe kasanka ya she- 
kare if there is no water to 
mix with it, your earth is 
dry; see mashekare. 

shekarekki, stumbling. 

shekiyi, shameless ; see sha- 

sheko, to come quickly; see 

shela, a proclamation, e.g. one 
issued by a king. 

shema, to hoe ; see shima. 

shema or shima, another form 
of jemi to tan ; cf . mashemi 
or inajemi a tanner or a tan- 
ning block ; itachen shema a 
tanning block ; dan mashemi 
a scraping knife used in tan- 

sheme, a reed used for making 

sheppa, dauke sheppa to revolt. 

^w), 1. an agree- 
ment, esp. one to do work 
for a certain payment; 2. 
conditional (in grammar) ; cf . 
shere*, line; a form oijere, q.v. 




aheria, aharia, pi. sheriai (Ar. 

dxjjj*), judgment, sentence, 

ordinance ; gadon-sheria judg- 
ment seat ; yin sheria to 
judge, give judgment, E 10 
da alkalai da masuzua sheria 
both the judges and those 
who come to receive judg- 
aherif, sharif, pi. sherifai (Ar. 

±JUj£), a holy man, properly 

a descendant of the Prophet. 

Most of those who have been 

on the pilgrimage (cf. haji) 

claim this title afterwards, 
sherinia, the name of a para- 
sitic tree which eventually 

kills its host. 
sherufta, aherubta, the 

powers accredited to the 

sherifs; cf. sherif, 
sheshawa, tribal marks; see 

sheshe (K.), a kind of flute. 
sheshegi*, interference, evil 

shesheka, to pant; cf. sha- 

shaki, sheka. 
shetambua, hair tied in knots 

with a ridge in the middle, 
shetan, Satan ; see shaitan. 
shetara, shatara, ahetsara, 

a line of writing or print, 
shewa, whistling, shouting, the 

cackling, giggling of women; 
see 8otoa. 

shi (cf. Kanuri shi or shima y 
pi. sa\ pronominal particle, 
3rd pers. masc. sing, he, it, 
1. shi followed by ya is used 
as the emphatic form of the 
personal pron. shi ya yi haka 
he did so, or, it was he who 
did so; cf. shi he nan there 
is, or, it is so; 2. used as a 
prefix to verbs in the sense 
of subjunctive, e.g. ina roko 
shi bani wanan I ask him to 
give me that, ya ki shi ji he 
refused to listen; cf. use of 
ya; 3. used to express a wish, 
allah shi didi ranka may Qod 
lengthen your life ; B 46 aZ- 
lah shi bamu kwana lafafa 
may God grant us days of 
prosperity; 4. as objective 
pron. suffixed to verbs and 
prepositions, e.g. ya ganshi 
he saw him, gareshi to him, 
etc. ; 6. -shi or -nshi an in- 
separable possessive some- 
times found for -sa or -nsa y 
e.g. G 1, 1. 11 motsinshi his 
movement. This last use is 
especially common in the 
southern part of Hausaland; 
'his house' in Zaria would 
usually be gidanshi, in Kano 
gidansa, in Sokoto gidanai. 

shl, a contraction of shia used 





as a prefix to denote the 
third person singular of the 
future tense ; cf. Gr. p. 33. 

shia, cf. prec. 

shia, a quarter or division of a 
town ; see shiya. 

shiba*, arrow, sheaf of arrows; 
cf . chibia, kibia. 

shiba, to clean and prepare raw 
cotton, = sdbi, q.v. 

shibche, shipche, arranging 
grass for thatching. 

shlbi, n. the cleaning and pre- 
paring of the raw cotton. 

shibta*, dictation, writing from 

shiche, shida, to turn upside 
down, see jiche ; cf . zomo en 
ya shida ba shi jin gangan 
farauta, i.e. he who is not on 
his guard will easily be taken 
by surprise. 

shida, shide, 1. to descend ; 
used with da to let down, 
e.g. na shida da Udu a kasa 
I put down the pitcher on 
the ground ; 2. to take down, 
to unload ; su shida gishiri 
they unloaded the salt; 3. 
to alight, encamp, sojourn; 
4. shide to receive as a guest; 
ya shidemu chikin gida he 
received us into the house; 
mashidi lodging place, shidi* 
followed by da, to bear, to 
carry, e.g. na shidi da abu 

zua kasua I carried some- 
thing to the market, shi- 
dasda to take away, to take 

down, shido to take away. 

shidda (cf. (?) Ar. Cw), card. 

num., six ; the corresponding 
ordinal is masc. nashida, fern. 
tashida. (shidda is the only 
one of the lower Hausa nu- 
merals which at all resembles 
the Arabic ; if, which seems 
otherwise improbable, the 
Hausa numerals were origin- 
ally formed on a basis of five, 
shida would be for sha daia ; 
cf. sha.) 

shide, to put away, finish, read 

shidi and shido ; see shida. 

shiera*, line, M. H. p. 39; 
see jera. 

shifchi, a kind of grass. 

shifka, to sow ; see shipka. 

shifta, shifche, to cut. 

Shiga, shige, pi. shiguna, a 
patch of cloth ; cf. M. H. 
p. 206; esp. used of a tri- 
angular piece of cloth inserted 
at the bottom of a tobe, etc., 
to make the bottom broader 
than the top. 

shiga, shige, to go in, to enter ; 
shiga da followed by a sub- 
stantive, to carry anything 
in, cf. use of tafi da; shiga 




nemo to begin to seek ; shiga 
bauchi to become a slave; 
shiga bashi to get into debt ; 
shlge is frequently used in 
the sense of entering a hole 
or retreat in order to obtain 
concealment, thus, shiga rami 
to go just inside a hole, but 
shige rami to pass right in, go 
to the end of ; mashiga a hole 
to go into and stop in (e.g. a 
rat hole) ; mashigi a place to 
enter by, a passage; shige 
when used with expression of 
time = to have passed, ba ya 
shige shekara goma he has not 
passed his tenth year, tunda 
kwanaki ba su shige goma 
before ten days have elapsed ; 
ku shige (addressed to people 
on the road) =pass on ; shigege 
an interloper, immigrant ; 
motor shige a woman who 
presents herself unbidden ; 
sabon shiga a learner, a new 
hand ; shiga kafUo an idiom 
used in arranging a marriage 
= go home and come back 
with the dowry sadaka ; shi- 
gosda to cause to enter, to 
take in ; shishiga to go con- 
stantly to a place ; shigo to 
come in, to enter in to where 
the speaker is. 

shlge 4 , like; shigensu like them. 

shigifa, shegffa, pi. shigifa 

and shigifqfi, house, porch, 
dwelling; usually a house 
built of mud ; shigifa is the 
Sokoto equivalent for soro, a 
flat-roofed, as opposed to a 
thatched house. 

shigo, to come in ; see shiga. 

shigoro, keeping watch, spying ; 
yin shigoro to keep watch. 

shika, tr. to let go, divorce; 
intr. to be open, to be free, 
anshika hainya the way is 
open ; cf . shtki, sdki. 

shika, particle prefixed to 3rd 
pers. sing, to form the nar- 
rative or historic tense, see 
H. Gr. p. 28. 

shika, v. to winnow ; see sheka. 

shikashiki, pi. shikashikai, 
poles used to support a tent. 

shiki, n. divorce, act of aban- 
doning ; cf. sdki. 

shikiki, fern. shikiMa. brother, 

shikin* in, i.q. chikin, A 9. 

shillalo, a hopping game played 
by children. 

shillu, n. 1. swinging, waving; 
2. v. to shake, e.g. na shillu 
magani da magani I shook 
up two medicines together. 

shima*, to injure; forjima,q.v. 

shima*, to tan ; see shemo and 

shima, shema, to hoe, to 
plough; mashemi a hoe. 




shimfida, shimfada, to extend, 
enlarge; to spread out, ex- 
plain, e.g. shimfida taberma 
to spread out a mat; abin 
shimfida a mat ; mashimfidij 
q.v., anything spread out, e.g. 
a saddle cloth, or anything 
for sale ; yan shimfida huck- 
sters, retailers. 

shimge, shimgi, shinge, pi. 

shimgaye, a fence made of 

stalks or thorns, 
shimkake, a crow; cf. han- 

shina, verb. pron. prefix of the 

pres. tense 3rd pers. sing. 

masc, e.g. shina so he wishes. 

The pronominal forms ending 

in na, e.g. shina, yana may 

be followed by substantives 

or participial forms, thus yana 

tafia he is going, shina zua 

he is coming, 
shina, to know ; cf . sdni. 
shin&dari, soldier; see sind- 

shinfida, to spread out; see 

shinge, the white ant in the 

winged stage. 
shinge, hedge ; see shimge. 
shingi (K.), remainder; cf. 

shini, shina, knowledge; see 

shinkafa, rice in the husk; 

shinkafa shanshere (or sur- 

fafe) cleaned rice ; shinkafan- 

talaka a kind of guinea-corn 

with a long grain-like wheat. 

shinkai, kindness, good or evil 
deed; seejinkai. 

shinkaya, to go near to. 

shinkinkimi*, a lunatic, less 
mad than mahaukachi. 

shintali, sintali, shantali, pi. 
shintalai (possibly from Ar. 

JJoutf , a vessel with a handle), 
a large brass jug with a nar- 
row neck, specially used for 
ceremonial ablutions before 

shipche, arranging grass for 
thatching; see shibche. 

shipka, shibka, pi. shipkoki, 

small plants ; cf . seq. 

shipka, shibka, shuka, suka, 

to sow, plant; cf. prov. abinda 
akashuka shi kan tsira that 
which has been sown is that 
which will come up, i.e. as a 
man sows so shall he reap. 

shira, to dig with a fatainya, 
to hoe ; cf . chira. 

shirache, to wait for ; see ji~ 

shirai, shirayi, a small porch 
or verandah, a hut used for 
storing grain in. 

shirbache, n. confusion. 

shirbata, to confuse, bring into 




shirga, 1. to increase, overdo, 
used with tsada to charge 
much money; yana shirga 
t8ada he overcharges ; cf. M. 
H. p. 196, su kan shirga mam 
kurdi dayatca they would 
charge them a high price ; 2. 
to place one thing on top of 
another, e.g. in arranging 
shirgi, n. the piling up or 
stacking of one thing on 
shirgia, a stone wall, sangar. 
shiri, preparation ; yin shirt to 
prepare, make ready, D 59 
zaashiri hukumchi judgment 
shall be prepared, 
shiria, shiriya, n. good under- 
standing, friendship, guid- 
ance, courtship. 
shiria, shiriya, to guide, lead, 
settle, e.g. a quarrel ; cf. suka 
yi fada i\a shiriarsu ; shir- 
yarwa improvement ; cf. seq. 
shiria, shirya, to prepare, make 
ready, e.g. D 89 bale ku shiria 
still less that you should make 
preparation; B 55 idan ba 
ashiria ba if you are unpre- 
pared ; D 50 inasushiria those 
who are prepared ; shiryawa, 
shiriwa preparation ; shiri- 
yay% fern, shiriyaya, pi. shiri- 
yayu, ordered, arranged, pre- 
pared ; shirshiria, shishiria t 

intensive form to make much 

shirinya, a parasitic tree ; see 

shiririta, yin-shiririta to spoil 
a person's business, to act in 
such a way that the work 
entrusted to you goes wrong, 
also to be idle, wander aim- 

shirku (Ar. Jji iv), anything 

unlawful, idolatry, witchcraft, 

shfru, shiriu, shurum, shlu, 
silence ; da shim silently ; ka 
yi shiru be silent ? ctjurum. 

shirua, shirwa, pi. shinooyi, 

shishiga, to go constantly to 
a place; see shiga, 

shishige, disobedience to orders, 
obstinacy, ya Tear a shishigi 
he became more obstinate; 
also used for interference, 
yin shishige to interrupt. 

shishike (S.), stake, post. 

shishinya (S.), shushinya 
(K.), a forked stick, post. 

shishiria, to make much pre- 
paration, an intensive form 
of shiria f q.v. 

shishita, hissing, sh ! sh ! 

shiwaka (cf . Ar. lib^i, in the 
names of several medicines), 
a bitter herb from which a 




medicine is made, esp. one used 
by women after childbirth. 

shiya, shia, pi. shiyoyi, quarter 
or division of a town, a part 
or section of anything. 

shiyaki, a wild ass. 

shu, shiu, silence ; see shiru. 

shuda, shiuda, to dye blue. 

shude, shuda or shudi, shut- 
se*, to pass away, also used 
as a transitive verb, to pass 
by ; A 62 kowa ya ber lotu 
ya shude ya bata whoever 
omits the times (of prayer) 
passes away and is destroyed ; 
F 154 wonsu kan shutse wa 
iska some will pass like wind. 

shudi, shiudi, fern, shudia, rpl. 
8hudodi, blue ; shudi-shudi 
(cf. kore kore) light blue; 
cf. shuda, 

shugaba, pi. shugabai, leader, 
esp. applied to Mohammed; 
cf . jagaba. 

sh&geli, business; see sh&gali. 
shuka, to sow ; see shipka. 

shuka, shukakke, anything 
grown from seed, a seedling. 

shukra (Ar. j££), 1. to praise, 
give thanks; 2. praise; D 100 
rauna shukra muna godia zua 
ga allah we give thanks and 
are grateful to God. 

shuni, shiuni, juni* (cf. Ar. 

9 0' 

tj5»-, red, white, etc.), blue 
colour, indigo. 

shunim-biri, a tree with pur- 
ple flowers (Lonchocarpus 
laxiflora, Leguminosae). 

shura, shure, jure* to kick, 

knock backwards; cf. man- 

shurfe*, to shed tears. 

shuri, n. kick, blow. 

shushuniya (K.), see ahi- 

shusia, a small piece of twisted 

shutse*, shushe*, to pass 
away ; see shude, 

shuuri, something unlucky. 

shuwaki, hovering, etc. ; see 

sidi* (Ar. j^), lord, esp. ap- 
plied to Mohammed, B 20 
albarkachinka sidi mu samu 
cheto blessed art thou, O lord, 
may we obtain salvation 
(through thee) ; ya sidi is a 
common form of polite ad- 

slfa (cf. Ar. s^Le), sketch, draw- 
ing, likeness. 

slfata, slfache, to draw, paint. 

sihiri (Ar. >a*w), witchcraft, 

siko (Ar. dlw), a large needle 

or spike ; see tsiko. 
silia or siliya, pi. siliyu, sili- 

yoyi (cf. Ar. AJULw), silk cord, 

string; F 216 siliyoyi ado 

. * * 



su ka ratayawa beautiful 
chains shall they hang upon 
themselves ; also used to de- 
note the smooth upper end 
of a guinea-corn stalk. 

silili (S.), thinness. 

silli, a small fish. 

sin*, China. 

sinadari (S.), shinadari (K.), 
sunadari, 1. a sort of solder 
used for joining metals, white 
like salt, salammonia; 2*. 
tin, copper. 

sinche*, to loose; see sunche. 

sinihi (Ar. »~w), 1. to render 

miserable; 2. to sigh, to be 

sinishi, to sigh ; cf. prec. 
sinke, to break ; see tsinke. 
sintali, large brass jug with 

narrow neck ; see shintali. 
sira (S.), a brown horse. 

sirSti* (Ar. il;-*), a bridge 

over hell to be crossed by 
all after death ; its length is 
a thousand years' journey, its 
breadth as fine as a thread ; 
cf. F 143y« ankafa kua strati 
chikin jahima the bridge was 
set up in the fire ; F 154. 

sirdi, saddle ; see surdi. 

siri*, to prepare, F 238; see 

siriki, a wind musical instru- 
ment used by children.. 

siriri, fern, siriria, thin, slim; 

zare siriri kamar gashi a 

thread as fine as a hair, 
sirkakia, a thorny bush ; see 

sirki, silki, silk, 
sirkia, tsirkia, chirkia, sur- 

kia, bowstring. 
sisita, a species of finch with 

grey-blue plumage and red 

sissika, sussuka, to thresh; 

masissika or wurin sissika 

slta, sitta, six thousand; see 

Gr. p. 67. 
sitaka, tsitaka, hatchet, axe, 

with broad blade similar to 

that of barandemi, q.v. 
sltin, sixty ; see sUin. 
sitira, covering ; see sutura. 
sitirta, sutirta, suturi, to 

cover up, deck. 

BO (cf. (?) rare modern Ar. y* 9 
to desire, a contraction of 

Syt^y), 1. to love, to like, ina 
sonka I love you ; hence ma- 
sowa, friends, lovers; F 79 
masowa duka enna maitaimcb- 
kawa of all who love thee 
where is one who will help ? 
2. to wish, desire, hope, con- 
sent; A 29 anso ta kass 
muria let her be willing to 
lower her voice. The word 

' ■ * . . 




is sometimes pronounced san, 
e.g. na sansa I love him ; see 

so, a prefix to numerals; see 

so, n. love ; cf. the saying so 
du so ne amma sonkai yafi 
to love all is love but self- 
love is best; cf. soyeya. 

soale, soache, to peel ; see sale. 

soborodo, the fruit of a tree, 
with a red flower; soup is 
made from it. 

sof&ni, s5f&ne, blemish, e.g. 
white or black spot on an 
animal, or a piece of material 
not of uniform colour on 
anything = surfani. 

sofofua, small bees. 

soinya, a bush, with white 
flowers, from which a scent 
is obtained. 

soisoya, to cut, shear; see 

soiya, root ; see saiwa. 

soiya, soya, to cook without 
water, fry in fat, also to 
roast, burn, D 67 ta soiya 
ne/ a it shall burn the spleen ; 
F 230 abin soiya ga kowa 
there shall be cooked food 
for all. soiyaye, soiyeye y fem. 
soiyaya, pi. soiyayu, parched, 
broiled, fried, cooked without 
water ; see suy a, n. frying. 

soka, to alight ; see sauka. 

R. H. D. 

soka, soke, sold, soki before 
n., soke before pron., soka 
or suka when not followed 
by obj., to pierce, to prick, 
e.g. F 144 da kaifi kua da 
samtsi duk za soka and its- 
sharp edge and slipperiness 
shall pierce all. sosoke to 
prick or pierce through; cf. 

soka, suka, pi. soke-soke, n. 

sokara, a yam cooked and 
beaten up. 

sokara*, lesser bustard. 

soke, to pierce ; see soka. 

soko*, worthless. 

sololua, a kind of fish. 

soma (K.), to begin, ba shi 
somuwa it cannot be begun. 

soma*, to dip ; see tsoma. 

somi, n. beginning. 

somu, a poison put in wells, 
etc., M. H. p. 214. 

sonche, to loosen ; see sunche. 

sonsona, to smell; see sun- 

sonsoni, a kind of centipede. 

sorara, to listen ; see saurara. 

soraye, see soro. 

soro, pi. soraye (K.), a flat- 
roofed house (cf. Ar. jya 9 a 
layer of stones in a wall); 
cf. prov. kwana buka ya fi 
kwana soro da ba kurdi, i.e. 
to sleep in a tent (with plenty 





of money) is better than to 
sleep in a house without any. 
8oron bene a flat-roofed, or 
two-storeyed house; cf. shi- 
gifa (used in Sokoto). 

sosa, to scratch ; see susa. 

sosai, straight, correct, proper, 
level, equal ; ya yi sosai it is 
level, hainya sosai a straight 
path ; na ji sosai I under- 
stand perfectly ; dere ya yi 
sosai the night was very dark. 

sosaiya, soisoya, to cut, shear. 

sosaiye, cutting with scissors, 
shearing ; yin sosaiye to cut, 
to shear. 

soshia, chaff from wheat or 
other grains, stalk or stem 
of corn. 

SOSO, zozo, a plant of the con- 
volvulus family, the fibrous 
pod of which is used in scrub- 

sosochi, idleness ; see sau- 

SOSOke, intensive form of soke, 
q.v., to pierce or prick much. 

soto, a cake made of bean-flour 
and oil. 

sotu*, a trust ; see sabtu. 

sowa, suwa, shouting, crying 
out, anasowa there was shout- 
ing, suka dauki sowa they 
raised a shout, suwa suwa 
outcry ; see shewa. 

soya, to fry ; see soiya. 

soyeya* soaya, sowaya, so- 
yuwa (S.), love, esp. recipro- 
cal love j yin soyeya, or soye 
to love ; muna soyeya da 
junanmuwe love one another. 

su (Kanuri so), 3rd pers. pi. 
pron., 1. as a separate pron. 
it expresses the subject 
'they'; 2. prefixed to verbs 
as subj., e.g. su gudu let 
them flee; 3. suffixed to verbs 
as obj. ; 4. -su or -nsu when 
the object possessed is mas- 
culine, and -rsu or -Isu when 
the object possessed is femi- 
nine, suffixed to nouns as an 
inseparable possessive pron., 
e.g. dawakinsu their horses. 

su, n. fishing, esp. with hand- 
nets, also groping for any- 
thing in the water, yin su 
to fish; cf. masusUf sunta. 

sua, often contracted to sd, a 
prefix to denote the third 
person plural of the future 
tense; cf. Gr. p. 33. 

sua, pi. of wa; used with ne, 
suane a pi. of wane ; 1. used 
with reference to what is 
previously known, e.g. sune 
sua these are they; 2. with 
ne, as interrogative, e.g. sua- 
ne ne who are they? suane 
ne su ke zo who are they that 
are coming? 3. suasua who 
are they? For further ex- 




planation of the use of sua, 
cf. Gr. p. 14 sq. 

suaba, to cross over ; see swaba. 

suaba, saba, suabe, to husk 
grain, 'flay, zaka sabe mani 
hanu will you pull the skin 
off my hand? kqfa ya saba 
my foot is chafed. 

suaba, s&ba, swaba, the cast 
skin or slough of a serpent, 
ya yi suaba he comes out of 
his skin. 

suabo, swabo or sabo (cf. Ar. 
rt ^y*o IV > ruined, harmed), 
evil, e.g. D 81 en suabo ka 
kan yi shi kaika yidan azaba 
if you do evil He will bring 
you to the abode of pain; 
maisuabo evil-doer, D 21. 
ya yi suabon allah he blas- 

suane, swane, to steal; see 

sua-sua (cf . Ar. \$~> l^w), they 
are all alike, it is all the 
same; cf. duka dai ne, id. 

subabi, reason, cause; see sa~ 

subde for zubda, to pour out ; 
cf. M. H. p. 200, sun subde 
kaya they threw away their 

subolo, a rice-bag ; see saulo. 

subuche, subiche, to escape, 
slip out of. 

9 J J 

subui* (Ar. %**), fractional 

numeral, one-seventh, the 
seventh part. 
suda, to lick up, e.g. what 
remains on a plate ; cf . sUdi. 

suda (cf. Ar. 3u)\^, sparrow), 

a small brown bird ; its call 
is said to be ominous of war. 
suda maiyawan labari fadi 
ba atambayeka ba O sparrow, 
you are full of information 
though no one asks you for 

sudan (Ar. 0^>^)» Sudan, B 
76 sararin sudan the regions 
of the Sudan. The word su- 
dan which means the blacks, 
Le. the country of the blacks, 
is applied by the natives to 
all Africa N. of the equator 
and S. of the Sahara Desert, 
reaching from Senegal to the 
Red Sea. In Hausaland the 
king of Kwontagora bears 
the title saHkin sudan, i.e. 
king of the Sudan. 

siidi, suddi, that which is left, 
e.g. the scrapings of a plate 
or dish. sUde to scrape out 
a dish ; cf . akoshin baba Jas- 
kara sudeiva the great man's 
basin leaves no remains. 

9 J J 

sudusi* (Ar. ^ju), fractional 
numeral, one-sixth'. 





siifa, to increase ; see safa, 
sufadu, pi. vufadai, small light 

shoes worn inside boots, 
sufe, pi. sufofi (S.), lungs. 

sufi (Ar. %■>>■*)> wo °l * rom 

sufi* (Ar. ^J}y>), one who 

dresses in herbs and lives in 

the bush for religion, 
sufili, see sufuri. 
sufurchi, sufurche, sufurta, 

to hire, engage for hire, rent. 
siifuri and sufurchi (cf. (?) 

Ar. 5jAw, provisions for a 
journey), money paid to car- 
riers, hire, rent ; yin siifuri 
to work for hire, 
sufuri, sufurchi* or sufili 

(Ar. jAw), a large thick book; 

anything bound up tight. 
suga (S.), the point of an axe- 
head which projects through 

the handle, 
sugwaigwa, i.q. gwaiwa, q.v. 
suhur (Ar.), the meal before 

sunrise during the fast; see 

sujuda*, F 132 shina sujuda 

he does obeisance; see sajada. 
suka, piercing ; see soka. 
SUka, pi. sukaikai, a gallop; 

see sukua, 
sukani, to gallop ; see sukua. 


sukar* (Ar. jSLt), sugar. 

sukua ( K. ), suka (S. ), sukaya, 
sukani, to gallop, flee away ; 
asukwane at a gallop, su- 
kaya ma to fall upon, in- 
vade, sukayo to gallop to 
where the speaker is. masu- 
kwani a place for galloping. 

sukuki, a bush with thick 
foliage, its food ground and 

siiktbi-sxikun, the rustling of 


sukuni (S.), leisure, opportu- 

sukurua, sukurwa, corner ; 
sukuruan hanu elbow ; also 
the subsidiary points of the 
compass. Another form of 
the word is kusurua from 
which it is formed by meta- 

sul&ki, pad at the back of a 
camel's saddle. 

sulala (cf. Ar. ^|L»), to cook 
meat with hot stones. 

sulale, white cotton for sew- 
ing ; cf. under silia. 

sulba, agreement ; see sulha. 

sulbi, slipperiness, e.g. of fish. 

sulha, sulhu, sulfu, sulba 

(Ar. »Jlo), agreement, r 

sulke (Ar. 9-^), Kanuri 

luge, iron armour, chain 






sulkumi or surukumi, leather 

bag with narrow mouth, 

smaller than taiki. 
sullai, tip of corn stalk ; cf. silia. 
sulle, to hide, conceal (e.g. in 

the hand), sullum stealthily, 
sulli, sullia, foreskin, 
sultan, king, sultan; sultan 

musulmi a title given to the 

king of Sokoto. 
sulu (S.), a hank of yarn, 
sulusi* one-third, Ar. <£JU, 

sulusani two-thirds, 
suma, a little ; see sama. 
suma, hair of a man's head, 
suma, rags ; see tsuma. 
suma (S.), to be wet. 
suma, v. to be faint, surname 

faint ; cf. sumanclie. 

suma, zuma* (cf. (?) Ar.^o^, 
abstinence), faintness ; jin 
suma to feel faint ; cf . seq. 

sumanche or sunanche, to 

cause to choke. 
sumanjia, sumajia, tsuman- 

jia, a thin bending branch 

of a tree, a stick, a whip, 
sumaya (K.), minaret; cf. sv.- 

miya (S.). 

sumba, sunba, kiss, kissing 
hands to ; B 1 64 mu yi kewoye 
muna sumban dutsi we make 
the circuit, we kiss the stone. 

sumbula, to shoot, of young 
corn; cf. seq. 

sumbule, to slip, e.g. of a knot ; 
sumbuletoa slipping out, slip- 
ping down. 

sumbunta, sumbunche, to 

sumdiya, needle ; see sundiya. 

sumiya (S.), minaret; cf. su- 
maya (K..). 

sumjia,a large leather worker's 
needle ; cf . sundiya, 

sumuni (Ar. O-^X fractional 
numeral, one-eighth. 

sumya, a spider's web. 

sun, used as 3rd pers. pron. pi. 
as prefix in the perfect tense ; 
sun tafi they went; see Gr. 
p. 27. 

suna, pi. sunaye and sunanaki, 
name; sunan wasa a nick- 
name (lit. a name of play) ; 
yin suna to perform the 
naming ceremony on the 
eighth day ; ransuna the day 
on which a child receives its 
name. Used in buying and 
selling, e.g. ba shi suna, lit. 
give it a name, i.e. name its 

suna, grain which has been 
long kept, applied to any 
grain more than a year old. 

stbia, law ; see sunna. 

sunftdari, solder ; see sinddari. 

sunanche, to cause to choke ; 
see sumanche. 




sunba, kiss ; see sumba. 

sunche, sinche, to loosen. 

sundiya, sumdiya, a needle 
for working in leather, also 
used by women to put in 
their hair ; cf . sumjia. 

sunduki, box ; see sanduku 

sunena*, an edible fruit. 

sunguma, to lift up a weight, 
to take away. 

sungumi, a long-handled hoe 
for making holes in ground 
for sowing seed, a dibble. 

sunke, to wrap or veil ; pass. 
F 91 asa maka dan likafani 
kuma asunke a shroud is 
placed for thee, thou art 
wrapped therein. 

sunkuru, overgrown bush, or 
long grass. 

sunkuru*, a warrior without 
a load, i.e. carrying only arms. 

sunkuya, to bend ; see seq. 

sunkwia, sunkwiya, sun- 
kwiyi, sunkuya, 1. to bow 
down, to stoop ; s. da kai 
(K.) to hang one's head ; mai- 
8unkwi da kai a man with a 
hang-dog look ; fig. 2. to 
work uselessly, e.g. to till and 
reap no harvest; C 4 kowa 
yi azki ba sani ya sunkwia 
whoever works without know- 
ledge works uselessly. 

sunna ( Ar. &u), law, tradition ; 
C 42 en sun bi sunna wanda 

yaiwo addunia if they follow 
the law of him who made the 
world; cf. Gr. p. 138, 1. 22, 
kun tafo don kauda sunna ye 
came in order to turn aside 
the right way : also a re- 
ligious sect. 

sunna, lawful intercourse of 
man with wife. 

sunsuna, sonsona, sansana*, 
to smell, esp. to smell a sweet 
scent, also to hold anything 
up to test whether it has any 

sunta, sunche, to catch, e.g. 

sunta, n. fishing; masunta a 
place for fishing; masunchi 
a fisherman ; cf . su. 

sununu, much, a quantity of 

supa*, form, likeness; supasn 
daia they are alike, supansa 
= kamansa his likeness. 

sura* (S.), a head of hair. 

sura, the pounce of the kite, or 
swoop of the hawk ; kawo 
sura to swoop or pounce ; cf. 

sura, pi. surori, Ar. $j)~>, 
chapter, e.g. of the Koran. 

surachi, steam ; yin surache to 
steam anything. 

surdi, sirdi (cf. (?) ljli y to 

sew together), pi. surddi, 




surdodi, suradda, surduna, 
pack-saddle, saddle, e.g. sur- 
adi kua na zinaria ga kowa 
there shall be golden saddles 
for everyone; yin surdi to 
saddle up. 

sure, a soup like yakua. 

sure, to kick ; see shure. 

surfa, surfe, surifa, surufa, 
to beat or husk grain in a 
mortar; surf of e an epithet 
applied to rice when husked 
and cleaned. 

surfani, spots on a skin, em- 
broidery ; mai8urfani used of 
embroidered trousers ; cf . so- 

surfe, grain after it has been 
husked and cleaned. 

suri, shuri, pi. sura, suwura, 

surikia, bowstrings, M. H. 
p. 186 ; see tsarkia. 

surka, to mix one thing with 

surka, chain ; see sarka. 

surki, suriki, pi. surukai, 
father-in-law, or elder brother- 
in-law, used of wife's family 
in general ; cf . sarakua 

surki, n. mixing, intermingling. 

surkia, bowstring ; see tsarkia, 

surkunta, affinity by marriage 
as opposed to consanguinity ; 
see surki. 

surmuka, to push forcibly, 

force an entrance, entangle 

or become entangled, to come 

to blows, 
suru, a large basket like a 

lobster-pot, used in fishing, 
surufa, to husk ; see surfa* 
surufi, depth ; see zurufi. 
suruki, surki, a name given 

to Jura after the balls have 

been broken up and mixed 

with water: in Sokoto the 

name given to these balls is 

surukumi, a leather bag ; see 

sururi (S.), talkativeness; cf. 

surutu (K.), talkativeness, idle 

susa, sosa, zuza, to scratch, 

e.g. to rub an itching place, 
susa, n. scratching ; yin susa 

to scratch, 
susa, pi. susoki, a caterpillar; 

see tsutsa, 
sussuka, threshing ; see sis- 

susuwa, a worm or insect which 

destroys clothes, 
sutu, yin sutu to pull out cotton 

in order to clean or thin it. 

sutura, sitira (Ar. jil), n. 
covering, fine clothing; yin 
sutura or sutura to cover* 
preserve, from allah shi m<una 




sutura da aikokin ebliz may 
God preserve us from the 
works of the devil ; sutwrta 
to cover, deck. 

suwa, an internal swelling or 

suwa, shouting ; see sowa. 

suwa*, them, a lengthened 
form of su, M. H. p. 223. 

suwa, pi. suwane, who? Bee sua. 

suwaka, sand-grouse; cf. kwan- 
tatoi, ladin rogo. 

suya, n. frying; see soiya to 

swaba, suaba, s&ba, to over- 
step, cross over; sun swaba 
juna they changed sides. 

swabani, n. missing, e.g. on a 
road ; yin swabani to miss 
or fail to meet anyone. 

swabo, evil ; see suabo. 

swane, to steal ; see sane. 

The letter O used by the Hausas 
may be represented by the 
English t. In the case of 
words either borrowed or 
adapted from the Arabic, the 
Arabic letter J» is frequently 
represented in Hausa by O, 
and pronounced like the En- 

glish t, e.g. tudu, Ar. £>l». 
As a general rule h is used 
by the Hausas to express the 

sound of the English ts. The 
Arabic w> is sometimes chang- 
ed by the Hausas into O t, 

e.g. talata U^L3, Ar. h$S. 
ta, feminine pronominal par- 
ticle, 1. 3rd pers. sing, per- 
sonal pron. she, it ; it is pre- 
fixed to the simplest form of 
the verb and suffixed to the 
future auxiliary form, e.g. 
ta tafi 'she went, or she has 
gone away, zata tafi she will 
go ; 2. it is used as an objec- 
tive pronoun and suffixed to 
verbs and prepositions, e.g. 
gata behold her, gareta to 
her ; 3. -nta is used as an 
inseparable possessive pro- 
noun for the third person, 
and is suffixed when the ob- 
ject possessed is masculine 
and the possessor is feminine ; 
~rta or -Ita is similarly used 
when the object possessed is 
feminine and the possessor 
also feminine, e.g. dokinta 
her horse, iyayenta her 
parents, but goualta or go- 
narta her farm, dukialta or 
dukiarta her possessions; 4. 
-ta is also used an an in- 
separable possessive pronoun 
for the first person, and is 
suffixed when the object 
possessed is feminine; for 
further explanation of this 




use of ta see H. Gr. p. 24 ; 
cf . tawa, tata, taka, etc. ta 
is used idiomatically, especi- 
ally after yi, e.g. ku yi ta yi 
go on with what you are 
doing ; ku yi ta tafia march ! 
ku yi ta tuba repent, yi ta 
aiki accomplish the work, 
M. H. p. 198, ku yi ta kanku 
do that which appertains to 
you, B 90, or do as you like; 
it is also sometimes used 
in the sense of sauve qui 
peut. dari uku ta kurdi de 
(in reply to question What 
did you pay V) Its price was 
indeed 300. 

ta, related to prec, used as a 
feminine prefix, 1. to form 
the adjectives tagari (masc. 
nagari) good, takwarai (masc. 
7iakwarai) proper, correct; 2. 
to form ordinal from cardi- 
nal numerals, e.g. uku three, 
bdkoi seven, tauku third, ta- 
bdkoi seventh. For other 
uses of ta as a prefix, cf. 
taberma, taderishi, takanda. 

t5, a contraction of taa, used 
as a prefix to denote the 
third person singular femi- 
nine of the future tense ; cf. 
Gr. p. 32. 

ta, JEor idiomatic use in expres- 
sion ta mana da hankali see 
tada. ta is apparently the 

root from which tada, tashi, 
etc., are derived. 

ta'ada, Ar. 5>U, from ada 
custom with ta (the fem. form 
of na); like, A 21 kaka su ke 
aiki ta i ada malamai how men 
can act like mallams; see 

ta'adi* ta'ada (cf. Ar. jutf), 

loss, destruction ; mischief, 
wantonness; yin ta l adi to 
suffer loss. maita i adi a tease, 
ta'ala*, Ar. id., exalted, an 
epithet applied to God, F 2. 

ta'aziya* (Ar. ^jjju), condol- 

ence in bereavement. 
t&ba, tobacco ; tukunian taba 
a pipe ; shan taba to smoke, 
lit. to drink tobacco ; sandan 
taba a stick of rolled tobacco. 
garin taba snuff. 

ta'ba* (Ar. ^*ju), toil, trouble, 

t&ba, t&bi, 1. to touch, handle ; 
2. used of snakes, etc., to 
sting, bite ; 3. to do or have 
done a thing onoe or to a 
slight extent, to touch upon, 
e.g. na tdba tafia I went but 
a little way ; na tdba chin 
tuo I ate but a little; ka 
tdba je sokoto have you ever 
been to Sokoto ? ka tdba 
ganiiua have you ever seen 




him 1 na tdba ganinsa I saw 
him once, I have seen him ; 
ban tdba yin haka I never 
acted thus ; 4. to try, e.g. 
A 2 zan tdba kokari I will 

• • • 

endeavour to make the at- 
tempt; 5. metaph. to afflict, 
drive mad. karatu ya taba- 
shi learning has made him 
mad. tababbe crazy, inspired ; 
cf . tabu, abin tdbavoa money, 

taba'a (cf. Ar. *J», to stamp), 

found in the comp. taba l al 
takarda sheet of paper, page 
of a book. 
tababbe, lunatic ; see taba. 

a a a ' ' • 

t&bache, to continue ; see td- 

tabaibai, a short hobbling- 

tabaka, a page of a book ; cf . 
tabalal takarda. 

tabakune, a great grandchild. 

tab&ni, beans ground up; see 

taba-ni-ka-samu (Ficus Vo- 
geli, Urticaceae), a rubber 
tree; so called because of 
its stickiness. Its juice is 
one of the commercial sources 
of rubber. 

tabaria, pi. tabare (cf. (?) Ar. 

j*3, to smash), a large wooden 
pestle for pounding up rice, 
etc. in a turumi. 

tabarma, a mat ; see tabernia. 
t&bas, tabbas, n. assurance, 

proving ; yin tabbas to make 

certain, demonstrate. 
t&bat, tabbat, always, for ever. 
t&bata or t&bbetta, tabache 

(Ar. C-J), to continue to 
exist, to be sure, to be as- 
sured, to make sure, confirm; 
ya tdbata he had no doubt, 
he felt sure, ka tdbata are 
you certain ? hence used like 
English, surely, certainly, 
e.g. ya tdbata nan he is cer- 
tainly there ; cf. D 24 kowa 
ya ki salla ka tdbata kafiri ne 
he who refuses to pray you 
may be quite sure that he 
is a heathen. 

t&bata, n. continuance, perma- 
nence, e.g. B 106 ni ban ga 
tdbata ba ga mulkinta I have 
seen no continuance to its 
dominion ; D 79 gidan da- 
wama gidan tdbata the house 
of constant abode, the house 
in which to remain. 

t&batawa, continuing, F 62 
muka tdbatawa we shall con- 
tinue; matdbata, q.v., en- 
during ; tdbatache, fem. tdba- 
tachia established, approved, 
certain ; magana tdbatachia 
true words. 

t&be, to be without, to fail to 
get ; B 67 roki vbangiji ba 




ha tabe ba ask the Lord, thou 
wilt not fail to get it. 

tabe, tabi, to draw out, pull 
out; tabe baka to draw out 
a bow; tabe kada to draw 
cotton out of its pod. 

taberma, pi. tabermi, mascu- 
line, a mat made of reeds or 

grass ; probably derived from 

+ * * 
Ar.jtjf, to twist into a rope, 

with Hausa prefix as in tade- 


taberman-zomo (hare's mat), 
a plant with four fleshy leaves 
which lie flat on the ground 
with a yellow flower in the 
middle, the leaves are rubbed 
on the feet to cure kushe 

tabi*, a shortened form of tarn- 
bay a to question, D 45. 

t&bi, lunatic ; see t&bu. 

t&bi, to touch, sting, etc. ; see 


t&bi, n. striking, e.g. striking 

the hands together. 
tabid, tapki, tafki, feminine 

(Ar. ^ft * i», rain over the 
whole country), flowing water, 
river, pool. 

tabo, pi. tabuna (cf. Ar. £«J»> 
soil, dirt), mud, slush, a spot 
or mark. 

t&bo, ripe; dabino ya yi tabo 
the date is ripe or soft. 

tabo, the scar of a healed 
wound ; cf. tambo. 

tabo*, to meet with a person, 
to relieve another of his load, 
na taboshi I took his load. 

t&bo, a lunatic ; see tdbu. 

tabri, tabre, a castrated goat. 

tabsa, dyeing, yin tabsa to 

tabshi, softness ; see tapshi. 

t&bu, t&bo, fern, tdbuwa, a 
lunatic ; see tdba. 

tabuwa, n. madness. 

tache, to purify water by 
straining, filter. tachache, 
pi. tachatu, bright. 

tachewa or tata, n. filtering. 

tachi*, to milk ; see tatsa. 

tachi, n. clearness ; sama da 
tachi the sky is clear. 

t&da (S.), pi. tddodi, a shorten- 
ed form of ta'ada, q.v., cus- 
tom, habit, matter, subject, 
thing, e.g. tadansu ke nan 
that is their custom ; cf . ada. 

t&da, tashe before a pers. pron., 
to lift up, to straighten, e.g. 
a bent stick ; tada hainya to 
mend the road; tada some- 
times denotes * to choose ' ; 
cf. Gr. p. 137, 1. 17. tada 
hankalin ivani or ta ma toani 
da hankali to upset, annoy 
anyone, tada gaba to start 
a fight, ba ta tada tvanan 
zanche she found nothing to 




quarrel about in this speech. 
magana ba to tadua the word 
will not fail; to start or send, 
na tada manzo I sent a mes- 
senger; cf. the related form 
tashi. tashi, tayes, tada are 
all derived from a root to; 
cf. bashi, bayes, bada from 
root ba. 

tad&li, a bag made from tuku- 
rua leaves, for holding cow- 
ries or for packing cotton; 
cf. kwororo. 

tadawa, ink; see adawa. 

tade, to trip a person up. 

taderlshi (cf. Ar. from Pers. 

cHjb, black leather, with 

Hausa prefix), boards or stiff 
covers for binding books. 

taderishi (cf. (?) Ar. J*ji), 
bluntness of a knife. 

t&di, loss ; see ta i adi. 

t&di, conversation ; yin tddi to 

tadilisi (Ar.), the concealment 
of defects in articles on sale. 

tadowa, raising up ; see tada. 

tSfa, to clap the hands; see 

tafarfara, taferfera, a four- 
cornered thatched house. 

tafarki, tafariki, pi. tafarkoki, 
tafarku, way, road, path. 
tafarki is often used of the 
path of religion, A 71 ita che 

tafarki da kebi ita daia the 
path for thee to follow is one. 
tafarki is generally used for 
a smaller or less defined path 
or track than hainya, q.v. 

tafarnua, pi. tafarnai, garlic ; 
see tapamua. 

t&fasa, t&f5sa (Cassia tora, 
Leguminosae), a shrub with 
yellow flowers ; the seeds 
mixed with kaskaifi are used 
as a preventive medicine 
against cuts and scratches. 

tafasa, tafesa, tr. ; tofasu or 
tafashe intr., to boil; tafa- 
sashin rua boiled water, ta- 
fasashe^ f . tafasa&hia, pi. tafa- 
sashu, boiling, boiled, rua 
ya tafasa the water boiled, 
atafasashi it is boiling. Fig. 
zuchiata to tafasa my heart 
boils, i.e. it is vexed. 

tafashe (S.), a kind of drum. 

tafashia, a shrub with red, 
edible fruit (Sarcocephalus 
Russeggeri, Rubiaceae); also 
called tuon-biri (monkey 
food). There is obtained 
from it a vegetable poison 
which is used for smearing 
arrows; cf. defi. 

tafasua, needle ; see tamfasua. 

tafe, to be without ; see tdbe. 

tafe, pi. tafifia, travelling; muna 
tafe we are trekking ; cf. 




taferfera, a four-cornered 
house; see tafarfara. 

taferko, tafarko, 1. beginning, 
e.g. taferko da takarshe the 
first and last of a thing, also 
= dunia da lahira this world 
and the next ; 2. used as an 
adjective as the feminine of 
nqferko, q.v. 

tafesa, to boil ; see tqfasa. 

taffe, a hut made with mats. 

t&fi, a flat surface, e.g. the 
hand spread out flat, tdfin 
hanu the palm of the hand, 
tajin kafa the sole of the 
foot ; tajin gitva (a) a round 
mat, only used by a king, 
(6) salt spread out. 

tafi, clapping of hands, beating 
of wings, yin tafi to clap 
the hands; cf. tafa. 

tafi, to be without ; see tdbe. 

tafi, often pronounced teffi, to 
go, to travel ; an abbreviated 
form tax is sometimes used 
especially in Sokoto ; to form 
the pres. tense the noun tafia 
must be employed with the 
pronominal forms ending in 
wfl, e.g. suna tafia they are 
going ; tafi followed by da to 
take away, tafiawa partic. 
form of tafi, journeying, tafo 
or taho* to come, tafo kusa 
come near ; suna tafowa they 
are coming here, tafi ga rana 

(lit. go to the sun), is the name 
given to a small brown harm- 
less snake which comes out 
at daylight. 

tafia, n., pi. tafifia, going, jour- 
ney, travelling; tafiankwana 
biu two days' journey, yin 
tafia to travel ; cf . tafe. uban 
tafia leader of an expedition, 
M. H. p. 238. 

tafida, a title given to the son 
of a king ; cf . yerima. 

tafkeke, broad, extensive. 

tafki, pi. tafuka, a pool; see 

tafo, to come ; see tafi. 

tafowa, coming ; see tafi. 

tafshi, tapshi, n. softness, 
ripeness, tenderness, the state 
of being well-cooked ; da taf- 
shi soft, ripe, well-cooked ; 
yin tafshi to make soft. 

taga, pi. tagaigai (Ar. 3i lb, 
window), a hole to look out 
at ; esp. applied to the small 
triangular holes which serve 
the purpose of windows. 

t&ga, tagga, to attempt. 

tagajan, poor people without 
horse, arms or slaves. 

tagang&na, to sit with out- 
spread legs, to pull up 
one's skirts in order to sit 

t&gara, a proclamation of 




tagari, good, a feni. form of 
nagari, q.v. 

tagia, a white cap, usually 
worn by the Hausas under- 
neath the large straw hat, 
malafa ; cf . fulandara. 

t&go, pi. tagogi (in Sokoto), 
tagua, pi. taguoyi (in Kano), 
a shirt made like a tobe, 
with short sleeves; cf. Gr. 
p. 138, 1. 37, ya gudano ma- 
8utago he fled from the men 
with short shirts. 

tagode, beads worn round the 
neck by women. 

tagSmas, tamogashi, tamga, 
a sword with a double sharp 

tagomashi* n. love. 

tagua, a shirt ; see tdgo. 

tagua, pi. taguai, taguwoyi, 1. 
female camel ; 2. the constel- 
lation of the camel which 
rises at the beginning of the 
dry season, taguan bindiga 
a double-barrelled gun. 

tagua*, heavy rain ; see tugua. 

tagiii, pi. taguaye, twins. 

tagula, tugula, tagura, pi. 
tagtdai, 1. bracelet; 2. a 
girdle made of copper; 3. a 
charm against sickness and 
death worn by yan wabi and 
consisting of a continuous 
string worn round the neck 
and waist which passes 

through metal rings, it is 
discarded when the wearer 
grows up. 

tagumi, n. leaning the head 
on the hand in token of dis- 

tahalita* (Zanf.), to create; 
see halita. 

taho*, to come; a form of 
ta/o, C 18. 

tai, an abbreviated form of 
tasa his; cf. use of nai for 

taia, to make an offer in bar- 
gaining for anything; cf. 

taiba, fatness ; da taiba fat. 

taiki, pi. taika, tayuka, taikuna 


[cf. Ar. sJuj iv, to fill a skin 

bag], a large bag made of 
skin, a bundle; cf. pro v. en 
kana awo auna ga nxaitaxki 
if you want to measure out 
anything, go to the man who 
has the bag and measure ; 
i.e. if you want anything, 
ask the owner for it, do not 
ask his servant. 

taimaka, taimaki, taimake, 
to help ; see taimako. 

taimako, help, assistance, A 2 
ka yi taimako gareni do thou 
help me. taimakawa help, 
assistance ; F 79 masowa duk 
enna maitaimakawaoi all who 

-— - -i^tfw^ate 




love thee where is one that 
can help 1 

taimama (cf. Ar. j^j v), cere- 
monial ablutions made with 
sand ; A 54 wanan da kan 
rika taimama ham babu huja 
the man who performed his 
ablutions with sand though 
there was no reason for his 
doing so (i.e. when water 
was available). 

tainya, tainye, tainyo and 
tainyona, secondary forms 
of taya to help, q.v. 

taitai, pi. taitaye, a plate made 
of plaited grass. 

taiyo, abokin taiyo a friend to 
help, M. H. p. 226 ; see taya. 

tajawankai, light kind of san- 
dals, more highly decorated 
than 8ambazai, q.v. 

tajini, a large drum such as 
would be used by a king. 

tajirchi, wealth. 

t&jiri, fern, tdjira (Ar. ^*>tt), 

merchant, trader, a rich man. 

tajirta, to be rich. 

taka, separable possessive pron. 
2nd pers. sing. 'thy,' used 
when possessor is masc. and 
object possessed is fern. ; cf. 
naka and taJci. 

t&ka, to measure lengths with 
the hand. 

taka, \k. trampling down ; cf. 

Gr. p. 138, 1. 32; suyi ta~ 
kamu; used with mache = 
kwana da. 

t&ka, taki, take, to tread, 
trample upon, to mount up, 
to put one's foot on, to hold 
down under foot, ya take 
gafia he put his foot on the 
rat. taka sheria to break the 
law, taka addini to violate 
the rules of religion, mai- 
taki one who treads out corn. 
mataki steps, ladder. mai~ 
takin biri lit. one who steps 
like a monkey, used of a horse 
that walks with its pasterns 
touching the ground; cf. to- 

t&kaba, n., 1. taking off gar- 
ments as a sign of grief; 
mourning, lamentation, esp. 
of women; 2. a widow dur- 
ing her time of retreat. 

takabodo, a white bird with 
reddish feet, somewhat re- 
sembling a dotterel. 

takai, a kind of fencing game 
played with short sticks, the 
players go round in a circle, 
if the players be women they 
clap their hands. 

takaichi, hatred, anger, irrita- 
tion, annoyance; ina jin 
takaichi I am angry with. 
debe takaichin wane to pay 
.someone back in his own 




coin, lit. to take out the 
annoyance of anyone. 

takaita, to be angry, to excite 
to anger. 

takake, fern, takaka, pi. ta- 
kaku, particip. form from 
take, trodden down, mashed. 

takala, the round pole of the 
loom on which the woven 
cloth is wound. It is re- 
volved by a handle (matuki) 
fixed into one end of it, and 
secured by two peg ropes 
(ja-baya) one on either side 
of the weaver. 

takalmi, pi. takalma, shoe, 
sandal, used to express the 
number of persons, i.e. tra- 
ders, in a caravan, the sandal 
being typical of trader, ta- 
kalmi dvhu ya gamu a thou- 
sand traders were collected. 

t&kama, n. a proud walk, also 
the amble of a horse, doki 
maitakama a horse which has 
been taught to amble ; cf . mai- 
takama one who walks proud- 
ly, yana takama he swaggers. 

takan, a form of akan above. 

takanda, takanta, Sorghum 
saccharatum, sugar-cane; cf. 

rike (Ar. S jj£, English * can- 
dy'); with Hausa prefix ta 
as in takarda. It resembles 
guinea-corn in appearance 

and is reaped before the 
guinea-corn is planted, ta- 
kandar nama the saddle of 
meat, supposed to contain 
the sweetest meat. 

takandar giwa, a tree with 
fragrant blossoms and black 
plum-like fruit, = gwqfsa. 

t&kanta, to manure ; cf . tdki. 

takar* (K.), indeed, certainly. 

takarda, pi. takardu, some- 
times used as masc, Kanuri 


tagarda (cf. (?) Ar. ^Ibji, 
Gk. x c V yn ? 9 )> paper, letter, 
book, anything with writing 
on, e.g. F 140 ajefo har ta- 
kardun aiku namu we shall 
be placed according to the 
lists of our deeds. 

takarkari, pi. takarkarai, an 
ox used for carrying loads. 

takarna, a kind of hard potash. 

takarra, competition, over-bid- 

takarshe, last ; see karshe. 

takas [cf. Ar. v**J* and ^^o, 
which have been variously 
interpreted dolphin, sea-cow, 
hyena and badger, Lat. taxus, 
taxo (Augustine), It. tasso, 
Germ. Dachs], badger. 

takasara, grass covering appen- 
dage worn by certain pagan 

t&kawa, steps; cf. tdka. 




t&ke, to tread ; see tdka. 

take (K.), killing outright; 
akayi masa take he was killed 

taki, separable possessive pron. 
2nd pers. sing., thine, used 
when possessor and object 
possessed are both feminine ; 
cf . taka and naki. 

taki, dung ; yin taki or takanta 
to manure. 

t&ki, pi. take-take, taki-taki, a 
foot regarded as a measure 
of length, a pace, course, 
tendency; C 17 taki-takin 
dunia the course of this 

t&M, to tread down with the 
feet ; see tdka. 

taki, pi. takoki, an insect like 
a locust, with long legs. 

t&ki, tSki, a span, the distance 
from the tip of the thumb to 
the end of the middle finger ; 
see tdka. 

takichi, a fee paid for bringing 
a present ; see tukuichi. 

takidi (Ar. jJbt, confirmed, 
strengthened), repetition, the 
doing over again of some- 
thing already done. 

takobi, takwobi, pi. takuba, 
sword, cutlass, zare takobi to 
draw a sword; C 38 su ne 
takiiban mumini na shirin 

R. H. D. 

fada they are as swords to 
the believers, a preparation 
for fighting. 

takoko, an old man with bent 

t&kos, seven ; see tdkos. 

takrur*, Hausaland; takruri, 
tukruru, Sudanese negro, 

taku, separable possessive pron. 
2nd pers. pi. 'your,' used 
when the object possessed is 
feminine ; cf. naku. 

takuba, pi. of takobi, sword, q. v. 

takumkumi, a muzzle for a 
goat or a donkey; see kukumi. 

takura, takure, to fold, crease, 
double up ; maitakura fuska 
a man who frowns, takure is 
used as intrans. v. to be 
curled up in a heap, used of 
a man or a snake; dari ya 
takuraka wuri daia the cold 
makes you sit crouched up, 
used of clothes, to shrink; 
pass, anatakura he is bowed 

takurua, a species of palm ; 
see tukurua. 

takwoshi, lameness; see tar- 

t&la, talla (cf. Ar. rt ^tt iv, 
to press for payment), n. 
haggling, exposing for sale, 
crying wares in the street; 
cf. M. H. p. 223, shina talla 





baioa he exposed a slave for 

sale, also tcdla da to expose 

for sale ; see tdlata. 
t&laba, tallaba, to support 

anything with the hand spread 

out; cf. t&labe. 
t&labe, tallabe, to support a 

person or thing, to prevent 

from falling. 
t&lafa, tallafa, tolafa, to bring 

up a child or animal the parent 

of which is dead, to feed, to 

hand over the care of anyone 

to another, 
talafi, tallafi, n. 1. step-parent; 

2. the over-sight or care of 

talagi, to stir about in the pot 

while cooking ; cf. taiga. 
talaka (Kanuri talaga), poor, 

a poor person, a dependent ; 

inaitalaka a poor or humble 

talaki* indigo, 
talala, talaala, tying with a 

long tether; ya yi masu ta- 
lala he watched them from a 


talalabia, slipperiness ; yin ta- 
lalabia to slip. 

talashi* (Ar. JjuLl, satin, 
whence Germ. Atlass), satin ; 
ja talashi red satin. 

t&lata, tallata, to ask the price 
of, haggle, cry wares, babble. 

talftta ( Ar. £>*&3), the numeral 
three; talata is frequently 
used, esp. in counting cowries, 
for three thousand. 

talatalu, talotalo,- tolotolo, 

turkey, onomatopoeic ; cf . 

talatin* Ar. O-jJ^lS, card. 

num. thirty. 

talauchi, n. poverty, humble- 
ness; C 53 ya dau talauchi 
ya fiya masa dukia he took 
upon himself poverty, it was 
better to him than wealth ; 
matalauchi, pi. matalauta one 
who is very poor. 

talauta, to be poor; see tal- 
auchi, talaka. 

tale, a small drum made of a 

taiga, to stir up or mix in hot 

talha, a kind of saddle em- 
broidered in gold or silver, 
brought from the north. 

talhatina, pi. talhatinu, a stone 
pendant worn by women, a 
brooch of agate. 

talia*, 1 . flour mixed with water; 
in N. Africa = macaroni; 2. a 
meal prepared for a bride- 
groom and his friends. 

talibambam, 1. a small frog, 
with large belly, and two lines 
across it; 2. fish with belly 
like that of this frog. 




• * 

talikai* (Ar. sJ*c-U:» n), things 

created, animate and inani- 
mate, F 137. 

talili, an amulet. 

talita*, to create ; cf. halita*. 

taliyo, step-child. 

talji* (Ar. *JU), snow. 

talla, n. haggling ; see tdla. 

tallaba, to support any thing in 
the open hand ; see ttilaba. 

talolo (K.), penis. 

talonia, talaunia, the name 
of a vegetable poison used for 
smearing arrows; cf. defi. 

talotalo, turkey ; see talatalu. 

taltali* (Ar.), B 72, prepara- 
tion; cf. totalis id. 

tarn or taman-taman, taut, 

tama, tamma (S.), to take 
hold of, strike, of a snake to 
bite, to owe, to lay hands 

t&ma Uj, 1. the ore of iron; 

2. iron smelting; 3. a sword 

of cheap rough workmanship ; 

cf. ka&hin-t&ma and mata- 

tama*, pride ; cf . tamania. 
ta-mache, adj. female ; cf. 

tamagi, a rope made of rdma. 

tamaha (cf. (?) Ar. i*i, to 

covet, and Kanuri tama ex- 

pectation), hope, expectation, 
thought; cf. prov. tamaha 
wada ta < hana malam noma 
8abboda hatsin zdka it is ex- 
pectation that hinders the 
mallam from farming because 
of (his hope for) tithe corn ; 
cf. Gr. p. 106 ; yin tamaha to 
think, imagine, hope, expect ; 
tamaha is sometimes used as 
a verb, e.g. abinda ba ata- 
maha the unexpected. 

tamalaulo, a sword with only 
one cutting edge ; cf . tama. 

tarn am ana, a disease of horses 
and dogs. 

tamani (Ar. \J+S), price, value; 

t&maninsa its price is. . .; tdm- 

ani is actual price paid, kima 

is price as valued, 
tamania, Ar., eight thousand, 
tamania, n. defiance, pride ; cf. 


tamanin, Ar. o-^O, card. 

num. eighty. 

tamantaka (used in colloquial 
Arabic and in Asben), girdle; 
cf. Gr. p. 138, 1. 26. 

tamaya, tamaye, to help, as- 
sist; cf. toy a. 

tamayi, help, assistance. 

tamba, a dark red species of 
rice, when mixed with mddi 
it is used as a drink. 

tambaba, doubt, uncertainty; 





yin tambaba to be in doubt 
or uncertainty, babu tarnbaba 
there' is no doubt, 
tambaia, to ask ; see tambaya. 

tamb&ri, pi. tambura (cf . jy*£, 
used in Barbary for drum, 
and which comes through the 
Spanish tambor), 1. a kind 
of drum, the bottom of which 
is pointed, often carried on a 
camel, sometimes in pairs, in 
front of a royal procession; 
2. part of the embroidery on 
atobe; maitambari drummer. 

tambaya, tambaia, 1. ques- 
tion, enquiry ; F 146 fa m 
duka tambaya bambam ga 
kowa and the questions asked 
at each are all different ; yin 
tambaya to ask, A 27 ta yi 
tambaya let her ask; cf. M. 
H. p. 200, suka katvo goro na 
tambaya they brought kola 
nuts as a greeting of enquiry ; 
na zo tambayarka ne I have 
come to ask you a question. 

tambaya, tambaye, v., 1. to 

question a person; ya tam- 
bayeshi he enquired of him ; 
2. to enquire concerning any- 
thing; ya tambaya abu he 
asked about a matter; mai- 
tambayawa one who asks, 
tambo, 1. a scar of a wound ; 
2. a ruin ; cf . tabo. 

tamfasua, tafasua, tanfasua, 
needle, used in Katsena for 

tamga, a sword ; see tagomas. 

tamgaram, tangaram, a glass 
dish, any small white vessel. 

tamka, tanka, tamkar, tam- 
kan, tamkat, like; wanan 
shine tamkat wonchan this is 
like that; usually followed 
by da = like to or like as ; 
tamkarda su che just as they 
said ; cf . kamada. 

tamk^ to converse ; see tanka. 

tamka, red pepper ; see tankwa. 

tammat* Ar. id., lit. it is 
finished ; it is often placed at 
the end of compositions, C 55, 

tamna, n. chewing. 

tamna, 1. to chew, e.g. mutane 
suna tamna goro the people 
chew the kola nut ; 2. tamna 
hakori to gnash the teeth ; 3. 
to hurt; tamnane y fern, tam- 
nana, pi. tamnanu, chewed ; 
cf . tona, tauna. 

tam5gashi, a sword; see ta- 

tamr&ro, taur&ro, pi. tamrdru, 

taurdrai, star; zuba tamrarai 
to divine, act as an astrologer. 
tamu, separable possessive 
pron. 1st pers. pi. 'our/ used 
when the object possessed is 
fern. ; cf . use of namu. 




tana, pers. pron. 3rd pers. fern, 
pres. tense; cf. shina (masc). 

tana, pi. tanu, an earth-worm. 

tftnadi (S.), foresight, prepara- 

t&nawara (K.), a small bag 
made of leather. 

tanchia, the name of a tree 
(like a lime tree), women 
make masabi for cotton with 

tanda, to lick the fingers; part. 
tcmdewa, tundewa licking. 

tanda (S.), tanderu (K.), pi. 
tandodi, a pit for cooking 
bread in, oven, large earthen 
pot used as an oven. 

tandabara, pigeon ; see tanta- 


tandara, a large spotted snake. 

tandawara, a small goat-skin 
bag used for holding water, 
etc.; cf. tanda. 

tanderu (K.), oven; see tanda. 

tandewa, licking ; see tanda. 

tandu, Kanuri id., 1. a vessel 
made of skin ; tandun tozali 
a small skin bottle for hold- 
ing antimony ; 2. a narrow- 
necked leather bottle. 

t&ne*, to say, speak, ya tdne 
= ya eke. 

tanfari, tamfari* like, A 76 
tanfari kasa che ha kana so 
kai gini it is like earth when 
you desire to build. 

tanfasua, needle; see tam- 

tangadi* (K.), stumbling ; yin 
tangadi to stumble. 

tangam, tangas, level, equal, 
alike, sun yi tangam da 
juna they are alike, aboki 
da ni mu ne tangos my friend 
and I, we agree exactly. 

tangana*, to lean against, ya 
tangana ga itache he leaned 
against a tree ; cf. dangana, 

tangara*, cf. Kanuri tungur, 
to feel trouble, na tangara 
= na ji wohala. 

tangarai, tangaran, bright, 
clear, sound ; tangarai ke nan 
the sky is unclouded. 

tangaram, a glass dish ; see 

tangaran, clear; see tangarai. 

tangas, alike ; see tangam. 

tangori, a large wooden pin 
used in winding the thread on 
the wooden cylinder (kwar- 
kwaro) which is then fixed 
in the shuttle ; the operation 
is called taria. 

tanka, roof, the horizontal ties 
of grass binding the slop- 
ing rafters; karan tonka 
the cross pieces tied to the 
sloping sticks (tsaiko), for 
the grass of the roof to 
rest upon ; cf . under jinka, 




mafiadi, tsaiko, dirka and 

tanka, tamka, 1. to converse, 
to reply, tankawa conversa- 
tion ; 2. to talk much, D 87 
idan ka tanka if thou talkest 
much, tankiya, tenkia much 
talking, quarrelling. 

tanka, tanke, to bind tight, 
to tie or stretch, e.g. a bow- 

tankada, 1. to winnow, to 
shake; 2. to knock down, 
to overturn. 

tankade, n. winnowing; yin 
tankade to winnow, pass 
through a sieve. 

tankare, to prop, support. 

tankari, prop, support, e.g. 
tent-pole ; sariki shi ne tan- 
karin dunia the king sup- 
ports the world. 

tankat, like ; see tamka. 

tankawa, conversation ; see 

; tknka. 

tanke, to bind ; see tamka. 

tankerike, tankarki, a kind 
- of hawk. 

tankiya, much talking, quar- 
relling; see tanka. 

temko*, a name given to a boy 
who is the third or fourth 
child of his mother, the pre- 
vious children being all girls. 

tankosa, tankwasa^ 1. to 
bend, compel, hinder, e.g. 

yasana ta gage ba na iyaba 
en tankosata my finger is stiff, 
I cannot bend it ; na tankosa 
zuchianka I prevent you from 
obtaining your wish ; ba shi 
tankosawa it cannot be bent ; 
see seq. . 

tankoshe, intr. to turn, to re- 
bound, used of a spear thrown 
back ; see tankosa, also lanko- 

tankura, crouch down, D 16 r 
cf . takura. 

tankwa, twankua, a red pep- 
per of medium size between 
tatasai and tsidiji. 

tankwasa, to bend; see tan- 

tankwasa, humility, maitaii- 
kwasa a humble person ; see 

tantabara, tandabara, pi. 

tantabarUy tandabaru (Fulah 
tantabararu), 1. a tame pigeon, 
cf. hasbia; 2. used fig. of a 
young girL 

tantakoshi, marrow bone. 

tantala, tantala da gudu to 
run very hard. 

tan tam a, doubt, uncertainty, 
prob. an intensive form from 
tamaha. yin tantama to be 
in doubt. 

tant&na, n. squatting with 
outspread legs. 

tantana, v. to spread out. 




tanura, a small bag for carry- 
ing provisions for a journey ; 
cf. tanawara. 

tanya (S. Zanf.), to help, a 
form of taya y q.v. 

tanyo, n. (Zanf.) help, assis- 

taparnua, tafarnua, a small 
edible plant like an onion 
used as a medicine for colds, 
also for snake bites : garlic. 

tapki, pool ; see tabid. 

tappa (S.), lint made from 

tapshi, n. softness ; see tafshi. 

tara, card. num. nine, the 
corresponding ordinal is m. 
natara, f. tatara ninth. 

tara, to care about, ba shi taran 
kauri he does not mind the 
smell of burning ; na damre 
ba shi tara aiki the bound 
can't choose their task, shina 
da taran abinchi he is dainty 
over his food. 

t&ra, to meet ; see tdre. 

t&ra, to put together, gather, 
collect, assemble; A 17 ka- 
dadai ka tara hanuka don 
tsoron beri although thou put 
both thy hands on it for fear 
of losing it; E 23 su tara 
gida they share the same 
abode; cf. M. H. p. 198 ba 
mu tara enua data we do not 


share the same shade; tarda 

to collect, gather (distinct 
from tdrda to meet, see 
tdre). tara da to lie with. 
tare (used without obj.) of a 
bride, to collect her belong- 
ings and go to her husband's 
house, akadaura aure ta tare, 
i.e. the marriage was com^ 
pie ted. tarare, fem. tararia, 
pi. tararu, collected together. 
tarutva meeting, tatara, q.v., 
to pile up, etc. tdru is used 
as intr. of t&ra to be as- 
sembled, gathered together, 
to be full; tar she to collect, 
bring together, intens. form 
tatara to pile up. 

tara, taro, tribute, but paid 
only by heathen, also a fine ; 
cf . prov. ban ji ba ban gani 
ba ta raba ka da zauren tara 
I did not hear, I did not see 
separates you from the place 
of fines; i,e; keep clear of 
mischief and you will not be 
liable to punishment ;- zasu 
chin tara they will have to 
pay fines. 

tarftbulus, tar&bus, the town 
of Tripoli. 

taraia* a girdle made of cloth. 

tarairaiya, to coax a person 
who is vexed to come back, 
to welcome. 

taraiya (K.), tarewa (S.), n. 
sharing, possessing in com- 




mon with others, dakin 
taraiya a room shared with 
another, attah ba shi taraiya 
da kowa God has nothing in 
common with any other. 
abokin taraiya a partner. 

taramnia (Combretum verticil- 
latum, Combretaceae), a tree 
with fragrant white flowers, 
and a four-angled fruit. 

t&rftra, t&r&ro, to be poured 
out like wheat through a 
sieve, or like water, to leak, 
to trickle. 

t&rare, to strain out. 

tarare, fem. tarara, pi. tararu, 
gathered, collected, alto- 
gether; see tdra. 

t&ra&, without object, to meet, 
to reach to ; see tdre. 

t&rasda, to overtake ; see tdre. 

tarba (S.), to go to meet. 

tarbache, subscription, contri- 
bution of food, etc. 

tarbata (S.), to gather food, 
etc. for the poor. 

tarbe (S.), n. going to meet 

tarbe (S.), v. to detain. 

tarda, to meet with ; see tdre. 

t&re, together, tare da ni to- 
gether with me ; mu tafi tare 
let us go together; tare da 
wanan*, lit. together with 
this, nevertheless (an imita- 
tion of Ar.). 

t&re, t&rie, t&ra, 1. to stop, 

tdreshi da hanu stop it with 
your hand, tdra hcmu put 
your hand in the way. tdra 
nan stay here and stop him ; 
2. to go out to meet, to 
welcome, tdria meeting, wel- 
come, tdras (without obj.), 
tdrasda, t&rda, tdradda, to 
meet, come up with, overtake, 
find, ku tdre ku tdre the 
usual outcry for stopping a 
runaway thief, horse, etc. 
ya tdra he stopped it. tari 
hiska to stand so as to take 
advantage of the wind in 
winnowing, matarian hainya 
a brigand. 

tftreo*, to meet with, to take 
and bring, to relieve another 
of his load : see tdre. 

tarewa (S.), possessing in com- 
mon ; see taraiya. 
* * * 

tarfa (Ar. s*P*)> to pour out 

drop by drop, to pour out 
tarfi, a drop of water, a small 
piece of anything (cf. Ar. 

targade, a bruise or sprain. 

tari, abundance, plenty, as adv. 
much, plentifully ; cf. M. H. 
p. 217, akoi masalachi tari 
there are many mosques, used 
sometimes with pronouns 
tarinku all of you. 




taxi, cough ; see toari. 

taria, an operation in weaving; 

see tangori. 
taria, from tdra to meet, etc. 
taria, from tdra to assemble, 

meeting, yin taria to meet; 

masutaria crowd. 

tarika (cf. Ar. toujb, mode of 

acting, habit), to have a cer- 
tain character, e.g. ya tarika 
dide he is a dawdler, ya tarika 
fada he is quarrelsome. 

tariki* (cf. (?) Ar. J£L, to 
foul water by throwing stones 
into it), small stones or sand 
mixed with grain. 

t&no (Ar. 9^jU), history, le- 
gend, tradition. 

tariti* squeezing, D 68. 

tarkache, terkache, tarika- 
che, property, possessions, 

tarki*, a Sokoto word used to 
denote an impossible task ; 
cf. Gr. p. 136. sun yi tarki 
the task was beyond their 

tarkoshi, takwoshi, lameness. 
yana tafia tarkoshi he walks 
on one side of his instep, he 
goes lame. 

tarna, blood-feud, revenge. 

tarnaki, a rope used to hobble 
a horse by tying one front 
leg to one hind leg. 

taro, a shrub ; see taru. 

taro, a tax ; see tara. 

tftro, taru, pi. tarori, D 71 
multitude, company, heap ; 
used adverbially B 158= to- 
gether; cf. tara. 

tarsa* to help, D 70; see 

tarsasa*, to reproach, despise; 
see ter8a. 

tarsashi, tasashi, all, alto- 

tarshe, to collect, bring to- 
gether ; cf. tdra. 

tarshi, tarshe, to help, D 78 
ka tarshimu ji dadi help us 
to feel happy. 

tarsoa, lit. grouping, the con- 
stellation Pleiades. 

tartso, to spurt out, spit, as of 
sparks or liquids, tartsatsi 
spurting, sparks. 

taru, to assemble ; cf . tdra. 

taru, pi. taruna, tarurua, a 
large net, e.g. one stretched 
across a river; cf. koma small 

taru, taro (Combretum spino- 
sutn), a low undershrub used 

taruku, trap for wild animals 
made with a rope ; cf . turko. 

taruwa, meeting; cf. tdra. 

tarwada, a kind of mud-fish, 
sometimes called sarikin kifi ; 
wankan tarwada a colour 




between black and red, Le. 
the colour of the tarwada 
when it has. been washed. 

tas for tai or tasa, his. 

tasa, separable possessive pron. 
third pers. sing, 'his/ used 
when the possessor is masc. 
and the object possessed is 
fern. ; cf. tata and nasa. 

tasa, pi. tasoshi (Ar. &J9), 
Kanuri id., Nupe* id., a cup, 
bottle, also used of a large 
bowl or bath, 

tasada, to raise up, to cause a 
thing to be done, to send 
forth (a messenger), to a- 
waken; cf. tashi. 

tasamma, to seize with the 

tasari, misfortune, loss, na yi 
tasari I have a misfortune; 
na yi tasarinsu I have lost 
them, tasari and asara are 
apparently both forms of the 

Ar. oj*~±., cf. hasara. 
tasashi, altogether; see tar- 

tasawa, rising, B 56 tasawal 

kantsi the rising of the sun. 

tasbaha*, Ar. •»*«* 11, praise, 

D 26 kuna tasbaha offer up 
praise. , 

tasbi, pi. tasbai (cf. Ar. 

rosary), beads, esp. as used 
for counting prayers. 

« #» 

tasg&ro (Daura), loss ; cf. tas- 

tashe, to raise up ; see seq. 

tashi, n. rising, starting, rais- 
ing up, tashi daga matatu 
resurrection, ya sahi tashi he 
prepared to start, tashin 
fari the first onslaught, tashi, 
v. to rise, arise, go forth, to 
start from a place; cf. ma- 
sutashi nomadic people; to 
raise, to send forth, kasua 
ta tashi the market breaks 
up, bindigata bai tashi ba 
my gun missed fire, ya tashi 
manzonsa he sent his messen- 
ger. Other forms are tasa 
to arise, tasa ma to start, e.g. 
na tasa ma zua gari I started 
to go to the town, tada, 
q.v>, to raise up, lift up, 
straighten; tada satta to 
stand up in readiness for 
prayer, tashe to cause to 
rise, to set free a prisoner, 
to erect, to wake one. up; 
tdyes to wake one up, to set 
up; tayesda to raise up,, to 
send away ; tayesua rising, 
resurrection; taso to rise 
i up, to boil, to come up ; cf. 

tashi, brightness, light, clear- 
ness ; cf . tachi. 

tashi, etc., a kind of pe'pper ; 
see twashi. ^ 



taahinkai, pride, lit. raising 
up the head. 

tasinia, a small thorny plant. 

tasiri (S.), bravery, endurance. 

taska, to mount up, to increase, 
used of sun or moon, tvata 
ya taska the moon is well up, 
hantsi ya taska the morning 
was well advanced. 

taska, pi. taskaki, store-room, 
treasury, a round mud re- 
ceptacle for grain, etc., hence 
meton. treasure. 

taskache, to lay up treasure. 

taskaro (S.), loss, damage. 

taskira, tazkira, 1. a small 
basket in which women keep 
string or spinning materials ; 
2. a trap for ostriches which 
consists of a hole in the 
ground with rope noose at- 
tached ; 3. a present given 
by a man when he sends for 
his wife to be brought home 
on marriage. 

taso, 1. to rise, i.e. to boil ; to 
rise and come ; 2. to remind; 
see tashi. 

tasoma (S.), to seize with the 
mouth ; see tasamrrta. 

tasu, used, for joining cardinal 
points of compass in order to 
denote intermediate points; 
gabaz tasu arewa = gabaz ku- 
surtia aretm = East towards 

tasu, separable possessive pron. 
third pers. pi. 'their/ used 
when the object possessed is 
fern,; cf. nasu. 

tasunia, pi. tasunioyi, story, 

taswa, boiling ; a verbal noun 
from taso. 

tata, tachewa, n. filtering. 

tata, separable possessive pron. 
used both for the first and 
third persons, Le. 'my' and 
' her,' when the possessor and 
object possessed are both 
feminine, tawa is however 
frequently used for the first 
and tasa for the third person ; 
cf. Gr. p. 24. 

tat&ka, stalks of grass, used for 
horses' food, hay. 

tataka tatake, an intensive 
form of takd to tread down, 
trample under foot, also fig. 
B 40 kada mu tatakeshi muna 
bannaletns not vainly trample 
it (knowledge) under foot. 

t&tali, preparation, D 86 ya yi 
t&talihe makes preparation ; 
cf. taltali*, id. 

tatapara, a bat. 

tatara, an intensive form of 
tdra i q.v., to squeeze, pile up 
together, A 28 pass, atatare 
sitting crouching with arms 
tightly folded, D 61 rana 

- chart akatataramu on that 




day when we have been 
gathered together; E 19 su 
tatara Jtankalinsu zua ga 
mata they pay all their at- 
tention to women. 

tatasai, twashshi, or tushi, 
species of large green pepper 
pod, not very hot; cf. tankwa. 

tataura, fern, totauria, pi. ta- 
taura, hard ; see tauri. 

tatengi, dan tatengi pet, favour- 

* - 

tatsa, tatse, twatsa, twache, 
to milk, to squeeze out juice, 

tatsunia, pi. tatsuniai, star. 

taubashi, a play companion, 
said to be used of those 
brought up together as chil- 
dren, but in Sokoto it is only 
applied to the children of a 
brother and sister and not of 
two brothers; one taubashi 
may greet another with abuse 
at which no offence is taken ; 
see shara. 

tauga, a pool. 

taula, a pole which a carrier 
places across his shoulder, a 
load being suspended at either 

taulafa (S.), to hand over the 
care of anyone to another; 
see talafa. 

tauna, to chew ; see tamna. 

taura, a tree, Detarium Senega- 

lense, a gum used as incense 
is obtained from its roots. 

taura (Fulani id. -turned down 
horns of a cow), curls, or locks 
of hair at the side of a wo- 
man's face. 

taurftro (Daura), star ; see tam- 

taurata, to harden ; see tauri. 

taureta (Ar.), the Books of 

tauri* he-goat. 

tauri, hardness, stubbornness ; 
da tauri strong, hard ; taurin 
zuchia hardness of heart ; yin 
tauri to harden, to become 
hard; taurin kai obstinacy; 
taurin ido sauciness, bold- 
ness; dan tauri invulnerable; 
tauri is applied to castrated 
rams or goats. 

tauria, a form of tauri, barren- 
ness ; matauria barren. 

tausa, 1. to squeeze; 2. to im- 
merse ; cf . taushe. 

tausai, tausaye, pity, com- 
passion ; yin tausai and jin 
tausai to have or feel pity, 
to be sorry; abin tausaye 
what a pity ! 

tausaye, pity ; see prec. 

taushe, n. fondling. 

taushe ($.), tausa (K.), to 
press, squeeze; taushe rami 
to block up a hole ; to nibble, 
eat through, e.g. of white 




ants ; to hold off or back, to 
keep one off; tausashe, fern. 
tausashia, pi. tausasu, pressed, 
squeezed ; gianduma tausa- 
shia a water-gourd with the 
mouth closed; taushewa press- 
ing, squeezing, 
taushi, fineness, softness ; niai- 
taushi or da taushi soft ; cf. 
laushi, tap8hi. 
taushi, taushe, onions cooked 

in soup, 
tautau, spider ; see toto. 
tautauchi, tautau, cobweb, 

M. H. p. 200 ; see toto. 
tauwi, to lessen ; see tawaya. 
tawa, separable possessive pron 
first pers. sing., used when 
possessor is masc. and object 
possessed is fem. See Gr. 
p. 24 ; cf. nawa. 
tawada, for adawa or tadawa, 

tawaga, running away, especi- 
ally used of a crowd, 
tawai, rebellion, the pi. form 
tawaye, rebellious, is used of 
towns or peoples which refuse 
to pay tribute, etc. ; used of 
Borgu, Abuja, northern half 
of Gobir, NingiandArgungu; 
tawaye a revolution ; yin ta- 
waye to revolt, 
tawai. tawaye, twins ; cf . tagtii. 
tawaliyu* humility (cf. Ar. 

tawatsa, tawasa, a tree with 
jointed pods, a poison for 
smearing arrows is obtained 
from it, from its bark are 
made ropes (Albizzia moluc- 
cana, Leguminosae). 

tawaya, tauwi, 1. to decrease, 
to lessen, e.g. rana ta tawaya 
the day declines ; 2. to press 
down ; 3. to hem. 

tawaye, twins ; see tawai. 

t&ya, to bargain, to make an 
offer in bartering, to ask the 
price of ; nawa antaya what 
is the price ? nawa nawa su he 
how much are they each? 
Ans. aa ban tayasu ba I don't 
know, I have not enquired 
their price ; yin tdyi, id. 

taya, to help, to assist, constr. 
1. with direct obj.; 2. with 
ma, e.g. na taya maka I help 
thee; 3. with an inf., e.g. wane 
8hina tayani chin kifi nan 
who will help me to eat this 
fish? tainya, tainye, tainyo, 
to help; tainyona*, n. help; 
cf . tamaya, tanya. 

tayas, tayar ma wani da han- 
kali to upset, annoy. 

tayasda, tayesda, to raise up ; 
see tashi. 

tayaz, to refuse, disobey, trans, 
and intrans. ya tayaz mai he 
disobeyed him ; tayazua dis- 




tayesua, rising, resurrection; 

see tashi. 
t&yi, n., 1. offering a price, 

bargaining; 2. invitation to 

join in partaking of food, 
t&yi, foetus of animals, 
tayo, n. help; cf. M. H. p. 226, 

abokin tayo a friend to help, 
tazanko, an expression of pity, 
taz&rgadi*, a bitter medicine 

made from herbs used as an 

tazkira, a small basket in which 

women keep string or spinning 

materials ; see taskira. 
te, tai, to go; apparently an 

abbreviated form of tafi. 
teddas, to blow water out of 

the mouth ; teddaswa the 

action of blowing water out 

of the mouth ; see tuda. 
tenkia, dispute, quarrel; see 

tental*, civet, 
terere, n. offering or exposing 

for sale. 

terga, pL tergal (cf. Ar. o>jJ» 
vin, to have weak knees and 
fall), disease of joints ; ya yi 

terinia, fatness ; ya yi terinia 
he is fat. 

terkache, possessions ; see tar- 

terko, a trap or snare; see 

ternaki, hobble of a horse; see 

tersa* (cf. Ar. J^l» v), to 
despise; cf. tarsasa. 

terwada, mud-fish ; see tartvdda. 

tSsa, to say a thing over again, 

teyi, invitation ; see tdyi. 

tibbn, love charms. 

tihu, tifll, a hanging mat. 

tijo, a disease on horses' legs. 

tika, a blow, e.g. with the fist. 

tike, a fibre or grass rope. 

tilalabia*, soft, slippery mud. 

tllas, fern, tilas ha ta rasa dakin 
kwana, i.e. necessity knows 
no law, force; da tilas by 
force, perforce, yin tilas to 
use force, to compel ; tilasa 
(K.) and tilasda, tilasta (S.) 
to use force with, to constrain, 
e.g. na tilasa mutum I use 
force to compel the man. 

tilasda, to constrain ; see prec. 

tilli* (Ar. J3), a heap or large 
store of anything ; see tvlli. 

tindumi, sewing or embroidery 
at edge of a garment. 

tingama, to beat or grind rice, 
wheat, etc. 

tinia, a cactus; see tumia. 

tinjere, tunjere, syphilis, sy- 
philitic sore. 

tinjim, plenty. 

tinzera, perplexity, fear; na 




yi tirizera I am afraid; see 

tir, woe ! alas ! may God curse 

you ! tir da wanan woe to 

this man! 
tlra, a leathern charm, 
tirare, scent ; see turare. 
tirka, n. a tax, esp. a tax upon 

an inheritance or legacy. 
tirkata, to tax an inheritance, 
tirmani, a small black stinging 


tisain (Ar. jii,,,?), id., card. 

num. ninety. 

to, well ! so ! yes ! indeed ! good ! 
when a native does not quite 
understand what is said he 
will frequently reply to. 

toari, tari, twari, cough ; yin 
toari to cough. 

tofa, sharp-edged grass or bush 
such as grows especially on 
abandoned farms, and which 
is used for thatching, etc.; 
cf . gonan tofa ketooya daga 
nesa go a long way round to 
avoid a field of tofa (lest 
you get the prickles in your 

tofa, tofl, to breathe out, to 
spit; tofo to inspire, tofarda 
to spit out. 

tofi, n. spitting. 

tofo, toho, pi. tofuna, leaf, 
sprout; yin tofo to shoot 

forth as plants ; itatua mi yi 
tofo the trees sprout ; tofu = 
yin tofo ; itache ya tofu, the 
' tree sprouts. 

toge ma, to shrink from, with- 
draw from. 

toi\ to burn, F 114 ; see toya. 

toka, pi. tokuna, ashes, dust. 

tdk&ra, to uphold, to support 
as a pole supports a tent; 
atokareshi prop up the roof 
with a forked stick, also to 
jam, stick; kayar kifi ta tsaya 
awuya ta tokareshi a fish-bone 
stuck in his throat. 

tokochi, a fee for bringing a 
present ; see tukuichi. 

tdkos, card. num. eight; the 
corresp. ordinal is masc. 
natokos, fem. tatokos. 

tolafa, to hand over the care 
of anyone to another; see 

tolahi, a security for good con- 

toliya, a hair tuft of a young 

tolma, to pledge, mortgage. 

tolotolo, turkey; see talatalu. 

toma*, pride; ina tomansa I 
speak haughtily to him ; see 
foma, id. 

tombo, a scar or scab which 
has healed up ; see tambo. 

tomo, haughty, mighty ; see 




tona, tauna, to chew, masti- 
cate ; see tamna. 

tona, tone, 1. to pull out, tear 
out, scrape up, to dig for 
metals, mine; to expose a 
secret, to lay open, D 63 rana 
chart akantona loloki asiri on 
that day the secret place shall 
be laid open; to take off gar- 
ments; 2. to stir up, e.g. a 
fire or a liquid ; natonekurdi 
I rake cowries towards me; 
fig. fowa/acfatopickaquarrel; 
tona magana to search out a 
story; tona (ma wani) asiri 
to do a bad turn to anyone ; 
tonowa capable of being ex- 
posed; tonu pass, kada asi- 
rinsu ya tonu let not their 
secret be exposed; tono in- 
trans. asiri ya tono the secret 

is out 

tonka, pepper ; see tamka. 

tono, pi. tonaki, trouble, op- 

toro, pi. torone ( Ar. jy>), large 
male of any animal; toron 
giwa or simply toro bull ele- 

- phant, toron zaki male lion. 

toroso, dung. 

toshe, to stop a leak, mend, 
sew a patch on. 

toshi, a present, or monetary 
inducement, esp. a bride- 
groom's present to his bride. 

tosuwa (S.), deafness. 

toto, tantau, Kanuri id., 1. a 
dry scale, a lichen, dandruff; 
2. spider; 3. totuar masara 
husk of a maize cob. 

totsia, a basket full of corn. 

totua, shavings of wood. 

towi, to lessen ; see tawaya. 

towi, to burn ; cf. toi, toya. 

toya, tuya, toye, to burn, tr. 
and intr. to bake; toyaye 9 
tuyaye, f. toyayia, pi. toyayu 9 
baked ; hakori toyoraye de- 
cayed teeth. 

tozali, antimony, used for 
rubbing on the eyelids ; tan- 
dun tozali a small skin bottle 
for holding antimony; cf. 
koli'y tumkiamaitozali a sheep 
with rust-coloured markings 
on the ears and round the 

tozari, uncleanness. 

tozarta, tozerta, 1. to annoy; 
2. to fail, lack. 

tozo, the hump on a bull, 
camel, etc.; dan tozo a large 
pitcher with narrow mouth. 

tea, tswa, a slender, small- 
leaved shrub (Phyllanthus 
spinosus, Euphorbiaceae). 

tsftba, pi. teabobi, threshed and 
winnowed corn ; used in So- 
koto for dawa guinea-corn. 

tsftba, tsala*, 1. a lump, a 
mass ; 2. that which is pure 
= that and nothing else, e.g. 




tsaban kurdi simply cowries, 
nothing but cowries ; see zaba. 
tsabaa, tsabaal takarda a sheet 
of paper ; i.q. taba'a, q.v. 

tsabia, dabia (Ar. £a*J»), 


tsabore, zabore, reeds such as 
are used for making doors, etc. 

tsabta, tsapta, tsauta, n. 
purity, cleanliness ; da tsabta 
pure, yin tsabta to be pure ; 
cf. sabta. 

tsachi, to think, suppose, medi- 
tate ; B 14 guba shina tsachi 
alkaki che he would think that 
a poisonous plant was wheat, 
B 120; see zache. 

ts&da, 1. dearness, expensive- 
ness ; da tsadade&r, expensive, 
yin tsada to be costly; 2. a 
bargain, a contract; sun yi 
tsada da shi they made a 
bargain with him. 

tsada (Ximenia Americana), a 
bush with small yellow plum- 
like fruit with a bitter taste ; 
namijin tsada (Gymnosporia 
Senegalense, Oelastraceae) a 
shrub with spines and white 
flowers, also called kwrun 

tsada, a bird like the baiwan 
allah, which frequents the 
guinea-corn plantations. 

tsada or ruan tsada, the river 

R. H. D. 

Benu^ , which joins the R. 
NigeratLokoja. (Lake) Chad 
from the neighbourhood of 
which the Tsada flows is a 
corruption of this word. 

tsadanta, to be dear ; cf . tsada. 

tsada-raki, a very venomous 
yellow viper, = injihau. 

tsaderi, bad, rotten, used of 
corn that has been kept too 
long and Jias become useless. 

tsftfl, pi. tsafuna, tscifoki, tsafa- 
fuka, idol : idolatrj', fetish 
worship, also used of a bundle 
of rags placed on a stick in 
a field as a charm against 

ts&ga, n. tearing, rending. 

tsaga, 1. to drop down, to let 
drop; 2. to bleed, tsagia 
sickness accompanied by 
bleeding; cf. matsatsaka a 

tsaga, tsage, chage*, to tear, 
split, rend ; kdra akatsaga ' a 
corn-stalk was split in two ' ; 
said of two people or things 
which exactly resemble each 
other ; tsagu to be rent or 
cracked, kago ya tsagu the 
wall is cracked ; tsatsaga, 1. 
to tear to pieces ; 2. to beat 
down loose earth, etc. ; cf. cha- 
chagi. tsatsagawa a ramrod. 

ts&gagi, a water goose with 
white breast. 





tsagan goahi, a vertical tribal 
mark in centre of forehead, 
the Beriberi mark. 

tsagaru, water in which husked 
grain has been washed after 
it has settled ; cf. tsdri. 

tsage, tiger fish (hydrocyon 

tsagi, n. tearing, a half torn 
off, a split ; cf. • tsaga. 

tsagia, a sickness p see tsaga. 

tsagia, the tail hairs of an 
animal, e.g. those used in 
making stringed musical in- 
struments; cf. tsegia. 

tsahiri (Ar. jAlfc), adv. or adj. 

clear, manifest; A 65 loto 
ya shude tsahiri the time is 
obviously past. 

tsai, length, height; cf. tsayi. 

tsaida, to lift up, hold back, 
remit (a law), allow to grow 
(e.g. a beard) ; see tsaya. 

tsaidau (S.), a thorny herb 
.with small leaves, eaten by 
camels; see tsidau. 

tsaijewa, a swallow ; see tsai- 

tsaiko, 1. the sticks which 
slope from the upright poles 
(dirkoki) of a roof to the cross 
piece (mqfiadi) ; 2. dawdling, 
yin tsaiko to dawdle. 

tsainya, tsanya, asmall species 
of cricket. 

tsaishe, to cause to stand still ; 
cf. M. H. p. 221, ba ta tsai- 
sheka ba it should not detain 
you ; cf . tsaya. 

tsaitsaye, a form of multitude; 
zango ya tashi tsaitsaye, a 
hundred rose up together. 

tsaitse, intens. form from tsayi, 
q.v., to prevent, to anticipate 

tsaitsewa, tsaijewa, cheche- 
wa, tsetsewa, a house swal- 

tsaiwa, tsawa, plaited grass, 
palm leaves, straw, fibre, from 
which are made 1. ropes, 2. 
a medicine, 3. a curtain to 
hang down in front of a door- 

tsaiyi, to stand, etc. ; see tsaya. 

ts&ka, a small brown lizard 
with black markings, 2£ in. 
long. It is not poisonous 
but is condemned by the 
Hadithi (traditions) to be 
killed at sight because of an 
offence against Abraham. 

ts&ka (cf. Fulah jakka), n. 
midst, middle, tsdkan rana 
south, noon ; prep, between, 
within, A 23 anche su kintsa 
tsdka gidansu it has been 
said that men should gather 
within the house, tsdkia, the 
midst, centre of anything; 
tsdkani a space between two 




places or things; tsdkanin, 

prep, between, tsdkaita to 

be in the middle, tsdkatsdka 

average, medium. tsakan- 

kani differences. 
tsakakari, a hut in a compound 

reserved for grinding corn or 

for domestic work, 
ts&kani, a space between ; see 

tsakara, tsakfira, to pinch, 

then to take a pinch of, i.e. 

a very little of. 
tsakare, n. giving short weight 

or measure. 
ts&ki, husks from wheat or 

guinea-corn ; see tsiki. 
ts&ki/ contempt shown by a 

noise made with the lips ; a 

chirping or sucking noise, 
ts&kia, midst, the centre; see 

ts&ko, tsiako, chiako* dan 

tsako or dan chiako*, pi. 

yan tsako, chicken ; for story 

of the dan chiako see M. H. 

p. 169 sqq. 
ts&kua, 1. little stones, gravel ; 

2. beads worn round the 

waist by women. 
tsakfira, to take a pinch ; see 

tsala, tswala, a kind of cake, 

used in Sokoto; cf. waina (in 

Kano) and mdsa (in Zaria). 
ts&lache, to jump, to jump 

over, leave out words in read- 
ing ; cf. tsdli. 

ts&le, n. jumping, ya yi tsdle 
he jumped. 

ts&leleko* shooting or throw- 
ing up something into the air. 

tsaleta, a small money-bag 
made of skin or cloth. 

tsalga (S.), to spit out from 
between the teeth. 

tsali (cf. Ar. j^JLd, to roast), 
to scald with hot water, e.ff. 
the hand ; cf . sale. 

tsali, tsuli, to jump, to dance, 
tsalache, q.v., to jump over. 

tsalimchi, see seq. 

tsalimi, tsalumi, zalimi (cf. 

Ar.^Xfc, fraud,^jlk, unjust), 

oppression, wrong, grasping 
disposition ; tsalnmchi, za- 
lumchi, tsalimchi deceit, ex- 
tortion ; maitsalumchi a de- 
ceitful or grasping person; 
yin tsalumchi to be avaricious 
or importunate, or to treat 
unjustly; da tsalimchi de- 
ceitfully, A 50 sarki da ke 
kwache da tsalimchi duka the 
king who seized everything 
by oppression. 

tsalkaka, to be pure ; see tsar- 

tsalki (S.), purity; see tsarki. 

tsalla, chaste ; cf . tsari, 

tsalte, to spit ; see tsarta. 





tsalumchi, deceit, oppression ; 
see tsalimi. 

tsama, a small red, white 
and black, edible caterpillar ; 
(?) cf . tsamia. 

tsamama, to make bitter, to 
be bitter. 

tsam&ni, tsum&ni, to think, 
suppose, minene kcma tsa- 
mani chikin hankalinka ? 
what is your own opinion? 
atsamanina as far as I know. 

tsamba, floating grass, sudd. 

tsami, sourness, acidity; da 
tsami sour, shina da tsami it 
is bitter, e.g. of a lemon, fura 
ta chika da tsami the fura 
is quite sour, jikiyayi tsami 
my body feels sore (after 
a beating), tsamia acidity, 
sourness, da tsamia sour. 

tsami, tsame, bef. pron. obj., 
to take out of a vessel, e.g. 
to take moist food out of a 
pot in the hand, also to take 
a bucket out of a well. 

tsamia (Tamarindus Indica, 
Leguminosae), 1. tamarind 
tree; its fruit is sometimes 
cooked in fura ; 2. the acid 
pulp of tamarind which is 
used as leaven, leaven ; 3. a 
sort of silkworm, cf. riga 
tsamia a cloak worked with 
silk from this silkworm. 

tsamka, tsumka, to pinch, 

squeeze, to strike a blow, to 

have gripes ; cf . tsamuka. 
tsamki, n., 1. a blow ; cf. Gr. 

p. 138, 1. 27, mun kashesu 

babu tsamki we have taken 

them without a blow; 2. 

gripes, colic, 
tsamo, to draw out, e.g. from 

water, to save. 
tsanuika (Daura), to pinch ; 

see tsamka. 
tsanmki, n. pinching; see 

tsana* the skin of a snake, 
tsana, tsanna (S.), a kind of 


tsanan* (Ar. ,ji), doubt, con- 

tsananohe, to worry, torment, 
M. H. p. 221 ; cf. tsane. 

tsan&ni, torment, violence, abin 
tsanani, id. ; maitsanani a 
violent person, jin tsananta 
to suffer torment ; cf . tsane. 

tsananta, to torment, molest, 
trouble ; tsananta ma to 

tsanda* (K.), nausea. 

tsandauri, hard, barren, earth 
or soil. 

tsando, large biting fly ; cf . 


tsane, tsani, to oppress, tor- 
ment; cf. tsananche. 

tsangaya, grass hut ; see san- 




tsangoma, to dislike, distrust. 

tsani, tsane, ladder. 

tsanji (Zanf.), a large lly. 

tsantsama, to be wetted by rain . 

tsantsani, n. loathing, asceti- 
cism, yin tsantsani to loathe. 

tsantsanta, terror, fear. 

tsanwa, chanwa, green. 

tsanya, a cricket ; see tsainya. 

tsapta, cleanliness; see tsabta. 

ts&ra, ts&re, to lay out in 
rows, to tie together layers 
of grass in thatching. 

ts&ra, ts&ri, ts&re, ts&ro, 
tsarlma* to guard, protect, 
guard against, watch, ward 
off; na tsare kasua I watched 
the market; allaJi shi tsaremu 
God save us from; C 41 ha 
tsara uwana do Thou guard 
my mother ; C 41 akatsar da 
dengimu my relations were 
guarded; C 40 ha tsarima 
dan bawanka Thou guardest 
the son of Thy slave. 

ts&ra, pi. tsarare, n. a match, 
equal, fellow, nema tsaranha 
look for your match; tsa- 
rare friends; cf. tsaranchi. 

tsar&ba* (cf. Ar. ^*JI> iv, to 
give), a present. 

tsarafi* ( Ar. s»j£, to be skilled 
or versed in), skill, oppor- 
tunity ; ina da tsarafi = na 
samu dama I have opportu- 

nity to, am ready to, know 
how to do anything. 

ts&r&ka, charm, medicine, esp. 
a charm or medicine for 
traders to promote a success- 
ful deal. 

ts&ranchi, 1. companionship, 
cuddling, not necessarily used 
in evil sense ; 2. adultery ; 
cf. tsara, 

tsararauka, milk and water. 

tsarari, a little, e.g. yin kwana 
tsarari to sleep a little, w«- 
tane sun zo tsarari the men 
came a few at a time. 

tsarda'* (K.), to save, set free ; 
cf . tsira, tsirada, tsirasda. 

tsare, tsari, a large lizard, 
monitor (?). 

ts&re, to lay out in rows ; see 

ts&re, to guard ; see tsdra. 

ts&ri, a race ; see tseri. 

ts&ri, a religious song. 

ts&ri*, to stay at home, A 23 ; 
cf. seq. 

ts&ri, to guard ; see tsdra. 

ts&ri, n. guard ; ka nema tsdri 
take heed against ; yin tsari 
to hold back. 

tsari, chari (Ar. 9-ij~o), pure, 

clear ; clean, used of wheat, 
ts&ri or ruan ts&ri, water in 
which husked grain has been 
washed, given to horses. 




tsftria*, the opening under a 
mud bed hi which a fire is 

ts&rlma, to guard ; see tsdra. 

ts&rin maganganu, verses ; 
cf. t8dri. 

tsarki, tsaki (S.), purity, esp. 
ceremonial purity, da tsarki 
pure, tsarkaka to be pure; 
tsarkake, tsarkaka to purify, 
sanctify, e.g. E 30 mu tsar- 
kaka zuchiarmu let us cleanse 
Our hearts; hence tsarkake, 
1 fem. tsarkakia, pi. tsarkaku, 
purified, holy ; cf . tsatsalka. 

tsarkia, sorkia* 1 . bow-string ; 
cf. matsirkia; 2. the rope 
tied round the neck of a 
grazing horse; cf. azirka. 

tsarkiar kusa or wutsiar 
kosa, a weed with a long 
narrow spike of pale blue 
flowers (Stachytarpheta Ja- 
maicensis, Verbenaceae). 

tsarkiar zomo, a kind of grass. 

ts&TO, to watch, guard; anat- 
saronta agida she is kept at 
home; see tsdra. 

tsarre, to overtake; yan fashi 
sun tsarreta the brigands 
overtook her; cf. tsere. 

tsarshe, tsarsha, to save ; C 1 
domin ka tsarshani ga zanba 
ctunia that Thou wouldest 
save me from the evil of the 
world ; cf. tsarcla. 

tsarta, tsalte, to spit out. 
tsartsatsi, sparks, 
tsartna, tsertua, spitting, 
tsatsa, dross, rust ; yin tsatsa 

to have dross mixed with it, 

to rust, 
tsats&fa, to well out, used of 

tsatsafa, 1. a cake made of oil, 

honey, and rice or wheat 

flour; 2. light rain, 
tsatsaga, 1. to tear into strips; 

2. to beat down, as of loose 

earth; an intensive form of 

tsdga, q.v. 
tsatsagawa, a ramrod; see 

tsatsagi* the name of a small 

tsatsalka (S.), tsatsarka, fem. 

tsatsalkia, pi. tsatsalku, pure, 
clean; see tsarki. 

tsatsara, sasasara, wicker- 
work snares about 10 feet in 
diameter which are built up 
in the bed of a river to catch 
fish ; fish- catching baskets. 

tsatse (S.), green grass which 
has recently sprung up. 

tsatseku (Zanf.), a leech ; cf. 
(?) tsetseku. 

tsatsewa, swallow ; seetsetsewa, 

tsatso, earwig ; cf. tsutsa. 

tsatso, tsotso, backbone, spine. 

tsatstsawo, length ; see tsawo. 

tsauni, sauni*, danni* pi. 




tsaunoni, tsaunaye, tsaununa, 
a bill, or hillock. 

tsaurata, to harden ; see 

tsaure, a tall grass with fra- 
grant leaves, sometimes used 
in flavouring food : it is also 
used in making mats (Andro- 
pogon giganteus, Gramineae). 

tsauri (Zanf.), hardness, an- 
other form of tauri y q.v. 

tsauria, tsawuria (S.), cata- 
ract in the eye : white specks 
in the eyes of a blind man ; 
cf . hakia. 

tsaushi, to rebuke, a form of 
tsawa, q.v. t 

tsauta, cleanliness ; see tsapta. 

tsautseyi, fate ; tsautseyi ne it 

is fate, 
tsawa, a grass rope; see tsai- 


tsawa, 1. roar of thunder, 
thunder; 2. blame, censure; 
3. a cry, roar ; buga masa 
tsawa (or da tsawa) to shout 
at someone. 

tsawa, tsawo, n. length, 
height, length of time, da 
tsawo long ; tsawan zama 
long continuance, allah ya 
baka tsawan rai or allah shi 
tsawonta ranka may God 
prolong your life. 

tsawaita, to lengthen, to be 
long; cf. seq. 

tsawanta, n. length, continu- 
ance; also v. to lengthen. 

tsawarwara, a large bush cat 
or small leopard. 

tsawata da, to rebuke; cf. 

tsawaya, a door curtain made 
of hanging strings or grasses; 
see isaiwa 3. 

tsawela, a flint-lock gun ; see 

tsawo, tsawoita, tsatsawo, 

length ; see tsawa. 
tsawil, the grass band with 
which bundles of corn are 

tied up. 

tsawuria (S.), a disease of the 
eye ; see tsauria, . 

tsaya, tsai, 1. to stand, stand 
up ; na tsaya daidai I stand 
upright ; 2. to stop, to come 
to an end, e.g. ya tsaya it is 
finished ; 3. to fall in with, 
meet with ; ya tsaya da biri 
he fell in with, a monkey; 
used with ga, ni na tsaya 
ga litafi nan I lit upon this 
book, wata ya tsaya the new 
moon appeared. matsayi 
place, e.g. shi koma matsayin 
uxmi let him take the place 
of another. tsaida t q.v., to 
lift up, to detain; tsaida 
magana to stay proceedings ; 
F 92 atsaida saffu a line (of 
men) is made to stand up$ 




i.e. is formed, F 188 malaiku 
su Uaida zugawuganta the 
angels lift up the bellows. 
tsaitse to go in front of, to 
anticipate; na tsaitseshi I got 
before him. tsaishe to make, 
or cause, to stand still, to 
stop; also to raise from a 
sick bed, to cure, tsayesda 
to detain, make to halt. 

tsayam bembe (Coreopsis Gui- 
neensis, Compositae), a yellow 
flower like a sunflower. 

tsayaya, stubbornness, da tsa- 
yaya stubborn. 

tsayesda, to detain ; cf . tsayi. 

tsayi, n. standing, halting, 

tsayi, tseyi, tsai, length; da 
tsayi long. 

tse*, fern, substantive verb = che. 

tsebebe, a small bird, the sight 
of which brings bad luck. 

tsedia, a tree with milky sap ; 
see chedia, 

tsefe, to comb hair, to pull 
grains one by one from a 
stalk, to pull out a hair. 
suka t8et8efe kawunansu they 
combed their heads, mat- 
saifata tweezers; see tslfa. 

tsegia, 1. hair of the tail of a 
horse, elephant, etc. ; 2. neck- 
band made of such hair ; cf . 

tsegumi, pi. tsegunguma, trea- 

chery, false reports, malice; 
maitsegumi or maitsegunchi 
backbiter, spreader of scan- 

tsSki, ts&ki, seki, s&ki, the 
coarse flour which is sepa- 
rated from the finer flour of 
wheat, guinea-corn, etc. ; da 
tsiki — roughly (ground). 

tseko, a room built of mud and 
thatched with reeds. 

tsSle, vagina. 

tserada (K.), tserasda (Dau- 
ra), to save, set free; cf. 
tsarda 9 tsirasda. 

tsere, a lizard with orange and 
black bars (scincopus fasci- 
atus), said to be poisonous, 
it buries itself in sand. 

tsere, tserre, to detain, re- 

tsSre, to trouble about, care 
about ; ina tsere girimansa 
ba ya roke abu ba he is mind- 
ful of his position and begs 
of no man ; cf . wata ta tsere 
da kankanchin gara does the 
moon trouble about the wor- 
ries of an ant 1 

tsere, to outrun, surpass ; kUne 
ya tsere wa kaka tradition 
goes back beyond your grand- 
father ; see tseri, tsire. 

tsereria, a red, edible bean. 

tseri, tseraya, tsari (Ar.^L), 
a foot or horse race. 




tsertua, spitting out water 
from the mouth ; see tsar- 

ts€to, ts&to, thought, expec- 
tation; see zdto. 

tsetseku, a disease of cattle. 

tsetsewa, house swallow ; see 

tsia, tsiya (cf. (?) Ar. rt i£>fc, 

to suffer hunger), poverty, 

bad luck, lack of goods. 

da tsia poor, allah ya kan sa 

tsia God can cause poverty ; 

cf. chia, maitsia or maitsi- 

achi, matsiachi one who is 

tsiako, chicken ; see isako. 
tsiaya, to leak, run out. 
tsiayi, tsiaye, to scatter, pour 

tsiayi, n. peelings of a fruit, 

tslbara*, to roll up; see chi- 

tsibi, subi*, a large collection 

of anything, much, 
tslbiri, island, etc. ; see chi- 

tsidau (in Kano), tsaidau (in 

Sokoto), a thorny shrub eaten 

by camels, 
tsidifi, a small, hot, red pepper, 
tsifa, v. n. brushing, combing, 

treading water ; cf. tse/e. 
tslge, to pluck (a blade of 
grass), intens. form tsitsige. 

tsigi, a small crested bird. 

tsika, shrinking, shuddering. 

tslka, a form of chika to fill, f ul- 
fil, e.g. C 22 en ta yi alkaueli 
da kai fa ba ta tsikashi ba 
if she make an agreement 
with thee, she will not fulfil 

tsikara, to tickle. 

tsikari, n. tickling. 

tsiko, siko, pi. tsihma, a large 
needle, a boy's arrow, a spike 
for making holes in skin, etc. 

tsiko* (K.), chewing. 

tsila, white intestinal thread- 

tsima, to steep in water. 

tslme, tslmi, n. steeping in 

tslmi, n. 1. understanding, in- 
telligence, da tslmi or mai- 
U&mi intelligent; yin tsimi 
to understand; 2. stinginess. 

tsimi (da), to hoard, lay by. 

tslna, tsine, tsinohe, tsun- 
ohe, tsinta, to pick up, to 
pick out pieces of dirt from 
cotton, etc. tsine albarka 
to take away good fortune ; 
allah ya tsine ruaka albarka 
a curse. tsintua, tsuntua, 
suntua picking up, finding 
by accident; yin tsintuan 
chiawa to weed, tsintsinta 
or tsintsinche to pick up a 
little of a language, to speak 




a smattering of. tsintsiya 
brush; cf. (?) zuntsia. 

tsinche, see tsina. 

tsindum, noise of splashing 
water; cf. machitsundum. 

tsingaro (S.), a sherd, frag- 

tsini, zini, point, e.g. of a 
needle; da tsini pointed, 

tsinkaki, hawk. 

tsinkaya, tsinkayi, tsinkaye, 
chinkaya, to see from afar, 
as in war ; cf. M. H. p. 225, 
ya chinkaye8hi he saw him 
from a distance. 

tsinke, sinke, to break, e.g. 
a rope, to break loose; see 

tsinki, zinke or zinka, a small 
piece of chaff, an iron nail 
or spike, a woman's hairpin ; 
tsvnkeh noma a skewer ; soke 
atsinke to skewer, spit; a 
pin, see under abduga. 

tsinki, to break, pluck; see 

tsinta, to pick ; see tsina. 

tsintsiya, 1. a grass with 
spreading roots, from which 
brooms are made; 2. a broom ; 
tsintsiyar futnu, wrist; see 

tsilltua, picking up ; see tsun- 

tsira, tslro, tsiri, ohlra, to 

spring up out of the ground, 
used of seeds, etc. ; A 77 ya 
ke tsira it grows up. tunda 
akatsiri dunia H. Gram, 
p. 156, since the world began. 

tsira, n. deliverance, salvation ; 
tsiraro deliverance. 

tsiraichi, nakedness; da tsi- 
raichi or maitsiraichi naked, 

tsirara, naked; A 81 kotva 
tsirara zayi tashi everyone 
shall rise naked; cf. chi?ara y 

tsiraria, adulteration : also ap- 
plied to the counterfeiting 
of coins. 


tsiraro, deliverance. 

tsirasda, tsirada, to 'deliver, 
save ; cf . tsarda. 

tsire, to out-run; B 25 shi 
do guda guda ta tsire mai 
let him try to take one, the 
other flees away from him; 
pass, atsira, B 143 kai dai 
atsira tun ba akoma ba flee 
thou then until there be no 
return ; see tsere. 

tsire*, to transfix (e.g. to 
skewer meat in front of a 

tsire, tsiri, pi. tsirare, a small 
piece of meat such as is sold 
in the market impaled on a 

tsirga, tsirgo, to jump down. 




tsirgagia, guinea-corn pod. 
tsiriri, fine, slender, thin ; cf. 

(?) tsarari. 
tsiriya, a parakeet, the West 

African love-bird (agapornis 

tsirka or dirka, q.v. (cf. Ar. 

J£i), n. beating; F 187 
suna tsirkar jama'a alkafira- 
wa they beat all the heathen. 

tsirkia, sirkia, a bow-string; 
see tsarkia. 

tslro, to sprout ; see tsira. 

tsitaka, an axe with a broad 

. blade; see sitaka. 

tsitsigge, a small stump. 

tsiwa, tsewa, insolence, im- 
pertinence; maitsiwa, matsi- 
wachi insolent, kwanantsiwa 
is used to denote the night 
preceding the consummation 
of a marriage, during which 
the bride and her friends are 
allowed special licence. 

tsiya, poverty ; see tsia. 

tsiyache, to be poor. 

tsiyaya, to leak ; see tsiaya. 

tsofa, tsufa, tsofe (cf. (?) Ar. 

U*e iv, to be exhausted, to 
become effete), to grow old ; 
tsofe is more commonly used 
in a transitive sense, i.e. 
to make old, to wear out 
(clothes) ; and tsufa in an 
intrans. sense, to be or be- J 

come old; C 7 dada mun 
tsufa wait till we grow old. 
tsufa, n. old age, yin tsufa to 
grow old. tsofo, fern, tsofua, 
pi. tsoffi, tsofafiy tsofoji, old; 
A 14 dunia nan tsofua che 
this world is old. tsofo and 
tsofua are frequently used 
for father and mother. 

tsoka, pi. tsokoki (S.), masc. a 
small piece of meat ; cf . ad- 
dress to an old woman, mai- 
kashe pal kwando tsoka denki 
you have bones enough to 
fill a basket but only a 
handful of flesh. 

tsokachi, sight, attentive gaze; 
A 77 ya yi tsokachi da achi 
akass da ya ke tsira let him 
consider how the grain that 
is in the ground grows up. 
matsokachi or masokachi look- 

tsokali, wooden spoon; see 

tsokana, tsokane, to prick 

(e.g. the eyes); cf. prov. 

chiawa da ka rena ita ta 

kan tsokane maka idanu, i.e. 

despise not little things; cf. 

tsokua, gravel used to make 

concrete floors of houses, 

small stones. 
tsolmi, dispute, quarrel, 
tsololo, tsororo, pi. tsololuwa f 




summit, top, applied to men, 
trees, etc.; cf. tuluwa. 

tsoma, zoma* to dip, im- 

tsomi, v. n. dipping, e.g. of 
meat in a dish of vegetable 

tsorata, to be afraid; cf. tsoro. 

tsorchi*, to fear ; see seq. 

tsoro (Ar. j£$), fear, terror; 
jin tsoro to fear ; bada tsoro 
to cause fear, to frighten; 
other less correct forms are 
chord* ", D 8 ku ji choro; 
zoro*, D 43; also the second- 
ary forms : tsorchi*, C 24 ; 
tsorshi*, F 6. tsorata da to 
frighten, or, to be afraid of ; 
tsorata to be afraid. 

tsoro, pi. tsoraye, the comb of 
a cock. 

tsoro, to spring up; ya soma 
tsorowa it began to grow up ; 

tsoro, n. a storey of a house; 
see soro. 

tsororo, pi. tsororuwa, top, 
point; see tsololo. 

tsorshi*, to fear ; see tsoro. 

tsotsa, tsotse, tsosa, tsosi, 
to suck, to absorb as cloth 
does water, to kiss, to suck 
out, hence to destroy ; C 5 
ya tsotsi kai nasa he destroys 
himself ; tsotsatse, tsotsatsel 
lemu a sucked lime. 

tsotso, tsotse, sucking, kissing, 
esp. the sucking or licking of 

the fingers after eating. 

tsttbu, d&bu (Ar. ^t), medi- 

cine, magic, incantation, to 
write charms; maitsvbu a 
writer of charms. 

tsufa, to grow old ; see tsofa. 

tsufa, masc. old age; cf. tsufa 
baban chiwo ; see tsofa. 

tsugau or tsugwaigwai, tes- 

tsuguna, tsugana, to stoop, 
to incline the head, to squat 
down on the ground ; cf . M. 
H. p. 207 ya tsugana garin 
wonka he stooped down in 
order to wash. 

tsugunu, tsuguna, n. squat- 
ting; cf. zugum. 

tsuhu, a plant with white 
flower and grey leaves which 
mixed with those of the go- 
shin bauna make a medicine 
for scorpion bites. 

tsuke, to bind fast. 

tsuke, draw together, to chew, 
masticate ; cf . tuka. 

tsuku, n. gnashing; tsukun 
hakora gnashing of teeth. 

tsula, a small monkey with 
reddish skin; probably de- 
rived from tsuli to jump ; cf. 
similar derivation of biri. 

tsulama* B 109 ta dan tsulama 




it is the child of wrong ; see 

tsuli, to jump, dance ; see tsdli. 
tsulia, anus. 

tsulumi, deceit ; see tsalimi, 
tstbna, tsumma, siima, pi. 

tsummoka, tsummokarai, rags, 
M. H. p. 203 : another form 
is chuna, M. H. p. 206 ; tsum- 
man zane a ragged cover ; cf . 
prov. funiu ya yi darial mait- 
suma the naked man laughs 
at the man in rags, ie. he 
fails to see that even a ragged 
man is better off than him- 

tsumanjia, tsumajia, a thin 
bending branch of a tree, a 
twig, a whip ; see sumanjia. 

tsumaya* (K.), to wait for. 

tsumi, the name of a medi- 

tsumulmula (K.), covetous- 

tsunche, to pick up ; see tsina. 

tsungule, to pinch. 

tsunjia, a large hole or pit for 
storing corn. 

tsunke, tsunka, tsinke, tsum- 
ke (S.), tr. and intr. to break 
(a rope), to break loose (of a 
horse), to be broken ; igia ta 
tsunke the rope is broken, 
metaph. zuchia ta tmnke; 
tsinke da gudu to run very 
hard; kunu ya tsinke the 

broth is too liquid; tsun- 
tsunke to keep breaking. 

tsunkuna (K.), to pinch. 

tsuntsu, zunzu, fern, tsuntsua, 
zunzua*, pi. tsuntsaye, a bird. 

tsuntua, tsintua, finding, a 
find ; na yi tsuntua I found 
something ; tsintua ba sata 
ba finding is not stealing ; cf . 

tsura, tsula (S.), dung. 

tsurara, to pour water in a jet. 

tsuraria(R.),akindof red bean. 

tsurfa*, work, profession ; cf . 
(1) tsarafi. 

tsururi, diligent search for, 
toil for; B 157 tsui*urin da 
ya fi ga mailura the search 
for that which excels in the 
eyes of the diligent man. 

tsurutu (S.), evil talk, non- 

tsut, tsulut, a descriptive ex- 
clamation, splash ! 

tsutsa, susa, a general name 
for caterpillar or maggot, not 
correctly used of a winged 
insect; cf. tsatso. 

tsuwa, scream, hiss, grunt ; cf. 
(?) sowa; yin tsuwa to cry 

tswa, a shrub ; see tsa. 

tswala, a cake ; see tsala. 

tuba, n. repentance; yin tuba 
to repent, maituba one who 




* * 

tuba (Ar. v^)> ^° repent, pass. 
atuba repent! e.g. D 10 atuba 
hakika aboki my friend, re- 
pent truly. 

tubali, a ball or brick made of 
mud yimbu ; yin tubali to 
make bricks. 

tub&ni, tabftni, tubuni, beans 
ground up and cooked in 

tttbas (cf . (?) Ar. rt C~5), surely, 

tube, to take off, garments, to 
depose a king; tubabe deposed, 
to strip; suka tubeshi they 
stripped him ; tubo to take 
off and give to. 

tubka, to plait ; see tufka. 

tubo, a healed up scar on the 
skin ; see tabo, 

tubfLrkuma, tumburkuma, 1 . 
the part of the stomach con- 
taining the cud ; 2. the large 

tuda, n. tribute, e.g. that form- 
erly paid to Sultan of Sokoto. 

tuda, tude, to run over, to 
pour away; tudas, tuddas, 
tudda, tr. to pour over, to 
spill; cf. teddas. 

tudu, pi. tudodi (Ar. j>b), 
mountain, mound, hill, any 
low elevation or rising ground. 
tudu is often used to denote 
Africa as opposed to the white 

man's country which is sup- 
posed to be a fertile place, or 
it may refer to the lower level 
of the sea whence he disem- 
ttlfa, tttfua, pi. tafafi, tqfofi, 

tufawa (cf. Ar. v^), a shirt, 
worn under or instead of the 
large flowing gown (riga) ; the 
plural and sometimes the 
singular is used for clothes 
generally; C 35 saiko tufa 
ka bida ga dakin dunia thou 
must seek for nothing in this 
world but clothing. 

tufania, tufanya, a mat made 
of woven grass, e.g. one let 
down in front of a doorway ; 
cf . kiauri. 

tufata, to clothe 

tufka, tubka, tupka, tumka, 
to plait, twist, braid, e.g. 
muna tubka igia we are 
making rope. 

tufaa, clothing ; see tufa. 

tuge, to pluck, pull out (e.g. a 
plant from the soil), intens. 
form tutuge ; cf. turribuke. 

tugu, clan tugu a professional 
receiver of stolen property, a 
sharp dealer. 

tugua, pi. tuguna y a shirt like 
a tobe ; see tagua. 

tugua, the shaking of milk in 
a calabash in order to make 
butter; cf. seq. 




tugua, tagua, heavy rain ; ya 
yi tugua it is tempestuous. 

tugufa, a raised mud bed, dais. 

tugiii,tagiii, pi. tuguaye, twins. 

tugula*, a bracelet ; see tagula. 

tuhuma, to suspect (Ar.^j). 

tQja, a disease of horses; cttijo. 

tuje, to tan, to scrape hair from 
a skin, intens. form tutuje; 
cf. tuge. 

tuji, 1. Paawor greater Bustard ; 
2. a tough grass. 

tuka, to push, to stir in cooking ; 
cf. M. H. p. 207 matansa na 
tuka tuo his wife prepared 
food ; tukajirigi to paddle a 
canoe, matuki a paddle used 
as a rudder ; cf . tunkuda ; 
tukawa pushing, paddling. 

tuka, tuke, to finish ; matuka 
boundary ; tukewa ending. 

ttlka, tukka, n. chewing the 
cud; cf. teuke. 

ttlka, ttikka, the twisting of 
strands into thread; tukke 
a rope made of grass, used in 
Zaria for binding on the roof 
of a house. 

tukane, pots ; see tukunia. 

tukatukai (K.), calf of leg. 

tuke, to end ; see tuka. 

tuke, goat-pen, a shortened 
form of turike, q.v. 

t&ke, tukke, to mash, chew, 
sania tana tukke the cow is 
chewing the cud ; cf, tsuke. 

tuku, tukuwa, pi. tukani, a 
tuft of hair on the head, the 
crest of a bird, the top to a 
dish-cover made of plaited 

tukuichi, takichi, tokochi, 
tukwichi, the fee paid to the 
bearer of a present from a 
king, etc. It varies from 
about 5 to 10 p.c. of the value 
of the present : a tip or 'dash.' 

tukumya, see tukunia. 

tukuna, tukun, first, at first, 

before, since ; ba tukuna not 

as yet; tukunanshi presently 

. (used in answer to question, 

When will it take place 1). 

tukunia, pi. tukwane, tukane, 
an earthen or iron pot, pitcher, 
vessel ; tukunyar baba a dye 
pit; tukuniar taba tobacco 
pipe; maitukunia or maitu- 
kane a potter. 

ttikuri*, the all night reading 
(by mallam after mallam) 
which celebrates the first 
completion of the reading of 
the Koran by a youth. 

tukunia, a palm; the intoxi- 
cating drink bam is obtained 
from incisions in its bark, its 
stalks are esp. used as poles 
for supporting the thatch of 
a roof, also as canoe poles. 

tukuwa, a tuft of hair; see 




ttlla, to pile up ; cf . tilli. 

tula-tuki, a children's game in 
which a stone is wrapped in 
cloth, thrown in the air and 
scrambled for, whoever seizes 
the stone is entitled to push or 
strike the thrower ; cf . tuka. 

tulawa* (cf. Ar. ^5, to read 
the Koran), saying by rote; 
yin tulawa to say off by heart, 
e.g. the Koran. 

tulli, tilli, pi. tuloli (Ar. Jj), 
a heap or large store of any- 
thing; tullin duatsu a heap 
of stones ; tululu abundance. 

tulu, pi. tuluna, 1. water-pot, 
bottle, pitcher, esp. one used 
by a woman, e.g. A 26 kan ba 
ha yaro zaya dan tulu nata if 
thou hast not a boy to take 
her pitcher ; 2. a small cowry 
shell with a hole in the back 
used in gambling, so called 
from its resemblance to a 
miniature pot. 

tululu, abundance ; see tulli. 

tuluwa (K.), the top of a hill; 
cf. tsololo, 

tuma, tumi, n. jumping, hop- 
ping; tuma da murna to 
jump with joy, to start, of 
horses to be restive ; tuma da 
gaya a name given to the 
chinaka ant. 

tumaki, sheep ; see tumkia. 

tumaye, to spring up, spring 

tumbar* a naked person. 

tumbe, to bring back, take back. 

tumbi, pi. tumbuna, stomach, 
pouch ; maitumbi a fat man. 

tumbin-jaki (donkey's sto- 
mach), a grass eaten by 
horses (Paspalum scrobicu- 
latum, Gramineae). 

tumbudi, to vomit; tumbudu 
to flow quickly; rua ya tum- 
budu the river flows fast. 

tumbudi, the 'puking' of a 

tumbuke, to pluck, pull out by 
the roots; atumbuke chiawa 
pull out the grass. 

tumburkuma, the large in- 
testine ; see tuburkuma. 

tumfafia, tunfafia, pi. tumfafi 
(Calotropsis procera, Asilepi- 
adeae). A hoary-leaved shrub 
with milky juice and bladder- 
like capsules. It has medi- 
cinal uses. 

tumi, n. jump ; see tuma. 

tumia, tinia, 1. a cactus with 
a milky juice, from which is 
made a poison for arrows; 
2. an ingredient in making 
snuff (Euphorbiaceae). 

tumka, tumpka, to plait ; see 

tumkia, dumkia* pi. tumaki, 




tumnia, a deep well. 

tumpake, to pluck, pull out; 
cf. tuge. 

tumseri, syphilis ; see tinjere. 

tumu, the first ripe heads of 
gero and maiwa before the 
general crop is ripe ; they are 
roasted for eating. 

tumuku, a small edible root 
somewhat resembling a yam. 

tumukun-suri, an erect club- 
shaped fungus which grows 
on ant heaps. 

tun, also with da, tunda as far 
as, till, e.g. tunda safe since 
the morning; while, e.g. tunda 
suna yin magana while they 
were speaking; from, since, 
e.g. tun haifuanka since your 
birth, tunda da dere since 
last night, tunyaushe since 
when ] tunda or tun followed 
by a negative means ' before ' ; 
tuni or tuntuni long ago, for 
a long time past. tundade, 
tundadetva long since, tun- 
yaushe how long? how long 
since? tunda with negatives 
= before, e.g. tunda ba shi 
tsira ba before it springs up, 
C 6 tun bai mutu even before 
he is dead. 

tuna, frequently constr. with 
da, to think of, pay attention 
to, to remember, to come to 
remember; tuna ma to re- 

R. H. D. 

mind; tunane, fern, tunana, 
pi. tunanu, what is contrived 
or thought of, then as n. 
thought, reflection, medita- 
tion, consciousness, remem- 
brance; cf. babu laifi babu 
tunane where there is no 
wrong, there is no remorse. 
tunawa remembrance, recol- 
lection ; intens. form tuntuna. 

tunane, see tuna. 

tunari*, a leader, chief. 

tunawa, remembrance ; see 

tunda, as far as ; see tun. 

tundade, tundadewa, long 
since ; see tun. 

tundewa, licking; see tandewa. 

ttLne, to pierce, to gore. 

tunfafia, a bush ; see tumfafia. 

ttinga, pi. tungaigai, a small 

tunguma, tungume, to lift a 
heavy load,- to add to a load. 

tuni, n. butting of an animal. 

tuni, long since ; see tun. 

tunka, jan tunka a red pug- 

tunku, 1. a covering of skins ; 
2. a species of wild cat which 
lives in holes (in Sokoto wa- 

tunkuda, to push aside, to 
butt, toss, gore; used with 
jirigi to paddle ; cf . tuka, 





tunkui, tunkuwi, butting like 
a goat. 

tunkushe, 1. to close the fist ; 
2. to be worthless or unsale- 

tunkuya, to butt, to toss. 

tunkwiyo, flea. 

tuntsure, 1. to be upset, trip, 
stumble ; 2. tr. to upset. 

tuntu, tassel on edge of mat, 
tuft on top of maize cob. 

tuntube, n., 1. stumbling, yin 
tuntube to stumble; 2. the 
ground just below the brow 
of a hill. 

tuntumi, a black and white 

tuntuni, tunituni or tuni, for 
a long time past ; see tuna. 

tunturum, corpulent. 

tuny a*, a cactus ; see tumia. 

tunyaushe, how long? see 

tunzura, to flee. 

tunzurua, tinzera, panic, 

tuo, food, victuals, esp. applied 
to a mixture made with 
guinea-corn, oil, etc. ; cf. don 
tuon gobe akewanke tukunia 
the pot must be washed for 
to-morrow's meal; tuon suna 
a meal in connection with 
the naming of a child, which 
usually takes place seven 
days after its birth, also used 

as a v. n., tana tuo = tana yin 

tuon-biri, a shrub; see tafa- 

tupka, to plait ; see tufka. 

ttbra, a swelling on the body. 

tfira, to dye; turare, fern. 
turara, pi. turaru, dyed, 
coloured; cf. t&ri. 

tura, to mend (?); cf. M. H. 
p. 211. 

tura, the rebound of an arrow, 
ya yi halbi ya chi tura he hit 
but the arrow bounced off. 

tura, turi, ture, to push, push 
forwards, tura magana to in- 
terrupt in conversation, to 
push up, used of the steam 
which pushes up the lid of 
a pot : also to throw (earth), 
na tura musu kasa ; the form 
tura appears to be used when 
the direct object is qualified 
by some subsidiary clause, 
e.g. na ture mutum I pushed 
the man out, but na tura 
mutum a rua I pushed the 
man into the water ; cf . Gr. 
p. 45, turo to push towards 

tur&ka (K.), a seat of a king 
or of the master of a house, 
also the private room of the 
head of a household ; cf . 
baraya a royal reception; 
yan turaka female slave; 




turaM an officer at court, 
usually a son of the king; 
for order of precedence cf. 

turanchi, what belongs or ap- 
pertains to Arabs or whites 
in general, the Arabic lan- 
guage; cf. ture. 

turanta, the act of dyeing. 

turare, tirare, scent, frankin- 

ttirare, dyed; cf. tura. 

turba, path ; see turuba. 

turbaia* (cf. Ar. v>0> nne 
sand, earth. 

turbe (in Sokoto furi), the 
first hoeing of the crops. 

turbude, turumbude* to 
cover, bury, dig. 

turda (S.), fine sand. 

turde, butter = main shanu. 

turdi, pi. turdawa, a man who 
charms snakes by singing. 

ture, to push down ; see tura, 

ture, cf. ba-ture Arab, Euro- 
pean, stranger; pi. turatva 

[(?) fr. Ar. i5j>fe, wild, a 


turgude*, to be lame, to suffer 
from a disease of any of the 
joints, e.g. of the fingers. 

turgtini (S.), leech. 

turgunwa, turgunuwa, an 
edible herb; its leaves are 
used in making soup. 

turi*, used by Arabs as name 
of Mt Sinai. 

tttri, dyeing ; yin turi to dye ; 
see tHra, 

turike, tuke, pi. turaku (K.), 
turuka (S.), a place where 
sheep or goats are closed in 
for the night, also a post for 
tying up horses, a tethering 
peg. dan turike a groom. 

turje, tr. and intr. to withdraw. 

turjo, to draw back hither. 

turke, to hold back. 

turko, terko, a trap for catch- 
ins wild animals made by 
covering up a hole and plac- 
ing ropes inside, a snare. 

turkudi, a blue shiny cloth of 
native manufacture and dyed 
with indigo. 

turnuka, a conflagration, the 
smoke which accompanies 

turnuke, to rise in clouds, like 
smoke, kura ta turnuke the 
dust rose in dense clouds. 

turo, n. pushing; turo ni akayi 
I was pushed ; see tura. 

turoso, dung. 

turu, the log to which a re- 
captured slave is fastened, 
stocks; kurdin turu money 
paid to a king for restoration 
of a fugitive, kurdin karia 
twru money paid to set a 
slave free. 





turuba, turba, pi. turvbobi 

(cf. Ar. *?•>>"-*> narrow or 
divided path), path, way ; it is 
used of a definite path, while 
Jiainya may be only a track. 

turumbude, to bury, M. H. 
p. 152; see turbude. 

turumi, pi. turame, 1. a mortar 
made by scooping out a log, 
used for pounding rice or 
wheat; 2. a roll of cloth of 
any length. 

tururi, steam ; cf . tura. 

tururua, both sing, and coll., 
a black ant. They collect 
grain which people dig out 
during famines. 

turflrubi, tururibi (Lasio- 
syphon spinosus, Thymeleae), 
a yellow-flowered plant from 
the root of which is obtained 
a poison used for smearing 

tururushi, the period of four 
days between the beginning 
of the marriage ceremony 
and its consummation, during 
which bride and bridegroom 
live apart with friends of 
their own sex. 

tusa, n. breaking wind. 

tftsa, tussa, to grind corn over 
again, to repeat; tUsakaranta 
to read over a second time. 

tusan jaki (donkey's wind), a 
plant with yellow flower and 

a yellow seed pod enclosed 
in a sheath, the inner side of 
which is sticky. 

tusga, tuzga, tusge, to slip 
into, to slip over an edge, 

ttUdie, to pour out, shed, re- 
duce price of ; gashi ya tushe 
the hair comes off, M. H. 
p. 57 ; tiishe magana to dis- 
cuss a subject fully. 

tfishi, tushia, n. a root of 
grass or tree, the foundation 
of a wall, then fig. = meaning, 
origin ; tushiansa data their 
origin is the same. 

ttlshi, n. grinding over again. 

tushia, the stubble of guinea- 
corn, wheat, etc. 

tuski, tuske, to seek for, try 
to find, long for, the pass* 
atuski is used as a common 
form of salutation = much 
sought after. 

tussa, to grind ; see tiXsa. 

9 • J 

tusu'i* (Ar. %~3), fract. nume- 
ral, one-ninth. 

tuta, tuti, pi. tutoshi, flag, 
standard of a king, umbrella ; 
E 13 idem anfida tutoshin 
jahadi if the standards of 
war be unfurled. 

tutsu, bucking of a horse or 

tutu, dung. 




tutu, always ; see tutul. 
tutuje, to scrape hair from a 

skin, an intensive form of 

tutul, tutur, tutu* tutuk*, 

tutut*, continually, for ever, 

firm, secure, 
tuture (Z.), stump of a tree; 

cf. kututura (K.). 
tuturta, to remain always, to 

make permanent ; see tutul. 
tutushi, sweet, good to eat. 
tutut, always ; see tutul. 
tuya, to bake ; see toy a. 
tuya, pi. toye-toye, n. bake- 

meat, e.g. one made of butter 

and onions; maituya a baker, 
tuzga, to slip into ; see tusga. 
tuzuru, fern, tuzurua, an old 

bachelor or maid. 
twankua, pepper ; see tankwa, 
twari, cough ; see toari. 
twashi, a large green pepper, 

used in Sokoto for berkono; 

cf. tatasai. 
twatsa, twache, to milk ; see 


uba, oba, pi. ubane, ubanai 

(cf. (?) Ar. J^l), 1. father; 
yan uba sons of one father by 
different wives ; yam ubanchi 
used of rivalry caused by 
polygamy ; ubcm ubaka B 75 
thy grandfather; 2. a leader 

or master, e.g. ubcm yaki the 
leader of a fight ; ubcm tafia 
leader of an expedition; cf. 

ubangiji, lit. father of the 
household, master, proprie- 
tor, lord ; a title frequently 
applied to God = the Lord ; 
cf. uworigijia mistress. 

ubanji, a shrub with purple 
flowers; see risgar kurege. 

ubulungui, a children's game. 

uda, oda, a long-eared ram. 

ufa, uhu, ihu, scream, a loud 
or sharp cry ; yin ufu to 

uhda (Ar.), a sale under a 

ujala* (cf. Ar. 3JLq»e, a water- 

wheel), a wheel. 

ujera, ijara (Ar. 5j^.l), a court 

iiku, card. num. three ; A 58 
achikin gidan aljena babu 
mutun uhu in heaven three 
men will be wanting; cf. 
idiom sa kai aiiku to bring 
trouble on oneself. The cor- 
resp. ordinal is m. naiiku, i. 
tauku, third; naukunsu the 
third one of them ; adv. sau 
uhu three times, thrice. 

ukuba (S.), a legal punish- 

ulu, 1. wool ; 2. a red thread. 




urn*, yes. 

umbo, a cry made by oxen; 

cf. M. H. p. 183. 
umorche, to command, rule; 

see umorni, 

umorni* (Ar. y*\\ law, com- 
mand ; yin umorni to order, 

flngo or nngwo, take ! (a Bor- 
nuese word); cf. prov. hau- 
kar bani maganinta ungo the 
madness of begging (lit. give 
me) its medicine is, 'take it.' 

ungozuma, midwife. 

ungua, angua, pi. ungual, un- 
gwanai, a suburb or division 
outside the walls of a town, 
an unwalled village. 

ungulu, vulture ; see angulu. 

ungurnu, armlets. 

ungwaiya, ingweya, a Fulani 

word used in answering a 

salutation, almost equivalent 

to 'thank you/ often used 

by Hausas in the North as a 

salutation in itself. 

uri*, place ; see wuri. 

• *t 
urula (Ar. u*5j«*)> chattels, 


• • i 
Audi, ufluli, &sali (Ar. J*et), 

origin, race, ancestors, dan 

usuli a son of the house. 
• « j 
ttshuri (Ar. jJU), 1. fractional 

numeral, one-tenth ; 2. death 


U8S, the usual exclamation in 
driving sheep or goats. 

usuwasi (Ar. ^^-^j), fancy, 
supposition; ta yi usuwasi 
azuchia lata she imagined 
within herself. 

uwa, pi. uwaye, mother ; the 
plural is used in the sense of 
parents; dan uwa, pi. yan 
uwa, lit. mother's son = friend, 
dan uwata or dan uwana my 
friend; uwal rana a foster 
mother who finds a child de- 
serted and adopts it; uwar 
riga the body of a gown as 
opposed to thesleeves (hanua) ; 
uwa is also used of an ori- 
ginal MS. from which a copy 
has been made; uwar yaki 
the centre of the army, the 
place where the sarki and 
body-guard (giwa) are. 

uwalgida, mistress ; see uwori- 

uwar-magunguna or woma- 
gunguna, a shrub with purple 
flowers, it provides an in- 
gredient of arrow poison, 
= 8ainya,i.e. Securidata longi- 
pedunculata : Polygalaceae. 

uwayara, lit. mother of chil- 
dren, the name given to an 
evil spirit who kills the mother 
and the new-born child at the 
time of child-birth, it is also 
used as the name of a large 
snake, M. H. p. 78. 




uworigida, uwalgida, chief 
wife or mistress of the house; 
cf . seq. 

uworigijia, mistress or owner 
of slaves. This and the pre- 
ceding are also used as femi- 
nine forms of vbangiji. 

wa, wane, wanene, fem.wache, 

wacheche, pi. suwa, manene, 
suwanene, interrog. pron. who, 
which, what ? [The word watte 
was formed by adding the 
substantive verb to the ori- 
ginal wa', the form wane 
having become fully estab- 
lished, a strengthened form 
wanene was made by affixing 
the substantive verb again; 
cf . use of kowa, kowane, kowa- 
nene.] The expression, what 
is his name? is often rendered 
wa sunansa, lit. who? his 
name ? wanene wanan who is 
this? suwane ne which are* 
they? diyar wacheche hi ke 
whose daughter art thou? 
The adjectival interrogative 
forms are wane often pro- 
nounced wone, f. wache, pi. 
wddane ; wane shi who is he? 
wache mache che wanan wada 
ta zo what woman is it that 
has come? wadane mutane 


ke nan what men are these % 

-nwa at the end of a word = 
whose? danwa shi ke whose 
son is he ? 

wa*, Ar. and. 

wa*, like, like as; F 144 ka- 
ramta tas wa gashi its fine- 
ness is like a hair, F 154 
wonsu kan shude wa iska 
some would pass like wind ; 
cf . wani. 

wa*, pi. yeyu*, elder brother; 
wan dawa elder brother of 
the forest, a nickname of the 
lion ; cf. ya elder sister. 

wa, to do, make, ya wa kansa 
karifi he strengthened him- 
self, ya wa alberka he blessed, 
wa mugunta to curse ; cf . wo, 

wa, a species of ficus, which 
yields a milky juice like 
rubber; see gamji. 

wa, to (not before personal pro- 
nouns), especially used after 
verbs to tell ; kada ka gaya 
wa kowa, but cf . ya yenke wa 
sariki kune he cut off the 
king's ear. 

wa'adi (Ar. jifc$), promise. 

wa'atsi*, wa'atsu, wa*azu, 
often contracted colloquially 

to wazi, wazu (Ar. Jofcj), in- 
struction, proclamation; mu~ 
na waaisi nwma galkadi gare- 
ku we tell you openly and 
warn you. 




wabi, dying, esp. used of chil- 
dren ; yayan wabi children 
who are born after the death 
in infancy of two or more 
brothers or sisters; itachen 
wabi a tree the fruit of which 
falls off without ripening. 

wachan, fern., pi. w&danchan, 
that; see wanchan. 

wachanan, a lengthened form 
of wachan ; see wochan. 

fern, of wa 9 q.v. 

wache, washe, to spread, to 
scatter; F 98 su washe shiu 

. they scatter in silence ; wal- 
wache to scatter far and wide ; 
see watsa. 

W&da, a tree with spatulate 
leaves dark green above and 
light green below. 

wada, a curse ; see wade. 

wada, to make haste, to be 
first to ; na wada zua I am 
the first to come ; ban wada 
tafia I have not been able to 
go as yet ; ta yi wadan fada 
she composed the quarrel. 

wad5, fern, wadania, iphwadani 
(cf. Ar. rt ^Zj), dwarf. 

wada, wada'a (cf. (?) Ar. cly 

to deposit), treasure, riches ; 
wadachi riches; maiwadachi 
or maiwadata a rich man; 
cf. prov. mahakurohi mawa- 

dachi the patient man is the 
rich man. 

wada, wadda, who, which, 
fem. of. wanda, q.v. 

w&da, wdda, how, the manner 
in which; gaya mani wdda 
akayi ; cf . yida. 

wadansu, some, pi. of wani, q.v. 

wadari, wodari, pi. wadurra, 
n., 1. walking up and down 
as women do with thread 
when making string; 2. 
string ; cf. prov. laifi duk na 
kura ne amma bamda satar 
wadari a hyena has many 
faults but it does not steal 
string ; i.e. no one is altogether 
bad ; cf . wadarta, wadira. 

wadarta, to wind thread; cf. 

wadata, walata, to be rich ; 

see wada. 
wade, to curse ; see under allah. 
w&dira or wodira, spinning; 

see under abduga. 
.W&ga, this, fem. of wamga. 

waga (cf. (?) Ar. Jli^, reposi- 
tory, case, etc.), sack or case 
made of skin, used for load- 
ing donkeys, camels, etc. 

wagi, wdgi, cattle-stealing. 

w&ha, a children's game. 

wahabi, an arrangement, or 

wahaia, concubine ; C 45. 

wahala, trouble ; see wohala. 




wahalda, to cause trouble; 
see wohalda. 

w&hami (cf. Ar. j^$)<> mad- 
ness, frenzy. 

wai, Ar. id., 1. alas ! woe ! cf. 
wainia ; 2. as an expression of 
doubt or uncertainty ; wai ya 
che I do not understand what 
he says ; 3. it is said that, on 
the assumption that; F 30 
kana kumburawa wai ka fi 
kowa thou art proud because 
it is said Thou excellest all ; 
4. frequently used to intro- 
duce a quotation = ' he said 
that' ; 5. equivalent to 'whose 
name is '; wani zarumi wai- 
shi umaru a warrior by name 
Umaru ; cf. wai ita, waim ; 
6. used in mockery, oho ! aha ! 
wai is often used by an in- 
terpreter, e.g. wai ka zo he 
says you are to come. Ans. 
enji wa who says so? cf. kare 
bakinsa na zaki na wai abashi 


the dog looks as if it wanted 
something to eat (lit. the dog, 
its mouth of sweetness, it is 
said let something be given) ; 
wai wai rumour ; wai wai ne 
it is only gossip. 

waiga (K.), to turn round, etc. ; 
see woiga. 

waige (K.), pi. waige-waige, n. 
turning round ; see woige. 

waina, wene, cakes (in Kano) 

made with rice or flour and 
boiled with main-geda = masa 
in Zaria, = teala, tewala in 

wainia, alas! perhaps = wai nia 
woe is me ! 

waiwai, gossip, rumour; gina 
waiwai to exaggerate. 

waiwai, weiwei, to be left 
alone; kura ta waiwai the 
hyena was left by herself. 

waiwaya, to turn round; see 

wajaba, wajiba, to be neces- 
sary, ought ; A 63 rana nan 
ka wajaba taimama achikin 
gari on that day thou must 
wash with sand in the city ; 
ya wajiba it is necessary. 

wajabta, to make certain, to 
ensure, to exhort. 

waje, side, etc. ; see woje. 

wajib, wajibi (Ar. 4^-iX aclv - 
of necessity, A 20 wajib mu 
dau haiam we ought to take 
their road, A 68 tearki ga 
maisalla ku Ban wajib ya ke 
purity is necessary, as thou 
knowest, for one who prays ; 
hence wajibine na tafi I was 
forced to go. w. is also used as 
an adj .= necessary or desirable. 

waka, pi. wakoki 9 wake-wake, 
a song; wake-waken banza 
foolish songs. 

waka, a promise to pay. 




w&kala, wokkala, to depute ; 
see tvakili. 

w&kati*, time ; see wakti. 

waka-wake, wake- wake, hav- 
ing spots or stripes, speckled 
black and white, used of 
fowls, etc. 

wake, pi. ivakoki, wakaikai, 
bean ; ta chi wake, i.e. she is 

waken-damfami or waken 
turawa (Cajanus Indica, Le- 
guminosae), pigeon pea, the 
Indian dhal. 

waken-rafi, paiya-paiya or 
alambo (Ormocarpum spino- 
sum, Leguminosae), a shrub 
with narrow-jointed pods, 
found on river banks. 

wakili (Ar. J*^), steward, 

representative, a temporary 
governor; wakilchi* steward- 
ship, guidance ; cf . wdkala. 

wakilta, to oversee, direct; 
see tvakili. 

wakiya, wukia (Ar. ^j), 1. 
an oz. weight; 2. a small 
long-shaped vase for holding 

wakti, wakachi (Ar. C-Jj), 
time; wakti duka always; 
from this root is probably 
derived the Hausa word for 
time; cf. lokachi. 

wala, pi. walu, dove, ring-dove. 

wala, to have plenty of room 
in which to sit down; wala- 
wa*, enjoyment of abundance; 

walakanta, to maltreat, to 
despise; see wulakanta. 

walata, to be plentiful ; see 

walau* walo* (Ar.), either, 

walawa, abundance ; see wala. 

walga, warga (Zanf.), this, a 

fem. form of wanga, q.v. 
W&li, pi. wale-wale, peace ; yin 

wdli to be at peace, 
wall, woli, a child born after 

the mother's death, 
wall, woli, wuli, waliyi, pi. 

waliyai, a saint, a fakir. 
walianohi, prophecy. 

walima* (Ar. i^Jj), a feast. 

waliya, a small singing bird. 

waliye, a representative or 

walki (in Sokoto and Katsena), 
warki (in Rano), a skin wrap- 
per, etc. 

walkin (or warkin) tsofo, 
'old man's apron,' a rough, 
white flowered herb the leaves 
of which are used to make a 
hot fomentation (Trichodes- 
ma Africana, Solanaceae). 

walla, waliahi, wolla (Ar.), 
an exclamation, by Allah. 




wallafa, bef. pron. obj. waUafe 
(Ar.), to compose (a book). 

wallaha, about 10 a.m.; cf. 

wallah!, of a truth ; see walla. 

walle, shameless exposure. 

walwada, warwada, a war 
axe or hatchet ; cf . masuwar- 
wada, Gr. p. 138, 1. 30. 

walwaji, warwaji, 1. white 
oryx, its skin is used for 
making white shields; it is 
found in the northern part 
of Hausaland and in Asben ; 
2. the shield made from its 

walwale, to object to an agree- 
ment ; see warwari. 

walwanche, warwache, to 
shake out ; see watsa. 

wanan, wannan, wonan, pi. 
wadanan, this near by. 

wanchan, f. wachan, pi. wd- 
ckmckan, often pronounced 
wonchan, wochan, wodanchan, 
demonst. pronoun, that, over 
there, the one yonder, the 
other; see Gr. p. 12. 

wanche*, some one, a fem. 
form of wani, q.v. 

wanchi, n. womanliness. 

wanda, wonda, fem. wada, 
wadda, pi. wadanda, rel. pron. 
who, which and obj. pron. 
whom, babu wanda no one; 
see Gr. p. 13. 

wan-dawa, a strong lion, lit. 
eldest brother of the forest. 

wando, wondo, pi. wanduna, 
wonduna, loose baggy trou- 
sers which are drawn tight 
under the knee; they are 
similar to those worn by 
Arabs; dan wando knicker- 

wandu, a small monkey. 

wane, * so and so/ enna wane 
where is so and so? (the 
name being known but not 
mentioned), kaza is used in 
a similar way when speaking 
of things. 

wane, fem. wac/ie, who? see 

wanene, pi. manene, who? 
strengthened forms of wa, 

wanga, wonga, fem. w6ga y 
wogga, walga*, pi. wadanga, 
this near by. 

wani (often pronounced woni)> 
fem. wata, wota, wancfie*, pi. 
wddanm, wddansu, wansu, 
wosu, wasuy some one, some- 
thing, a certain person or 
thing (used adjectivally and 
pronominally). woninmu ba 
ya sani ba not one of us 
knows. beri ina da woni 
wait, I have something else 
to say. wani . . .wani or wan- 
che . . . wanche denotes one . . . 




another, ba wosunsu there 
are no others. wani da 
tvanche male and female ; cf . 
prov. kama da wani ba wane 
ba ne the likeness of anyone 
is not the person himself; i.e. 
all is not gold that glitters. 

wani da wanche, male and 
female; cf. wani. 

wanji, superfluity, what re- 
mains over; cf. wanzu. 

wanka (usually intr.), wanke, 
tr. to wash, e.g. the face, 
clothes, etc. ; wanke dia to 
prepare a daughter for mar- 
riage, wankake, f. wankaka, 
pi. wankaku, washed, cleaned. 

wanka, wanki, wonka, q.v., 

n. washing, wankin gawa the 
laying-out of a corpse; cf. yin 
wonka to bathe. 

wanko, to wash and bring 
back to the place where the 
speaker is ; see wanka. 

wanshekaranjia, three days 
ago, the day before shekaran- 
jia. [Possibly wan in this 
word is an abbreviation of 
wanchan\ ; cf . seq. 

wanshekare (S.), to-morrow, 

next day; cf. kashegari. 
wanya, wanye, wanyi, to 

finish doing anything, to 
end, used as tr. and intr. v. ; 
D 13 wuta da wuta ta ke 
wanyi duka, lit. fire ends 

everything, D 73 hal aUah 
shi wanya hukumchi ga bayi 
until God hath finished His 
judgment on His servants ; 
B 121 ranan ta dunia tarn 
ta wanyi his day of earthly 
life is ended. 

wanz&mi, pi. wanzamu 9 a bar- 

wanzu, wonzu*, to prolong, 
delay, stay, exist, remain 
over, be over and above; 
maiwanzuwa remaining; cf. 

war-war-war, used of the 
sound made by running 
water, M. H. p. 121; cf. 

warabiika*, used in the pro- 
verb t8amanin warabuka 
malam ya ki noma domin 
zakka; tsamanin warabiika = 
unfulfilled expectations (be- 
cause the harvest may fail). 

waraka, about this time; see 

waraka, warka (Ar. «J>j^), 
leaf of a tree, page of a book. 

warami, pL waramai, orna- 
ment of iron, ivory, etc. worn 
by the heathen on the wrist. 

wardi, scent (Ar. hjj, rose), 
specially used of a kind of 
attar of roses. 

w&re, to separate, to disperse, 




ku warn disperse ! past part. 
wara/re ; warware, intrans. to 
come unravelled (of thread). 
warwari, wariwari, 1. to 
shake out, unfold, wind off; 
2. with alkaueli to break a 
promise, sun warwatsu they 
are dispersed. 

warga, worga, this, a fern, 
form of wanga, q v. 

warh&ka, often contracted col- 
loquially to waraka 9 by this 
time, about this time, e.g. ha 
komo gobe warhaka return at 
this time to-morrow ; a con- 
traction of wakati h&ka. 

9 0- 

wari (cf. (?) Ar. ^j, corrupt 
matter), a bad smell; zama 
wari to become stinking. 

wari, to open, used e.g. of a 
book, etc. ; possibly a form 
of mare, 

wari* (cf. Ar. ftj^), outside, 
D 48 abinda akayi wari 
what is done outside. 

wari, 1. a part, one piece of; 
2. a pair. 

wari, v. to select, to choose 
out one or more pieces. 

wark&da, to cure ; see warke, 

warke, worke, worike, to be 
cured or healed, to get well ; 
less commonly to heal, war- 
keke, fem. warkekia, pi. war- 
keku, healed ; maihaukache 

ba shi warikewa the fool is 
incurable; see warkdda. 

warki, loin-cloth ; see walki. 

warnu, a small dark-coloured 

wartsaka, to be convalescent, 
to get better. 

warwada, a hatchet ; see wal- 

warware, to come unravelled ; 
see ware. 

warwari, to shake out; see 

warwarji, warwaji, white 
oryx; see walwaji. 

warwatsa, to scatter; see 

wasa, song or game, wasa-wasa 
tricks, sunan wasa a nick- 
name ; abokin wasa comrade, 
chum, wasa is also used to 
denote an alliance or * entente 
cordiale ' between states : it 
is specially applied to the 
sound of a drum; yin wasa 
to play music, hence wasam- 
buki feasting at a marriage. 
wasanwuta fireworks. 

w&sa, to scatter ; see wdtsa. 

w&sa (cf. Ar. ^w^ iv, to cut), 
or yin washi to sharpen ; 
awasa wuka let the knife be 
sharpened ; ya wasu it is 
sharpened ; cf . washi ; cf . 
Gr. p. 139, 1. 46 kun yi washi 
ye have sharpened (your 



swords), mawashi a grind- 
w&saki, a leathern bucket. 

wasali (cf. Ar. J**> the sign 
- placed over I), the points, 
or vowels, placed above or 
below the letters. 

wasambuki, a marriage feast ; 
see wasa, 

W&sashe, to scramble for. 

wasaso, n. snatching; see 


wasawasa, a sort of porridge 
made of beans or guinea-corn, 
or in N. Africa of macaroni ; 
cf . kuskus. 

wasekki, a leathern bucket; 
see w&saki. 

W&she, to distrain, ruin ; e.g. 

washgfe, 1. hair on the cheeks 
aud upper lip ; 2. a pit with 
sharp stakes in it. 

W&shi, n. sharpening; see wasa. 

washiriya, a wide space be- 
tween two front teeth ; see 

wasiche (Ar.), to bequeath. 

wasichi (Ar.), will, testament. 

wasiya (Ar.), testator. 

waslya* (Ar. \jO}\ executor. 

waske, woske, to avoid (a 

waskiya, n. avoidance of a 
blow or danger. 

waso, to devastate. 

W&SO, distraining ; see wasoao. 

wasoao, n. snatching or steal- 
ing goods, scrambling for 
anything, loss, deprivation; 
ku yi wasosunshi scramble 
for it; see wasa, wdshe. 

wasu, pi. of wani, q.v. 

wata*, to arrive at, reach. 

wata, wota, pi. watani 9 and 
watashi, usually construed 
as masculine, 1. moon, e.g. 
wata shina bada ha&ke the 
moon gives light, farin wata 
new moon, or moonlight; 2. 
month; watanyo this month, 
watan jibi the month after 
next, watan jia last month, 
watan gobe next month ; wa- 
tan bokoi the last month of 
the dry season, i.e. the seventh 
month after the end of the 
rains, wata ya shiga dufu 
the moon does not rise till 
after bedtime, wata ya ma- 
ty, the month (or moon) is 
ended, wata ya tsaya the 
moon is new. 

wata, wota, a certain one, 
fem. of waniy q.v. 

watakila, perhaps; ctwotakila. 

watane* (cf. Ar. J^^ in, to 
be assiduous), found in phr. 
ka watane prepare ! 

watareran, aimless or useless 
toil; cf. reran. 




watia*, preparation. 

watika, a letter ; see wotika. 

wato, appearance, equivalent; 
waton 8ariki in place of or 
in appearance like to a king ; 
waton ba ka so that means 
you don't want to. 

watsa, waza, wache, to scat- 
ter (seed), break up, rout. 
watsal watsal the jumping 
about, or flapping, of a fish 
on dry land, pass, watsu, in- 
tens, form warwache, wal- 
wache, warwatsa to shake 
out, scatter abroad, amaze 

watsarda, to throw away, 

watsatsi, fern, watsatsia, a 
name given to a vicious goat. 

watse, intr. to scatter ; cf . watsa. 

W&tsu, scattered ; see watsa. 

waushi*, perhaps. 

wauta, abstr. of wawa, foolish- 
ness, vanity ; maiwauta fool- 
ish, a deranged person. 

wawa, a fool, one who is vain, 
a jester; bada wawa to de- 
ceive ; cf . prov. da babu wawa 
yara da wawa, i.e. half a loaf 
is better than no bread, wa- 
wanchi folly, foolishness. 

wawa, found in the phr. babu 
wawa without doubt, doubt- 

wawa, a piece' of cloth made 

of about twenty strips, 4£ 
cubits in length. 

wawa, wawashe, to scramble 

wawari, to come unravelled ; 
see ware. 

wawoinya*, returning ; see 

waye (S.), to surpass. 

waye, to become clear, to dawn, 
e.g. gari ya waye the day 
dawns; waye, waya, wayau, 
wayenchi to explain, make 
clear; ka waye mamu abin 
nan explain this thing to us; 
pass, akanwaita it is ex- 
plained, wayewa, 1. dawn- 
ing, dawn; 2. explanation, 

wayo, wayau, plan, scheme, 
plot, stratagem, intelligence ; 
hence cunning, skill ; mai- 
wayo one who is cunning or 

wayunia, an exclamation of 
despair : probably another 
form of wainia, q.v. 

waza, a horn for blowing. 

wazagi, a malodorous wild cat, 
lives in holes in towns or 
bush; used in Sokoto for 

wazanu (S.), one who calls to 
prayer ; see wazinu. 

wazi and wazu, to warn ; see 
wa i atsi. 




wazinu, muezzin, the one who 
calls to prayer. 

wazir, waziri ( Ar. jjjj), vizier. 

weiwei, to be left alone; see 

wene, cakes ; see waina. 
windi, a small round mat made 

of grass ; cf . wundi. 
wishiria, the space between the 

two front teeth ; see wnshiria. 
WO, to do, see yiwo. 
WO, WO, the sound made by a 

dog.; cf-. M. H. p. 188 wo, 

wo, shi ne tafi tqfi. 

woba* (cf. (?) Ar. 443, to con- 
sider attentively), wonder, 
fear ; yin woba to wonder, 
to be afraid. 

wochan, that, fern, of wonchan, 

wdda, how ; see wdda. 

woda, who, which, fem. of 
wonda, q.v. 

wodachi, riches ; cf . wada. 

wodanan, these, pi. of wonan, 

wodanda, who, pi. of wonda, 

wodanga, these, pi. of wonya, 

wodansu, wadansu, some, pi. 
of wani, q.v. 

wodari, to make string; see 

wodata, riches ; see wada. 

wodi (0 pronounced nearly as 
aw), a Fulani word meaning 
' good,' used in Hausa as an 
affirmative interjection. 

wofi, bareness, nakedness, de- 
privation of goods; abin wofi 
vanity; aikin wofi fruitless 
labour ; karia wofi a bare lie ; 
wofin mutum a worthless 
man ; chiwonwofi an incurable 
disease; yin wofi to compel, 
wofi ya shiya it was a case of 

WOga, this, fem. of wonga, q.v. 

wogi, cattle-stealing; see wdgi. 

wohala, wahala (cf. Ar. JJh^ 
11, to strike fear into), afflic- 
tion, trouble; A 84 mu ha 
chi ba wahala nika we shall 
eat without the trouble of 
grinding, yin wohala to pun- 
ish, inflict punishment; pain, 
wohalan haifua labour pains ; 
maiwohala one who bears 
trouble, a poor man who toils 
constantly, wohalda, wahaU 
da = yin wohala to trouble 
oneself, be grieved, distressed, 
kdda ka wohalda kanku do 
not trouble, vex, distress 
yourselves, wohaha, wohal- 
she to vex, to annoy, to cause 
affliction, to correct; cf. M. 
H. p. 183 hakori su ke wo- 
hahata she Jias toothache. 

wohalda, wohalshe, see prec. 




woho, a cry of exultation. 

woiga, waiga, woishe, to look 
back, behind ; turn round, 
concern oneself with, grieve 
over; cf. woiwaya. 

woige, waige, n. turning 
round ; see woiga. 

woishe, see woiga. 

woishi for waishi ; cf . M. H. 
p. 203 ; see wai. 

woiwaya, waiwaya, to turn 
round, look back, concern 
oneself with ; cf . prov. aikin 
banza makafo da waiwaiye a 
fruitless task is like a blind 
man turning round to look. 
woiwoiawa, waiwayawa turn- 
ing round, returning ; cf. wo- 

woiwoia, woiwoiawa, see 

woje, waje, pi. wosashe (Ar. 

• * x 

4Lȣ), side, place, region; 
wqjen dama right side, right 
hand, wqjen hagum left side, 
daga wojen nan... dag a woje 
chan on this side... on the 
other side, wojenka with you ; 
hence as adv., out, outside ; 
ya tuma waje daia he jumped 
aside; ina tafia woje I am 
walking outside, wojen is 
also used as a preposition, 

* outside.' 

woli, wuli, a saint, fakir ; see 

R. H. D. 

wolka and yin wolkia to- 

wolki, a skin wrapper; see 

wolkia, lightning, any bright 

wolla*, Ar., by Allah ! see 

wollaha, wallaha [possibly de- 

J* 6 Si * 

rived from the Ar. S*m* ,£11, 

the title given to the prayers 
which are said when the sun 
is high], time about 10 a.m., 
see H. Gr. p. 86. 

wollo* theft. 

wolo, egg plant. 

womagunguna or uwar-ma» 
gunguna (Securidaca longi- 
pedunculata,Polygalaceae), a 
shrub with purple flowers, 
used medicinally and in pre- 
paring arrow poison. 

wombai, a royal officer, the 
heir to the throne at Kano ; 
cf . fadawa. 

wonan, pi. wodanan, this near 
by ; see wanan. 

wonchan, fern, wochan, pL 
wodanchan, that over there ; 
see wanchan. 

wonda, fern. woda f wodda, pL 
wodanda, who, which ; see 

wonga, fern. wogga } pi. wo- 
danga, this near by ; see 





woni, some one ; see want. 
woniyayi, sometime, a comp. 

of woni and yayi, q.v. 
wonka, apparently a verbal 

substantive; yin wonka is 

to wash the whole body, to 

bathe; cf. wanka. 
wonsu, some, pi. of woni, q.v. 
wonzu*, to prolong; see wanzu. 
w6rami (K.), a ring ; see wa- 

worga, warga, this, used esp. 

in Sokoto district as a fern. 

form of wanga. 
WOligi, play, sport; yin wo- 

rigi to play, to beat a drum, 
worike, worke, to be cured; 

see warke. 
woriwori, to improve in 

woshe, side, a less correct form 

of woje, q.v. 
WOsichi, a letter ; see wotika, 
WOSU, some, pi. of ivoni, q.v. 
wota, wata, a certain one, 

fern, of wani, q.v. 

wotakila (cf. (?) Ar. li^, so 

that wotakila would mean 
' in some measure '), perhaps, 
wotika, watika, wochika* 
WOsichi, pi. wotiku, wosiku 

(cf . Ar. witfj, covenant, docu- 
ment), a letter, 
wowo. At the end of the 
month Muharram boys are 

accustomed to light torches 
and throw them about ; this 
display of torches is called 

WU, a shout or scream = ufu. 

wuche, wushe* or fuche, to 
pass by, pass away, subside ; 
A 15 kowa ya zo ya wuche 
every one comes and goes, 
B 75 duka sun wuche they 
have all passed away ; wuche- 
wuche at intervals, e.g. every 
other day or once a week ; 
cf. prov. wuya mawuchia 
difficulty is a thing which 
passes away; cf. Gr. p. 103 
kdda dadi shi wucheni let 
not its sweetness escape me, 
M. H. p. 152 ; wuche da to 
pass by, take no notice of. 

wuchia*, a tail ; see wutsia. 

wu£ onomatopoeic word ex- 
pressing suddenness of action ; 
ya yi wuf he made a jump. 

wufi*, wupi*, shoes. 

wujlji, a cooperative loan 
system among friends; cf. 

Wllka, pi. wukake, tvukaikai, 
knife; wasa or gerta wvJca 
to sharpen a knife; wukan 
hanu a dagger worn on the 
wrist ; wukan sariki the name 
of a spotted grasshopper with 
green wings. 

wukia, a small, long-shaped 




vase or bottle for holding 

scent ; see wakiya. 
wula, fez, M. H. p. 222 ; see 

wulakanchi, walakanchi, 

disgrace, maltreatment. 

wolakanta (cf. Ar. uUj, to 
strike), to strike blows, to 
evil intreat, to treat with 
contempt; ya zama wula- 
kantache he is humbled. 

wulga, wulge, wurga, 1. to 
throw away, throw; 2. to 
pass by, pass away. 

wulgi, wurgi, n. throwing 

Willi, WOli, a saint, fakir. 

wundi, windi (S.), a round or 
oval mat, esp. used of a prayer 
mat ; cf . mala/a. 

wuni, n. the whole day from 
sunrise to sunset; sanu da 
wuni salutation used to a 
man working the whole day ; 
ha wuni lafia said on leaving 
one to rest in camp = may 
you rest well ! wunin aiki a 
day's work. 

wur, very ; ja wur very red ; 
baki wur very black. 

wftra*, to jump backwards 
and forwards, to dance. 

wurami, a metal ring; see 
war ami. 

wurami*, apparently a form 
of rorami a crooked stick. 

wurga, to throw ; see wulga. 

wurhaka, at this time; see 

wttri, pi. wurare, place, spot, 
locality ; wurin chira a place 
of escape, refuge, wurin gudu 
a place to flee to, ururin 
8apka a camping-place ; attah 
shina wuri duka God is over 
all. wuri is sometimes used 
for sky, wuri ba baki ba the 
sky is not overcast, wurin, 
Le. wuri na 9 is often equiva- 
lent to * with/ * to/ * in place 
of/ or * instead of; wurin- 
sa with him, ya tqfi wurin 
8ariki he went to the king. 
na zo wurinka I have come 
to see you, litafin nan yana 
wurina this book is in my 
possession, ansa wani wurin- 
sa another was put in his 

wiiri, an adverbial use of prec, 
early, already, before, before 
time ; da wuri early ; tunda 
wuri already, up till now ; 
cf . aunar maka tunda wuri 
your lot will be the first to 
be weighed; da wuri wuri 
or wuri wuri very early. 

wuri, pi. kurdi, a cowry shell ; 
the pi. is also used in the 
general sense of money, e.g. 
kurdin gurasa bread-money, 
i.e. alms; cf. prov. zua da 





wuri ya fi zua da wuri wuri 
to come (late) with a cowry 
is better than to come very 
early (empty handed). Pos- 
sibly wuri comes from the 
Songhai our a: according to 
Ibn Batuta cowries were used 
by the Songhai in the four- 
teenth century. [Cowrie 
shells used to be imported 
into Hausaland by way of 
the R. Niger from Zanzibar 
and the Maldive Islands.] 

wuria, a drain, ditch, space 
between two farms. 

was, wash, pooh ! an expres- 
sion of contempt. 

wushe*, to pass away; see 


wushiria, wishiria (cf. Ar. 
* * * 
j&9, to make the teeth sharp 

and thin), the natural space 

between the two front teeth 

in the upper jaw. 

WUta, pi. wutaitai, wutache, 
masc. and fern., fire, a fire; 
jin wuta to warm oneself at 
a fire, fura tvuta to make a 
fire, faralwuta brimstone. 

wuta-wuta (lit. flames) (Striga 
Senegalensis, Scrophulari- 
neae), a red flowered weed, 
said by the Hausas to destroy 
the growing guinea-corn ; see 

wutan gainye, a light green 

caterpillar, its hairs cause 

wutsia, wuchia*, 1. tail; 2. 
the strings of a loin-cloth. 

wutsiar-bera (mouse's tail), a 
plant with a hairy raceme of 
purple flowers, =ka8kaifi, q.v. 
wuteiar-kadangari (lizard's 
tail), Monechma hispida, 
Acanthaceae, a plant com- 
mon in marshes, wutsiar- 
kurege (jerboa's tail), Aspilia 
angustifolia, Compositae, a 
yellow flowered herb which 
grows in marshy places, wut- 
siar-rakumi (camels tail), 
Platycoryne paludosa, Orchi- 
deae, a small orchid with 
orange-yellow flowers found 
in damp places, wutsiar- 
ku8u a plant with a spike of 
pale blue flowers; see tear- 

wuya, difficulty ; da wuya diffi- 
cult, hard to accomplish, of 
necessity, abin dunia da wu- 
yan sani it is difficult to 
know all things; cf. pro v. 
en wuya bai shiga anfani ba 
shi zama, lit. where difficulty 
does not enter, advantage 
does not abide. 

wuya, wiya, pi. wiyayi, masc. 
neck ; wuyan hanu, lit. neck 
of the hand, wrist, dohin 
wuya a form of pickaback 
played by children. 




The letter ^ is used by the 
Hausasto represent the sound 
of the English consonant y. 

ya, pers. pron. third pers. sing, 
prefixed to aor. 'he,' 'it/ e.g. 
ya yenke he cut ; used in im- 
personal expressions, e.g. ya 
issa it is enough, ya fi it is 
better; also, esp. in Kano, 
to express a wish, e.g. allah 
ya baka lafia may God give 
you health, e.g. attah ya 
taimakeka may God help 

ya, like, jiki ya kada its body 
is like a crocodile; cf. M. 
H. p. 205. ya is sometimes 
used in Kano for how? cf. 
ya akaji da sainyi ? how do 
you like the cold ? see yaya. 

ya (used in Kano), daughter; 
cf . dia (used in Sokoto). yar~ 
uwa sister. 

y&, a contraction of yaa used 
as a prefix to denote the 
third person singular of the 
future tense ; cf. Gr. p. 33. 

ya (Ar. id.), O! esp. used in 
expression ya sidi sir! 

ya (Kanuri id.), elder sister. 

ya (nearly always used in con- 
struct form yan), pi. of da y 
Kanuri id., son ; yan uwana> 
lit. sons of my mother = 
friends, brothers, brethren; 
ya like da, q.v., is used to 

denote occupation ; yan son- 
da police, yan kasa foot 
soldiers; yan daidai a kind 
of cloth ; cf . also yamata. 

yaanan, then ; see saanan. 

y&ba, to praise, to give thanks 
to. y&babe, fern, y&baba, pi. 
y&babu, honoured, praised. 

y&ba, y&be, to daub, ceil, 
smooth, plaster, of walls, etc. 
yaba lifidi to put on a coat 
of mail, yababe, fern. yababa, 
pi. yababa, smoothed, ceiled, 
plastered ; cf. prov. da sabon 
gina gouma yaba replastering 
is preferable to fresh build- 

yabainya, the young shoots of 
any crop when about a foot 

y&b&ri, millet which has sprung 
up of itself on an unsown 

y&be, pi. yabe-ydbe, n. daubing, 

yabirbira, a kind of bat; see 

yabki, 1. a velvet cloth; 2. 
slime; see yapki. 

y&bo, praise, fame, reputation, 
report; yin y&bo to praise, 
honour, B 21 ina ydbonka 
sidi uban zahra I praise thee, 
O lord, father of Zahra, 
y&bon kai self laudation. 

y&da, how, like ; see ySda, 




y&da, yada umta to light a 
fire; see yadia. 

y&da, to throw away, lose, 
reject, e.g. A 58 sun yada 
hainya they rejected the right 
way. ya yada kwara he 
threw away the (fruit) stone. 
yada mashi to throw a spear 
as a declaration of war, cf . 
Gr. p. 139, 1. 46, the expres- 
sion is specially applied to 
the first war waged by a 
king after his accession. 
yddo throw it here ! cf. 

yftde, to skim milk. 

yadia, cynanchum viminale (?), 
a shrub that burns with a 
noise in the fire; ropes are 
made from its bark, ostriches 
feed on its leaves. 

y&dia, n. lighting; yin yadia 
to light up. 

yado, the creepers or tendrils 
of a gourd. 

yado, yadu (cf. Ar. ^jJ, 

wide), to spread out, increase; 
B 47 ibada kan yado the ser- 
vice of God would increase. 

yaenda, when ; usually con- 
tracted to yanda, q.v. 

y&fa, y&fo, 1. to rub, besprinkle, 
to wash over with water; 
yafa rua to throw water over 
one's body with the hands; 

2. to fold over, to wrap or 
cast a garment about one; 
mayafi coverings, wraps, yd- 
y&fa light rain. 

yafe (Fulah yafu), to forgive, 
anyafeshi he has been ac- 
quitted, yafe ma to let off, 

yafe, n. covering, yana yafe 
da bergo he is covered with a 

yafo, to besprinkle ; see yafa. 

yafuche, yafche, to beckon 
with the hand, e.g. to a 
deaf man or to someone at 
a distance, ya yafucheshi he 
beckoned to him; verb. n. 
yafuchi beckoning. 

yafuto, to beckon and cause 
to come to oneself, na yafuto 
shi I beckoned him to me 
(and he came). 

yftga, y&ge, to tear, e.g. cloth, 
paper, etc. ; F 184 (of dogs) 
8una hafshi suna yoga da 
tsawa they bark and tear 
and cry. yagua a tear in 
clothes, etc. yayaga to 
scratch, to claw. 

yagatu (K.), noise, alarm. 

yahaya* shot. 

yaiyafa, light rain; see yd- 

yaji, pi. yazuz&ka, 1. hotness 
or sharpness of pepper, pep- 
per, e.g. B 17 annabi magani 




ba yaji ba the medicine of 
the prophet is not hot. ina da 
yaji it has a pungent smell ; 
2. oppression, tyranny; mai- 
yaji hot-tempered, valiant. 

yaka, fern, yaki, pi. yaku, 
come ! 

yaki, pi. yakuna, yaJcoke, war, 
fighting; yin yaki to wage 
war. Also of hunting or a 
dangerous game, suka tafi yaki 
da bauna. mayahi warrior. 

yakua (Hibiscus acetosella, 
Malvaceae), a cultivated 
vegetable out of which soup 
is made. It has a flower like 
a convolvulus, yellow with 
deep brown centre, and acid 
in taste like sorrel. It is 
used as seasoning, cf. dodo- 
wa; cf. prov. yakuan muna- 
fiki ba ta mutum daia che 
ba y i.e. * false to one false to 
all/ lit. the seasoning of a 
hypocrite is not for one man 
alone. It is customary for 
a farmer who grows yakua 
to send presents of it to his 
friends : so too does the liar 
with his lies. It has also 
medicinal uses. 

yakuar fatake, a tree with an 
orange-coloured berry-shaped 
flower resembling berberus, 
its leaves are used in making 

yakumba, 1. water-buck; 2. 
old woman. 

yakuta, to destroy, demolish, 
scratch ; yakuche to be de- 
stroyed, to perish; also tr. 
to destroy. 

yakutu*, Ar. id., a precious 
stone, ruby or sapphire, 
F 227. The Greek MkivOos, 
English jacinth, is the same 

yalla (cf. Fulah yaUa perhaps), 
whether, or, e.g. B 56 yalla 
chikin dere ko ko jifjif 
whether by night or just 
before dawn, B 156 yalla ta 
samu ko ba ta sarauwa ba 
whether it be obtained or 
not obtained. 

yalo, pi. yaluna, a plant about 
3 ft. high, its fruit is like a 
large tomato. 

yalwa, yelwa, abundance; yal- 
tvache abundantly, yayal- 
wachi an intens. form = ful- 
ness, maiyelwa spacious ; cf. 

yalwata, to make great, ex- 
tend ; yalwata labari to 
spread (or exaggerate) a re- 

y&ma ( Andropogon ruf us, Gra- 
mineae), a tall grass used for 
thatching and mat making. 

yamala* (Ar.), the large dot 
placed below the line before 




y to give the sound of Italian 
e in Hausa. 

yamama, to be sour ; see 

yamata, yanmata, also used 
as a voc. sing. 'my daughter' 
by a father or by any big 
man to a small girl. 

yambu*, mud ; see yimbu, 

yambtiruru (Ipomaea erio- 
carpa, Convolvulaceae), a 
convolvulus with mauve or 
white flowers eaten by goats, 
= yeriadl and awarwaro. 

yamche, yamchi. to bind 
grass with cords so as to 
form a roof; cf. yanta. 

yami,. 1. leaven, vinegar, any- 
thing sour; 2. sourness, fur a 
ta yi yami the soup has gone 
sour; adjectival form yay- 
yama ; cf . yamama, yan- 
yama; 3. pain, a sore. 

yamma (Ar. ^), west, even- 
ing ; da yamma in the even- 
ing ; yammachi westward. 

yammata, used in Sokoto for 
the procession with drums, 
etc., to a chiefs house after 
public prayers on Thursday 

yamutsa, yamutee, to mix 
up together, to be destroyed, 
ended, intermingled, e.g. ka- 
sua ta yamutse the market is 

yamyam, cannibals, a name 
given to the cannibal tribes 
living in the S.E. of Hausa- 
land. yamyam or nyamnyam 
is probably an onomatopoeic 
word, indicating either the 
unintelligible speech of bar- 
barians, or the smacking of 
the lips which might signify 
eating, hence cannibalism. 
It is also found as a tribal 
name in the Eastern Sudan. 

yana, verbal pronominal pre- 
fix to pres. tense 3rd pers. 
sing. masc. ; like shina, it is 
followed by nouns or parti- 
cipial forms. In colloquial 
Hausa it is often pronounced 
yina or ina, e.g. alkama ina 
da roshi the wheat is ground 

yana, a spider's web, cobweb, , 
scum; debe yana daga idonka 
a remark addressed to a hy- 

yanayi, n. staining, dyeing. 

yanbaka (i.e. yan-baki\ tribal 
marks cut from the corners 
of the mouth. 

yanchi (from ya pi. of da, son, 
free), liberty, freedom, adop- 
tion, yanchi, yanlas or enchi 
to free a slave. 

yan-chiako*, chickens; see 

yanda, yaenda, yawanda = 




saanda, when, at what time, 
like as; B 121 mutua ya- 
wanda ta tafo death, when it 

y&ne, to cover; cf. maiyani a 
handkerchief; cf.yani. 

yanga, n. swaggering. 

yan-hutu, a soft hairy grass. 

yani, n. hanging up (e.g. cur- 

yanka, to cut ; see yenka. 

yankare, a tall thin man. 

yanta, to tie the layers of grass 
of which thatch is made ; cf . 

yantso, a grass used in thatch- 

yan-uwa, brethren ; see uwa. 

yanyama, bitter ; see yami. 

yanyana (K.), to cut up ; see 

yanyane, n. cutting up. 

yanyawa or nyenyawa, a fox. 

yanzu, yenzu, now, directly; 
koyanzu an emphatic form, 
even now, immediately; yan- 
zu yanzu presently, forth- 
with ; B 174 hat ya zua yan- 
zu even to the present time ; 
yanzu ga this present time. 

yao, to-day ; see yau. 

yapki, yabki, 1. a kind of vel- 
vet cloth brought from the 
west ; 2. stickiness, slime, 
applied to plants, e.g. to 

yaranchi(K.), yarant&ka(S.), 
childhood, youth. 

yarani, yellow needlework on 
a burnous ; possibly so named 
from its resemblance to small- 
pox spots ; see yar-rani. 

yaraye, boys ; see yaro. 

yarda, permission ; see yerda. 

yare, dialect, language ; ba su 
da wani yare sax hausa they 
have no language but Hausa. 

yari, 1. the chief slave of a 
king, used esp. in Sokoto and 
Zanfara districts ; at Kano 
he would be called son ham- 
mi (=sarkin kurumi), i.e. 
head of the Kano market; 
2. head of police. 

yarili, infant ; see jarili. 

yarima, heir to the throne; 
see yerima. 

yarinia, fem. of yaro, girl, 
young woman. 

yarinta, youth ; cf . yaro. 

yaxje, to consent ; see yerje. 

yar-jiki, a kind of tobe. 

yarmandi, a potion which 
brings good luck in gambling ; 
the hands and mouth are 
washed in it, and the shells 
held momentarily in either 
before being thrown. 

yaro, pi. yara, yaraye, boy, 
child. The corresp. fem. of 
yaro is yarinia, q.v. yaro-da- 
daria, i.e. laughing boy, the 




name applied to a certain 
kind of ground nut. 

yaro-ba-ki-wuya, the revolv- 
ing cage on which the spun 
yarn is wound before weav- 

yar-rani, the dry season sick- 
ness, smallpox ; see yarani. 

yar-ungwa, a herb which 
grows near habitations, = go, 
saiya, q.v. 

yasa, finger ; see yatsa. 

y&sa, yashe, to dig, esp. to dig 
over again, yashe is gener- 
ally used of completed action, 
thus na yasa rijia I was 
digging a well, but na yashe 
rijia I completed the well. 

yasda, yashe, to cast away; 
see yezda. 

yashi, white sand or mud in 

yaska (S.), small ; yaskan kurdi 
small money, i.e. shells. 

yasoso*, to scramble for = wa- 


yasuu, yashuu*, the original 
Arabic name for Jesus ; see 
under isa. 

yata, iyata, elder sister. 

y&tsa, pi. yatsosi, ydtsu, masc. 
finger ; yatsa nakafa toe, ba- 
ban yasa big toe, yatsan tsa- 
ka middle finger, auta yatsa 
little finger, yatsar biar (five- 
fingers) a plant, the leaves 

of which are pounded up 
with gunpowder and rubbed 
on the body in order to ren- 
der it impervious to wounds, 
yau, often pronounced yo (cf. 

Ar. jtyl), to-day, this day ; 
maiyo existing to-day, B 3 
ubangijinmu maiyo maigobe 
He is our lord to-day and 
for ever, B 21. yau and 
yauxoa are sometimes used, 
like the English word * now/ 
for * well then,' ' yes/ ' more- 
over ' ; they are also used to 
express surprise, yauyau or 
yoyo, 1. of time, at last, just 
now; used with da, zashi 
Jisu da yauyau he will over- 
come them eventually ; 2. of 
place close by, just behind ; ya 
yi yauyau he came behind. 

yau (K.), spittle ; cf. miau. 

yauchi, delay, going to and 
fro ; ya yi yauchin zakua he 
delays his coming; also as 
an adv. late. 

yaud&ra, deceit, a treacherous 
attack; kashin yaud&ra death 
caused by treachery, mai- 
yauddra a deceiver, esp. a 
deceitful trader, yaudara is 
also used as a verb to deceive. 

yaudo (used in Sokoto), a herb, 
= kalkashi, q.v. 

yauki, stickiness, elasticity, 
used of the gummy properties 




of certain vegetables and of 
the yolk of an egg, ya rasa 
yauki (of broth which is too 
liquid), maiyauki adhesiva 

yauni, the name of a fish with 
prolonged mouth. 

yauni, a day ; see yini. 

yauri, an interjection expres- 
sing pleasure. 

yaushe, when ? at what time ? 
ddga yaushe from what time? 
har yaushe until when, how 
long? sai yaushe of future 
time, when? tunyaushe, id., 
koyaushe at any time, when- 

* + 

yaushi, yoshi (cf. Ar. sj~*>X 

withering, wrinkling, fading, 
used of a tree ; ya yi yaushi 
it shrivels up. 

yauta, yauta da to set free; 
cf. yanchi. 

yaute, yotei, standard- winged 
nightjar (macrodipteryx mac- 

yauwa, walking ; see yawo. 

yawa, the fibre of a tree used 
for making rope. 

yawa, plenty, multitude, as 
adv. much; yawan rai long 
life, da-yawa (often pro- 
nounced deyawa or diyawa) 
much, many, mayawa or 
maiyawa, pi. masuyawa, 
many, used esp. of persons; 

sa yawa-yawa to multiply. 
yawanchi a large portion, a- 
bundance. yawanta and yin 
yawanta to multiply, ya- 
waita to have much of, ex- 
ceed in. 

yawanda, when, B 121 ; cf. 

yawanta, to multiply; see ya- 

y&wara, meat cut in long 
thin strips and dried in the 

yawo, also pronounced yao, n. 
walking, promenading, tak- 
ing exercise, e.g. on horse- 
back; yin yawo to walk, etc., 
na yawo bisa doki I took 
exercise on horseback, yau- 
wa walking, wandering. 

yaya, Kanuri id., children; 
also used of fruit of trees, 
crops, yayan kasa fruits, ya- 
yan chiki entrails. 

yaya, cowries, etc. used for 
gambling in playing chacha; 
applied also to playing-cards. 

yaya, ya, =kaka how, yaya 
sunanka ? what is your name ? 

y&yafa, yeyefa,yinyifi, gentle 
rain, anayeyefa it is raining 
slightly ; see yd/a to be- 

yayalwachi,fulness; zeeyalwa. 

yayamma, sour ; see yami. 

yayan yaki, soldiers, used as 
pi. of dan yaki and mayaki. 




yaye, to wean ; see yeye. 

yaye, to uncover, to take 
away; yaye lema open the 

yaye, n. a weaned child. 

yayelwache or yayelwata, to 
hold, contain. 

yayi, time, age; ga yayin 
anabi in the time of the 
prophet, yayinzana the eve 
of Ramadan, yayinsa ya 
wuche he is old, woni yayi 
sometime, yayinda when, 
yayin nan at this time, yayi 
also denotes fashion, anaya- 
yin mundaye rings were the 

yayi, dry, loose grass, e.g. for 
lighting fires. 

yayi, used of tying thorns on 
a calf's head so that its 
mother may not let him suck, 
also generally of separation, 

yazda, to throw away ; see 

yeda, to throw ; see yada. 

ySda, y&da, how, the way in 
which; yeda kai or yeda ka so 
as you like; ySda yau this 
day week, yida gobe to-mor- 
row week. 

yefi, yehi, cf. exclamation 
(used in Sokoto) kai yefi 
you madman ! 

yeho, a cry. 

yekua, a proclamation; yin 

yekua to proclaim, 
yella*, whether, or ; see yalla. 
yelwa, abundance ; see yalwa. 
yemma, west ; see yamma. 

yenka, yenke, yenki, to cut, 
to reap, to slaughter, hence 
various idiomatic uses, e.g. 
yenke kamna to despair of, 
yenke magana to put an end 
to conversation, yenki dere 
to get up and start during 
the night, yenke kurdi to fix 
the price, yenka pansa to fix 
a ransom, yenka gandu to fix 
a tax. mayenka puffed up, 
proud. yenkake f fern, yen- 
kaka, pi. yenkaku, cut; yan- 
kon hanu cutting off hands, 
a common form of punishment 
inflicted on thieves; yenyenka 
to cut to pieces, also in fre- 
quentative sense, suka yen- 
yenka kaji they killed several 

yenke, yanke, yanka, n. cut- 
ting, execution, laifinda ya 
isa yanka a crime deserving 
death, dan yenki a rag or 
strip of cloth, yenkai is used 
to describe the action of 
swimming on the breast. 

yenta, to bind grass ; see yanta. 

yenyena, yanyana, to cut up 
into very small pieces, to 

make mincemeat. 

*' mmm - 

yerda (cf . Ar. ^, to send back), 




to send back, remit. This 
word is probably distinct 
from yerda, to agree ; yerda 
ba8hi to remit a debt. 

yerda, yarda (cf. Ar. ^>j, 
to agree), to agree, approve, 
consent; yerda da to rely 
upon ; ya yarda maka he 
agreed with you ; abin da 
ya yerda da shi that which 
pleases him ; yerdade 9 fern. 
yerdada, pi. yerdadu, approv- 
ed of, agreed to, believed in, 
received. yerje, yarje to 
agree to. yerje mana do ! 

yerda, yarda, n. permission 
asked ; yardi (in Sokoto), 
yerji, yarji (in Kano), per- 
mission granted ; cf . ya nemi 
yarda gareta, ta bashi yardi 
he sought her consent, she 
gave him permission, jerje, 
jarje to agree ; cf . yerda. 
jerji, jarji permission, con- 

yerdaji, trustworthy, faithful ; 
cf . prec. 

yerdi, yardi, agreement, faith ; 
see yerda. 

yerfa, yerfe, to throw away; 
yerfa gumi to dash the sweat 
from the brow; used of a 
man who is working hard. 

yeriadi, a convolvulus, eaten 
by sheep, —yambururu and 

yerlma, yarima, son of a king, 
heir to the throne; cf. tafida. 

yerinjaya, overpowering; see 

yesdajenia, the conclusion of 
a bargain. 

ysye, yaye, to wean. 

yeye, yaye, n., 1. weaning; 
2. a weaned child, yin yeye 
to wean. 

yeyefa, to sprinkle water ; see 

yezda, yez, to throw, to throw 
away ; B 89 sun yezda dunia 
they cast aside the world ; 
cf. ydda. 

yi [cf . Nupe ji to make], to do, 
make ; cf . yiwa, yiwo. It is 
frequently used idiomatically 
thus, ya yi it does, it is satis- 
factory (cf . Eng. * it does ') ; 
ya yi mini umya it is too 
difficult for me ; ya yi gir/na 
he has grown up; yi ta yi 
go on with what you are 
doing; ku yi ta tafia get 
along! yiu y yuu, impersonal 
passive forms, shi yiu can it 
be done? can it be that? 
Ans. ba shi yiuwa it is im- 
possible, ya yuu (or yiwu) 
it has happened ; used with 
or without zua to go, sun yi 
(zua) gida, wani waje ya yi 
which way did he go ? Ans. 
ya yi gabas to the east, yi da 




to have business with ; raun 
yi da uwayenku we did 
business with your parents. 
yi da also to curse, yi da shi 
away with him. yi also ex- 
presses equality, e.g. wanan 
ya yi wonchan this is equal 
to that, cf. H. Gr. p. 90; 
sun yi nawa how many were 
there ? anayi da shi he is set 
upon, he is abused, yin karia 
used of a gun, to miss fire; 
ya yi shekarafudu he is four 
years old; rana ta yi it is 
daylight; na yi I did, is 
often used in answering a 
question where we should 
use ' yes ' ; in the passive yi 
is often omitted, thus anhdka 
is used for anyi haka\ cf. 
yiwa. yiuwa or yuuwa pos- 
sible to be done. 

yi, working, doing, power, da 
yin Mali by the power of 
God, used esp. in Sokoto dis- 

yi, like; cf. da hanu akansan 
girma ba yai fada yi hare 
ba by the work of the hand 
is greatness known, it does 
not squabble like a dog ; cf. 

yi or i is used in several lo- 
calities for shi he ; yina zua 
he is coming. 

yifi, to cover ; see yafa, 2. 

yika, to pay back. 

yimbu, yambu, yumbu, clay, 
mud, esp. clay for making 

yimki (K.), baboon. 

yina, in& = shina, q.v. 

yini, the space of a day, a 
day; yin yini to stay or 
stop at a place for a day 
only, to continue, e.g. ina 
yini tafia, aiki, eta I con- 
tinue travelling, working, 
etc. till evening. 

yinyifi* light rain; see yb> 

yiwa, yiwo, iwo, to make. 

yo, an affirmative interjection, 
yes, really ; see yau. 

yo, to-day ; see yau. 

yo, used in Sokoto for yiwo. 

yod&ra, treachery ; see yau- 

yodo, a herb ; see yaudo. 

yofi (S.), worthless; cf. (?) 

yome* (S.), meat. 

yonkane, to wither, of plants ; 
also of man, to be wasted 
with disease. 

yoshi, to wither ; see yaushi. 

yotei, a nightjar ; see yaute. 

yoya, to leak, percolate ; pass. 

yoyo, at last ; see yauyau. 

yoyo, n. a leak in a roof or 
pot; cf. dahi yina yoyo. 






jirigi yina yoyo the canoe 

yuka (Zanf.), knife ; see wuka. 

yumki* to seal. 

yunkttra, to eructate, retch, 
make a violent effort, of a 
fire to break out. 

yfinkttri, retching, breaking 

yunwa (often pronounced yun- 
gwa), hunger, famine; jin 
yunwa to feel hungry, da 
yunwa hungry, ina da yun- 
wa I am hungry. 

yuuwa, possible ; see under yi. 

za, used as auxiliary to form 
the future, e.g. zamu tashi 
we shall arise, for a further 
account of the use of za y cf. 
Gr. p. 33. za is used with 
da (formerly) to express un- 
fulfilled intention, e.g. da 
zani tafia I intended to go. 
za and zo to come, probably 
stand to each other in the 
same relation as bida and 
bido, cf. Gr. p. 46, they are 
both probably connected with 
je, the z being palatalized to 
j through the influence of 
the vowel following. 

zaba, zabe, to choose, select, 
elect, e.g. mun zabeka we 
choose thee, zabu to be 

chosen, zababe, fern, zababa, 
pl. zababu, particip. adj. of 
zaba, chosen, picked out, se- 

zaba, found in phr. kwrdi zaba 
pure or genuine money : it is 
probably a form of tsdba, q.v. 

zabantaka, zabanchi, choice ; 
cf. zabe. 

z&baya, n. an albino. 

zabe, to choose ; see zaba. 

zabe, zabi, n. choice, prefer- 
ence; cf. M. H. p. 202 na 
baki zabi I give you the pre- 
ference, chinikin zabi a sale 
in which the buyer is allowed 
time to decide whether he 
will accept, the offer remain- 
ing opeu. zaben tumin dere 
' a leap in the dark.' 

zabgai, poison put on arrows. 

zabia, 1. with pl. zabiyoyi, a 
minstrel, a king's musician; 
2. a species of dark red 
coloured date (cf. (?) Ar. 

zabibi, a bulbous plant with a 
yellow flower from which a 
dye is made. 

zabibi* (Ar. ^^j), raisin. 

zabira, wallet ; see sabira. 

zabki, to soften, esp. to soften 
by soaking ; D 65 kai garemu 
ta zabki it will soften our 




zabo or zabon-dSfi (Aloe ze- 
brina, Liliaceae), a plant with 
spiny succulent leaves and 
red or yellow flowers : the 
juice of some varieties is used 
in the preparation of arrow 

zabo, sabo, fern, zabua, sabua, 
pi. zabi, 8abi, a guinea-fowl. 

zaboko, blue pepper-and-salt 
pattern cloth. 

zabore, reeds ; see tsabore. 

zabro, mosquito ; see sabro. 

zabta, to bite off. 

zabuka, stuffed panels of a 
saddle; see zubuka. 

zabura, to start back, to rise 
up quickly, to start, of a 
horse, zabnri, tr. to cause 
to start, zaburo to charge 
towards the speaker. 

zabura* (Ar. jylj), writing 
from God, used of the Koran, 
the Psalms, or the Gospels. 

zabuta, white muslin for mak- 
ing a turban, with red edge. 

zache, n. expectation, hope, yin 
zache to expect, await, antici- 
pate, suppose ; cf . tsachi, zato. 

z&fa (S.), clearing ground for 
sowing, hoeing. 

z&fafa, to make warm. 

z&fe (S.), to clear ground for 

z&fi, zafi, heat, pain ; man zafi 
hot water ; rana tana da zafi 

it is a hot day. m yi facia 
da zafi they fought fiercely, 
M. H. p. 196. da zafi pain- 
ful, na ji zafi I feel pain, jin 
zafin zuchia to be cut to the 
heart ; zafin rai anger, zafi 
is also used to express great 

zaga, a shelf made with mud. 

zaga, tooth, tusk. 

zaga, zage, zagi, to reproach, 

zagagi, zagigi, a tall red-and- 
white stork. 

zagarafi, a plant, the dried 
root of which is used as a 

zage, zaga, zwage (S.), z&gi, 
to go round, pass by, walk 
about, walk backwards and 
forwards, zaga dutsi to avoid 
a stone, haderi ina zagawa 
chan the storm is going round 
over there, shina zagawa 
he was prowling round, freq. 
form zazzaga to keep on 
going backwards, na zazaga 
kasan nan I have been up 
and down this country. 

zage, zagi, n. reviling, re- 
proach ; cf . shina zaginsa he 
reproaches him. 

zagezagi, the people of Zaria. 

zagi, reviling ; see zage. 

z&gi, zSgi, pi. zagagi, a foot- 
man, esp. the man who walks 





before the horse of a sarki 
with a red blanket. 

zagia, the projection or pulling 
out of arrows from the end 
of a quiver. 

z&go, the white ant, the male 
of g&ra. 

z&go, n. going to and fro, go- 
ing in front ; see zage. 

Z&gO, a harpoon for river fish- 

zahiri, clear ; see tsahiri. 

zaiba (Ar. U^jj), quicksilver. 

zaiti* (Ar. Ooj), olive, olive 
oil used in Hausaland as an 
ointment for the skin. 

zaka, a measure ; see zakka. 

zaka, 1. to come ; zaka, f. zaki, 
pi. zaku, come! 2*. to go, 
e.g. D 22 kuna zaka da hqji 
go on the pilgrimage, zakua 

zaka (Ar. 3l£y), 1. alms, e.g. 
F 17, ka ber rtba ka bada 
zaka cease from unlawful 
gain, give tithes; 2. tithes; 
3. a tax, esp. that paid on 
guinea-corn crops. 

zaka, the f ut. aux. verb, second 
pers. sing. masc. ; zaka gani 
thou wilt see ; see za. 

zakainya, zakanya, lioness; 
see zaki. 

zakami (Datura spinosa, So- 
lanaceae), the * thorn-apple.' 

R. H. D. 

A bush with white trumpet- 
shaped flowers and prickly 
capsules from which is ob- 
tained a deliriant poison, also 
called haukat-yaro. 

zakani*, between; see tsa~ 

z&kanko*, wood ash from 
which salt is obtained, made 
from the shrub kayar ra- 

zak&ra, pi. zakdru, masc. (Ar. 

j£>b), cock ; zakdran dawaki 
a large bird which flies about 
at night and cries kura kura, 
its coming is considered an 
omen of war, zak&ra mai- 
surdi a cock with a red 
mark on its back like a 
zaki, sweetness, goodness, fla- 
vour, a sweetmeat, zakin 
mia the flavour of soup, a 
fern, form zazzaka is used ; 

• 7 

cf . mia zazzaka. 

zaki, the fut. aux. verb, second 
pers. sing. fern. ; see za. 

zaki, zaiki, fern, zakainya, za- 
kanya, pL zakoki, lion, zaki 
banza (sham-lion), a small 
plant with flower like mig- 

zakka, zikka, jikka (cf. (?) 


Ar. sJj, a bag made of skin), 
a measure for grain, a tin 





pan, the Sokoto equivalent 

of Kano mudu. 
zaku, aux. verb, fut. tense, 

second pers. pL ; see za. 
zaku, a species of large bean, 
zakua, coming ; see zaka. 
zakuda, 1. to move forward 

a very little or to make 

room ; 2. to migrate ; cf. 

zauda; see seq. 
zakudo, to move nearer to the 


zallantaka (cf. Ar. J>, to be 
vile), unchastity. 

zallo, the form of a cone, da zallo 
cone-shaped, e.g. a sugar cone. 

zalumchi, deceitfulness, extor- 
tion ; see tsalimi. 

zalumi, see tsalimi. 

zalwani, zalwami, a black- 
and-white women's cloth. 

z&ma, often contracted to zam 
(S.), zamma, sometimes pro- 
nounced samma, to come 
into a condition or state, to 
become, zama kainsa to be 
independent, ni zama da 
hankali I shall behave wisely. 
zam is used in Sokoto for 
yi, zamka = ka yi ; cf. seq. 

zama, masc, and zamanchi, 
state, condition, e.g. C 15 
enna da zama na dawama 
where is a state of continu- 
ance? hence affairs, enna 
zaman gari how is your stay 

in the town? Ans. zaman 
gari da godia we are quite 
well thank you ; continuance, 
zamansa na dunia his so- 
journing on earth, E 18 
masuzama ga hainyoyin mu- 
sulmi those who continue in 
the ways of Mussulmans. 
Hence its use when repeated, 
zama zama after some time ; 
yin zama to succeed in doing 
anything attempted, ya yi 
zama ya yi zama he waited 
and waited; ya yi zamansa 
he went about his business. 
sun gam zama wuri daia 
they abode together, yi za- 
manka stay where you are. 
M. H. p. 219 sun kasa zama 
they have been restless, lit. 
they have lacked rest, ya 
yi zamansa he rested himself, 
M. H. p. 200. zaman dunia 
life, the enjoyment of the 
world, zaman surdi riding; 
yanda akeyi zaman surdi the 
proper way to rida zama 
da masoyi (lit. living with a 
friend) a kind of cloth. 

zama (S.), 1. prep, because of; 
F 90 zaman kusheica for 
burial ; 2. conj. for, because ; 
cf . gdma, 

zaman, war, enmity. 

zamanchi, condition; see za- 




zamani, zamanu (cf. Ar. 

i>°j> O^J» id -)> time; za- 
manin annabi in the time 
of the prophet, zamani ka~ 

' dan a short time, G 4 ya 
yi zamanishi he reigned. 

zamarke, a species of legu- 
minous plant used for burn- 

ing - 

zamba or zanba (Ar. ^JJ), 
crime, adultery; tana da 
rurudi don ta yi zanba it 
practises deceit in order that 
it may commit a crime; 
cheating, e.g. in selling. 

zambache, zambata, to cheat, 
maizambachi or maizambata 
one who cheats, a cheat, 
from the same rt comes zu- 
nufi, q.v. 

zambar, thousand, cf. Songai 

zambata, to cheat ; see zamba- 

zambo, abuse (e.g. in litera- 

zamba, a Nupe dish, e.g. one 
made with flour and onions. 

W ' 

zame, zami (cf. Ar. j>j, to 
muzzle a camel), zami or 
zame also to pull up, rein in, 
zami nana pull up here ! 
zamia, zamua the reining 
in of a horse after a gallop 
fage. zame also intrans. to 

stop, doki ya zame dakansa 
the horse stopped of itself. 
zamna, zona, zauna (cf. Ar. 

yj-dj iv, to last a long time), 

to stop at a place, to reside, 
dwell, sit down ; ba ya zauna 
ba har... he had no time to 
wait before . . . mazauni resi- 
dence, abiding place, zam- 
nasda, zamshe, zamne*, tr. 
to cause to remain, ba abin 
da ya zamshima there is 
nothing that causes (us) to 
stay, maizamna, pi. masu- 
zamna, a dweller, inhabitant, 

zamne, to hold back, close 
a road. 

zamshe, to cause to stay or to 
sit down ; cf. zamna. 

zamu, fut. aux. verb, first 
pers. pi. ; see za. 

z&na, 1. to reckon up, take 
account of ; E 4 halinmu za- 
ankazana sai mu tuba our 
(evil) deeds shall be reckoned 
up unless we repent; 2. to 
draw strokes or lines, to 

z&na, a grass mat, laiyan zana 
a charm ; cf. M. H. p. 195. 

zanba, zanbata, see zamba, 

zanche, pi. zantatuka, word, 
conversation; yin zanche to 




speak, converse, zantawa 
conversing; cf. zanzcmche. 

z&ne, z&ni, pi. z&ne-z&ne, 
spot, line, a pattern. 

z&ne, zSne, pi. ztimua, masc. 
or fern., 1. cloth, esp. the 
longer body cloth worn by 
women, of oblong shape ; cf . 
Gr. p. 138, 1. 23 masuz&na 
those who wear women's 
clothes; 2. a measure of 
cloth of about 15 feet. 

zangarami*, a large tree with 
poisonous fruit. 

zangare, blade, stalk. 

zangarko, ears of corn; see 

zangarnia, sangarnia, pi. 

zangamu, ears of corn or 

zango, a halting place for the 
night ; see ztmgo. 

zango, zungo, a hundred, sel- 
dom used except in counting 
cowries ; cf . Songai jongo. 

zani, fut. aux. verb, first pers. 
sing., I will or I will go ; see 

zankam* (K.), deceit. 

zanko, a tuft of hair in the 
middle of the head. 

zanta (K.), to speak, zcmtawa 
speaking; cf. zanche. 

zantara, to deceive, defraud. 

zantatuka, words ; cf. zan- 

zanzana, smallpox ; an inten- 
sive form of z&ne spot. 

zanzanche, conversation, M. 
EL p. 187; see zanche. 

zanzaro (cf. Ar. Jjjj ^, wasp, 
lit. father of buzzing), the 
mason wasp, it builds mud 
nests and lives on spiders 
and insects; it does not 
sting ; see zazaro (S.). 

zanzoma, a feint or pretended 

zara, zaro, zari, zare, to pull 

out ; cf. magana zarar bunu 
a word spoken is as the pull- 
ing out of thatch, i.e. it can- 
not be recalled. 
zaraba, a bunch of dates; cf. 
(?) zabia. 

zarafi, zarahi, opportunity ; 
ba ni da zarafi I have not op- 
portunity, idan ha samu zarafi 
if you have an opportunity. 

zarakua, mother-in-law, M. H. 
p. 149 ; see sarakua. 

zarau, pi. zara-zara, tall. 

zarbe, egret, white or grey, 
found on banks of rivers, 
with long neck. 

zarche*, tr. to increase. 

z&re (cf. Swaheli zari), thread, 
e.g. A 75 shi ne ya ke dura- 
kin fori ba zdre he is as a 
man sewing a white garment 
without thread ; cf . zaria. 

zare, to spin, mazari spindle. 




zarge, v. to lasso, to catch in 
a noose. 

zarge, pi. zarguna (cf. Ar. 

• '•« 

&jJ», a noose), a loop in 

string; from the same Ar. 
rt comes azirka, q.v. ; cf. 
mazargi and azargagi. 

zargi, grumbling ; see zergi. 

zargi, zarge, to curse; see 

zari*, leaf, stalk. 

zari, to spin ; see zare. 

zari, to draw, e.g. a sword or 
an arrow from a quiver ; see 

zari, a hole, e.g. in the nose of 
an ox, or of a man. 

zari, zowari, 1. plenty to eat, 
voracity; 2. one who eats 
much, a glutton; see zo- 

zaria, fern, of zare, q.v., a string 
to tie up trousers, wando. 

zaria, leaping, dancing; yin 
zaria to dance. 

zarnawi,a special kind of brass 
stirrups imported from Tri- 

zarni, n. wasting away. 

zarta, to shoot through, pierce. 

zartsi, brackishness, saltness; 
cf . man zartsi. 

zarumi, zaromi, zarmi, ja- 
rimi*, pi. zarumai, zaru- 
matua, a brave warrior. 

zarumta, n. bravery. 

zashi, fut. aux, verb, third pers. 

sing. = he will ; see za, 
zasu, fut. aux. verb, third pers. 

pi. = they will ; see za. 

zati (Ar. Ot3), greatness, ma- 
jesty, size, realm. 

z&to, tsSto, n. thought, ex- 
pectation, anticipation, yin 
zdto to suppose ; cf . zache. 

zatsa*, a Sokoto form of za, to 
go ; cf . F 237. 

zau, a large fish, from which 
oil for eating is obtained. 

zauda, to move away, give 
place; cf. zakuda. 

zauna, a form of zamna to sit 
down, M. H. p. 203. 

zaura, cf. idon zaura, 1. a 
variegated cloth ; 2. a white 
stone ; cf . ido. 

zaura, zauwara, widow, a 
divorced woman; see zauri. 

zauranche, riddle, puzzle. 

zaure, pi. zauruka, hall, a porch 
with double entrance; zau- 
rin shanu a cow-shed, M. H. 
p. 178. 

zaure, cf. kurdin zaure the fee 
paid by a bridegroom to the 
officiating mallam. 

zauri, widower ; see zaure. 

zauta, anger. 

zauwara, widow ; see zaura. 

zauwarchi, widowhood. 





zauwati, a specially good white 

zawo, zawayi, diarrhoea. 

zayena (cf . Ar. rt ^Hj y to 
adorn, to ornament), to illu- 
minate a manuscript. Pro- 
bably the same word as zu~ 
ina f q.v. 

zaza* 1. bank, cf. F 182 zazan 
wuta a bank of fire; 2. a 
marshy place. 

z&zabi, zSzebi, fever; yin 
zdzabi to have fever. 

z&zaga, z&zage, to go to and 
fro, a freq. form of zage, q.v. 
zdzaga or zdzagawa trem- 

zazaka, a fern, form from zaki, 

zazalo, protruding, e.g. of the 
eye after a blow ; see seq. 

zazare, to protrude, zazare ida- 
nu ga to cast eyes at; see seq. 

zazari, to hasten after ; B 133 
wanda ka ga na zazari banna 
whom you see hastening after 

zazari giwa (elephant hasten- 
er), a shrub with long thorns, 
= kayan rakumi. 

zazaro (S. ), wasp ; see zanzaro. 

zazewa, the name of a small 
white-breasted bird. 

zergi, zargi, 1. grumbling; 2. 
avarice, greed. 

zerto, a saw; probably another 

form of derto, a file. 
zSto, to think ; see z&to. 
zSzebi, fever ; see zdzabi. 

ziara (Ar. 5jbj), to go to visit 

or salute anyone, C 37 ziara 

malamai salute the mallams; 

B 1 68 zatnu ziara nai we will 

salute him ; cf . seq. 
ziarta, to go on the pilgrimage, 
zigazigai, bellows; see zuga- 

zikir, see zikri. 
zikka, a measure for grain ; 

see zakka. 

zikri, zikir* (Ar. J4>», a 

special prayer or invocation; 
muna zikri we pray. 

zina (cf. Ar. Uj and i\5j), 

whoring, adultery; masuzina 
profligates; yin zina to be 
profligate, maizinachi adul- 
terer, maizinachia adulteress. 

zinaria (cf. Ar. jU^ a gold 

coin, Gr. Btfvapiov, Lat. de- 
narius), gold. 

zinder, the name of a large 
town in the French Sudan. 

zini, a point ; see tsini. 

zinke, a little spike of straw ; 
see tsinki. 

zipka* a cloth put over a 
native saddle with two large 




holes to fit the projecting 
points of the saddle. 

ziragudunia, somersault. 

zire, to lower a bucket into 
a well; zirawa lowering a 

zirnako, wasp ; see zurnako. 

zirnania, a cloud producing a 
shower, or a cloud threaten- 
ing but not producing rain ; 
cf . zirnania, ginaria. 

zo, to come; with da to come 
with a thing, i.e. to bring it. 
zua 9 zauwa* coming, used 
with pronouns ending in na 
to form pres., e.g. muna zua 
we are coming ; zuan manzo 
post haste, lit. the going of 
a messenger, ya zua* and 
zua are employed with any 
number or person to express 
* to, unto/ e.g. 8u tafi ya zua 
sokoto they went to Sokoto ; 
hal ya zua yanzu even to the 
present time; D 100 muna 
godia zua ga allah we give 
thanks to God ; cf. za. 

zoba (S.), to exceed in size, to 
be better than. 

zobe, to try to recover a thing, 

to seek again. 

* * * 
zobe (cf. Ar. *J*, to stamp 

with a seal), a ring; zoben 
shaida seal-ring, seal. 
zogalla-gandi or rogalla- 

gandi, q.v., horse-radish tree 
(Meringa pterygosperma, Le- 

zogi, pain. 

zoje, to revenge. 

zoma*, to dip ; see tsoma. 

zomo, cf. Gr. p. 131, L 45 
(masuyfida zomo zamu daki 
we who had to drive out the 
hares are coming to your 

zomo, zomu, pi. zomai (cf. 

Ar. £>*j, swift, an adj. esp. 

applied to the hare), hare, 
zongo, a halting-place, etc. ; 

see zungo. 
zowalli, zowal, the time soon 

after midday, 
zowari, covetousness, voracity 

a glutton ; see zari, 
zozo, a plant ; see soso. 
zua, a participial form of zo t q. v. 
zua zua*, by and by, cf. prec., 

or the expression may be a 

corruption of the Ar. $\y* 

e\y~*, just so; cf. sua sua. 


zttba, zttbe, zttbo (Ar. y^), 
1. tr. to pour, pour out; 2. 
intr. to gush out, leak ; zuba 
idanu to take no notice of; 
na zuba masa idanu I shut 
my eyes to his doings; also 
intrans. to be poured out, 
eta ; girmanka ya zube you 
have lowered yourself . Other 



tr. forms are zttbas, ztibasda, 
zubshe (Zanf.) to pour out, 
implying accident or injury, 
to throw out, throw away; 
ztibda or ztibdama to upset, 
esp. to upset water; zubu 
intr. v. rua ya zubu the rain 
pours down; zUbuwa F 115 
pouring out. 

ztibas, ziibasda, zubda, see 

ztlbe, tribal marks on the face, 
consisting of several short 
fine cuts close together. 

zitbi, n. pouring out. 

zubi, bright iron wrought into 
cups, etc. 

zubu, greedy. 

zubugi, a heap, e.g. of branches. 

zubuka, panels or stuffing of 
a saddle ; see zabuka. 

zubuta*, a small red turban 
with a white border. 

zuchia, pi. zukata, zutochi, 1. 
the heart ; 2. fig. as the seat 
of feelings, desires, passions ; 
zuchia biu (lit. two hearts) 
doubt, hesitation, deceitful- 
ness ; karamin zuchia little- 
ness of heart is only used in 
a bad sense; maganan zuchia 
used as an exclamation of 
astonishment ; ya bata mani 
zuchia or zuchiata ta bache I 
am very sorry; zuchiata tafi 
rinjaya wanan da wanchan I 

prefer this to that, zuchia 
heart is used as a periphr. 
for oneself; cf. B 37, shi 
wanda zuchiata rinjayi he 
who overcomes his own heart. 

zufa, akin (?) to zafi, q.v., heat, 
perspiration; yin zufa to 
perspire, to ferment. Cf. 
dimbvjin zufa red beads. 

zuga, to blow with bellows; 
see seq. 

zugazugi, zigazigi, pL zu- 
gazuganta y zugazugai (Ar. 

Oj), bellows, F 188 malaiJcu 

su tsaida zugazuganta the 
angels will lift up bellows. 
mazigi a man who blows a 
fire with bellows, maziga the 
stick fixed into the bellows. 

zugu, a strip of cloth from the 
loom before it is sewn into 
a piece, chini da zugu, or 
bini da zugu 'jatropha cur- 
cas,' Euphorbiaceae, a shrub 
used for hedges, in West 
Indies known as the ' physic 

ZUgum, sitting or squatting on 
the ground in silent dejec- 
tion; see teuguna, 

zuina*, to seal ; cf. zayena. 

zukatta (cf. Ar. 5l£>j, alms), 
to ask for help ; cf. zaka. 

zuke, to evade, leave in the 
lurch, slip from. 



zulaidu, zulaidi, the long- 
tailed weaver bird (vidua 
principalis) called sarikin 
tsuntsaye (king of the birds), 
because other birds follow 
its call and fly round it. 

zulbi, a water-bird with a 
naked beak about 8 in. long. 

zulumi, doubt, fear; (?) cf. 

zttma, zttmua, masc. honey, 

kudan zuma bee. shazumami 

a bird that lives on honey. 

zuma*, faintness; see suma. 

zumami (cf. Ar. j*o u, to 

impress anything on the me- 
mory), a list or memorandum 
of goods written .on paper, 
anything written, a memoran- 

zumda, zunda, to play tricks 
behind a person's back, to 

zumde, zunde, n. playing 
tricks, deriding. 

zumnia (Daura), sister, rela- 
tion, friend, a feminine form 
of zumu, q.v. 

zuma (cf. Ar. &*&, clientship, 

client), friend, brother, fern. 
zumunia, pi. zumai; cf. prov. 
zumu zuma ne a relation is 
as honey, zumunchi, zu- 
munta clan feeling, friend- 
ship, D 30 aso allah a%o 

zumunchi love God, love 

atama, honey; see **ma. 
zumunchi, zumunta, friend- 

ship ; see zumu. 


zumurruz* (Ar. ^©j), id., 
emerald, F 227. 

zunda, deride ; see zumda. 

zungo, zongo, zango, 1. a 
halting-place for the night, 
camp; daga bayan zungo 
outside the camp, tsakanin- 
su zungo guda ne there is 
one day's march between 
them; 2. a day's march. 

zungo or zongo, a hundred 
shells; see zango. 

zungura, to poke with a stick, 
to knock. 

zunguri, knocking, e.g. push- 
ing with the elbow. 

zunguru, a long gourd, also 
used by women as a musical 
instrument. One end is 
pressed against the inside of 
the thigh while one hand of 
the player opens and closes 
the upper end. 

zuntsia, grass bush; see tsin- 

zunubi, sin ; see seq. 

zunufi, zunubi* (Ar. %^Ji), 
sin, evil. 

zunzu, fern, zunzua, bird ; see 




znn ztma (Cochlospermum tine- 
torium, Bixaceae), a shrub 
with large yellow rose-like 
flowers, = r away a. 

zur (Ar. jjjj, forgery), false- 
hood, shaidan zur false wit- 

zura, to arrange in line, azura 
duatsu nan a zare thread 
these beads, zura da gudu 
to run very hard (cf. sheka 
da gudu). 

zurare, to trickle, of water 
or sand, mazurari a spout 
or funnel for pouring water 
into a narrow-necked tulu. 

zure, a children's game. 

zurfafa, to go deeper into, to 
be deep. 

• » J 

zurn (cf. Ar. s*H*-> the steep 
side of a hill), depth, D 82 
zurfinta ya fi gaban michali 
its depth exceeds all com- 

zuri* (K.), a mass, da zur% 

zuria (cf. Ar. ejj), oflspring, 

zurma, to stretch out, e.g. the 

zurma, pi. zurmomi, a tree 
from the leaves of which is 
made a medicine for rubbing 
on the eyes. 

zurnako, zirnako, wasp. 

zurnania, clouds; seezirnania. 

zuru, a steadfast gaze ; gener- 
ally used in a bad sense, yin 
zuru to stare. 

zuruki, father-in-law; ctsurki. 

zuwari, zuari or zwari, 
greedy ; see zowari. 

zuza, itch, yin zuza to itch; 
see susa. 

zwakia (cf. (?) Ar. <Jujj, to 
adorn), small beads worn by 
women on the forehead. 

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